Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 242 in total

  1. Singh R, Low EL, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Ting NC, Nookiah R, et al.
    New Phytol, 2020 04;226(2):426-440.
    PMID: 31863488 DOI: 10.1111/nph.16387
    Oil palm breeding involves crossing dura and pisifera palms to produce tenera progeny with greatly improved oil yield. Oil yield is controlled by variant alleles of a type II MADS-box gene, SHELL, that impact the presence and thickness of the endocarp, or shell, surrounding the fruit kernel. We identified six novel SHELL alleles in noncommercial African germplasm populations from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. These populations provide extensive diversity to harness genetic, mechanistic and phenotypic variation associated with oil yield in a globally critical crop. We investigated phenotypes in heteroallelic combinations, as well as SHELL heterodimerization and subcellular localization by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and gene expression analyses. Four novel SHELL alleles were associated with fruit form phenotype. Candidate heterodimerization partners were identified, and interactions with EgSEP3 and subcellular localization were SHELL allele-specific. Our findings reveal allele-specific mechanisms by which variant SHELL alleles impact yield, as well as speculative insights into the potential role of SHELL in single-gene oil yield heterosis. Future field trials for combinability and introgression may further optimize yield and improve sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Dec;14:99-105.
    PMID: 13842715
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  3. Ortiz R, Swennen R
    Biotechnol Adv, 2014 Jan-Feb;32(1):158-69.
    PMID: 24091289 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.09.010
    The annual harvest of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) is approximately 145 million tons worldwide. About 85% of this global production comes from small plots and kitchen or backyard gardens from the developing world, and only 15% goes to the export trade. Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana are the ancestors of several hundreds of parthenocarpic Musa diploid and polyploid cultivars, which show multiple origins through inter- and intra-specific hybridizations from these two wild diploid species. Generating hybrids combining host plant resistance to pathogens and pests, short growth cycles and height, high fruit yield, parthenocarpy, and desired quality from the cultivars remains a challenge for Musa crossbreeding, which started about one century ago in Trinidad. The success of Musa crossbreeding depends on the production of true hybrid seeds in a crop known for its high levels of female sterility, particularly among polyploid cultivars. All banana export cultivars grown today are, however, selections from somatic mutants of the group Cavendish and have a very narrow genetic base, while smallholders in sub-Saharan Africa, tropical Asia and Latin America use some bred-hybrids (mostly cooking types). Musa improvement goals need to shift to address emerging threats because of the changing climate. Innovative cell and molecular biology tools have the potential to enhance the pace and efficiency of genetic improvement in Musa. Micro-propagation has been successful for high throughput of clean planting materials while in vitro seed germination assists in obtaining seedlings after inter-specific and across ploidy hybridization. Flow cytometry protocols are used for checking ploidy among genebank accessions and breeding materials. DNA markers, the genetic maps based on them, and the recent sequencing of the banana genome offer means for gaining more insights in the genetics of the crops and to identifying genes that could lead to accelerating Musa betterment. Likewise, DNA fingerprinting has been useful to characterize Musa diversity. Genetic engineering provides a complementary tool to Musa breeders who can introduce today transgenes that may confer resistance to bacteria, fungi and nematodes, or enhance pro-vitamin A fruit content. In spite of recent advances, the genetic improvement of Musa depends on a few crossbreeding programs (based in Brazil, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Guadeloupe, Honduras, India, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda) or a handful of genetic engineering endeavors (Australia, Belgium, India, Kenya, Malaysia and Uganda). Development investors (namely international aid and philanthropy) should therefore increase their funding to genetically enhance this crop that ranks among the 10-top staple foods of the developing world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  4. Ho WK, Tanzi AS, Sang F, Tsoutsoura N, Shah N, Moore C, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2024 Mar 01;15(1):1901.
    PMID: 38429275 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-45048-x
    A sustainable supply of plant protein is critical for future generations and needs to be achieved while reducing green house gas emissions from agriculture and increasing agricultural resilience in the face of climate volatility. Agricultural diversification with more nutrient-rich and stress tolerant crops could provide the solution. However, this is often hampered by the limited availability of genomic resources and the lack of understanding of the genetic structure of breeding germplasm and the inheritance of important traits. One such crop with potential is winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), a high seed protein tropical legume which has been termed 'the soybean for the tropics'. Here, we present a chromosome level winged bean genome assembly, an investigation of the genetic diversity of 130 worldwide accessions, together with two linked genetic maps and a trait QTL analysis (and expression studies) for regions of the genome with desirable ideotype traits for breeding, namely architecture, protein content and phytonutrients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
  5. Gregory PJ, Mayes S, Hui CH, Jahanshiri E, Julkifle A, Kuppusamy G, et al.
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):979-988.
    PMID: 31250097 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03179-2
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Crops For the Future (CFF), as an entity, has established a broad range of research activities to promote the improvement and adoption of currently underutilised crops. This paper summarises selected research activities at Crops For the Future (CFF) in pursuit of its mission 'to develop solutions for diversifying future agriculture using underutilised crops'. CFF is a research company focussed on the improvement of underutilised crops, so that they might be grown and consumed more widely with benefits to human food and nutritional security; its founding guarantors were the Government of Malaysia and the University of Nottingham. From its base in Malaysia, it engages in research around the world with a focus on species and system diversification. CFF has adopted a food system approach that adds value by delivering prototype food, feed and knowledge products. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) was adopted as an exemplar crop around which to develop CFF's food system approach with emphasis on the short-day photoperiod requirement for pod-filling and the hard-to-cook trait. Selective breeding has allowed the development of lines that are less susceptible to photoperiod but also provided a range of tools and approaches that are now being exploited in other crops such as winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and proso (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail (Setaria italica) millets. CFF has developed and tested new food products and demonstrated that several crops can be used as feed for black soldier fly which can, in turn, be used to feed fish thereby reducing the need for fishmeal. Information about underutilised crops is widely dispersed; so, a major effort has been made to develop a knowledge base that can be interrogated and used to answer practical questions about potential exploitation of plant and nutritional characteristics. Future research will build on the success with Bambara groundnut and include topics such as urban agriculture, rural development and diversification, and the development of novel foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  6. Khan MMH, Rafii MY, Ramlee SI, Jusoh M, Al Mamun M
    Sci Rep, 2022 09 19;12(1):15658.
    PMID: 36123374 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-19003-z
    This investigation was carried out to explore G × E interaction for yield and its associated attributes in 30 Bambara groundnut genotypes across four environments in tropical Malaysia. Such evaluations are essential when the breeding program's objective is to choose genotypes with broad adaption and yield potential. Studies of trait relationships, variance components, mean performance, and genetic linkage are needed by breeders when designing, evaluating, and developing selection criteria for improving desired characteristics in breeding programs. The evaluation of breeding lines of Bambara groundnut for high yield across a wide range of environments is important for long-term production and food security. Each site's experiment employed a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data on vegetative and yield component attributes were recorded. The analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences among the 30 genotypes for all variables evaluated. A highly significant and positive correlation was identified between yield per hectare and dry seed weight (0.940), hundred seed weight (0.844), fresh pod weight (0.832), and total pod weight (0.750); the estimated correlation between dry weight of pods and seed yield was 1.0. The environment was more important than genotype and G × E in determining yield and yield components.A total of 49% variation is covered by PC1 (33.9%) and PC2 (15.1%) and the genotypes formed five distinct clusters based on Ward hierarchical clustering (WHC) method. The genotypes S5G1, S5G3, S5G5, S5G6, S5G8, S5G7, S5G2, S5G4, S5G10, S5G13, S5G11, and S5G14 of clusters I, II, and III were closest to the ideal genotype with superior yield across the environments. The PCA variable loadings revealed that an index based on dry pod weight, hundred seed weight, number of total pods and fresh pod weight could be used as a selection criteria to improve seed yield of Bambara groundnut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  7. Thanh Hai L, Tran QB, Tra VT, Nguyen TPT, Le TN, Schnitzer H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Oct;265(Pt B):114853.
    PMID: 32480006 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114853
    This study proposes an integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system that provides zero emission and sustainable livelihood for the community in rural areas. The proposed integrated farming system improves agricultural productivity and environmental and sanitation conditions, minimizes the amount of waste, and increases the family income up to 41.55%. Several waste types can be recycled and transformed into valuable products, such as energy for cooking, organic fertilizer for crops, and cattle feed for breeding. Wastewater effluent from the biogas tank can be treated by biochar and results show that it then meets the standards for irrigation purposes. Also, the waste flow from cattle breeding supplies enough nutrients to cultivate plants, and the plants grown supply are adequate food for the 30 cows living on the farm. This research shows that the use of an integrated farming system could achieve zero-emission goal. Thereby, it provides a sustainable livelihood for cattle breeding family farms. The proposed integrated cattle breeding and cultivation system improves agricultural productivity, environmental and increases the farmer income up to 41.55%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  8. Hama-Ali EO, Alwee SS, Tan SG, Panandam JM, Ling HC, Namasivayam P, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2015 May;42(5):917-25.
    PMID: 25399079 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3829-7
    Oil palm breeding has been progressing very well in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Despite this progress, there are still problems due to the difficulty of controlled crossing in oil palm. Contaminated/illegitimate progeny has appeared in some breeding programs; late and failure of detection by the traditional method causes a waste of time and labor. The use of molecular markers improves the integrity of breeding programs in perennial crops such as oil palm. Four half-sib families with a total of 200 progeny were used in this study. Thirty polymorphic single locus DNA microsatellites markers were typed to identify the illegitimate individuals and to obtain the correct parental and progeny assignments by using the CERVUS and COLONY programs. Three illegitimate palms (1.5%) were found, and 16 loci proved to be sufficient for sibship assignments without parental genotypes by using the COLONY program. The pairwise-likelihood score (PLS) method was better for half-sib family assignments than the full likelihood (FL) method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding/methods*
  9. Hasan MM, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Mahmood M, Rahim HA, Alam MA, et al.
    Biotechnology, biotechnological equipment, 2015 Mar 04;29(2):237-254.
    PMID: 26019637
    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding; Breeding
  10. Mathur PK, Horst P
    Poult Sci, 1994 Dec;73(12):1777-84.
    PMID: 7877933
    This study was conducted to evaluate the significance of genotype by environment (G x E) interactions for tropical poultry breeding. Three environmental conditions were considered: controlled normal-temperature (20 +/- 2 C, CN) and controlled high-temperature (32 C, CH) housing in Germany as well as natural open tropical housing in Malaysia (22 to 34 C, TO). Eighty-four sires were considered as genotypes. Their 5,352 progeny were tested simultaneously over three environments. For each sire, its part breeding value (BV) was estimated within each environment for each performance trait. Correlations between these BV for a pair of environments were used to estimate the magnitude of G x E interactions and the degree of relationship between them to demonstrate their implications on breeding strategies. Differences between observed and expected genetic correlations of BV for body weight, egg weight, egg number, egg mass, feed intake, and production efficiency as a fraction of the expected correlation were 5.1, 4.0, 36.7, 36.5, 17.7, and 31.6%, respectively, suggesting greater significance of G x E interactions for reproduction and production efficiency. The relationships between BV over the three environments were linear for most of the traits studied, but the coefficients of determination were dependent upon the magnitude of interactions involved. Relative efficiencies of indirect selection in CN or CH for performance in TO were also very low.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  11. Chang MS, Jute N
    PMID: 7777923
    An Aedes survey using various larval survey methods was conducted in 12 urban housing areas and 29 vacant lands in Sibu town proper. Aedes albopictus larvae were found in all areas surveyed while Aedes aegypti larvae were present in 10 localities and 4 vacant lands. There were no significant difference in the house index, breteau and larval density index of these two Aedes (Stegomyia) species from the survey areas. The proportion of containers positive with Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in area outside the house compound and near the house fencing were 3.2 times higher than outdoor compound. The indoor/outdoor breeding ratio for Ae. aegypti alone is 1.6:1. The most preferred breeding habitats outdoor were plastic cups and used tires while indoor habitats were ant traps and flower vases. In the vacant lands, the average number of larvae per containers was significantly higher than in houses and over 51% of the containers inspected were positive. Shared breeding between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae accounted for 9% in house surveys and 4.5% in vacant land survey. The use of various methods in Aedes larval survey may provide essential information in the study of vector epidemiology in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  12. Lam WK, Dharmaraj D
    Med J Malaysia, 1982 Jun;37(2):114-23.
    PMID: 6127601
    A survey on mosquito breeding in septic tanks in several residential areas was carried out on 211 septic tanks in the Ipoh Municipality. The septic tanks inspected comprised two types; the contact filter-bed with pump sump and pump motor type (Type A) and the subsoil [ilter trench type (Type B). Mosquito breeding occurred in. both types of septic tanks, with Type A septic tanks showing heavier breeding, Seventy-two (55.4 percent) of the 130 Type A septic tanks inspected had Aedes albopictus breeding. Besides being a nuisance, mosquito breeding is a potential threat to public health, as Ae. albopictus is a vector of dengue fever. Prolific breeding by Ae. albopictus was encountered in areas where Type A septic tanks were used. Other mosquitoes encountered in the survey were Culex qusnquefasciatus, Armigeres subabaltus and Uranotaenia spp. Analysis of effluent samples from Type A and Type B septic tanks revealed that of the 4 parameters measured (PH, chloride, BOD5 and Free Ammonia}, only pH was not significantly different at the 95 percent level of confidence. Chloride, BOD5 and Free Ammonia levels in. the Type B septic tanks were significantly higher than that in Type A septic tanks. Turbidity of the effluent in Type B septic tanks probably deters Ae. albopictusfrom breeding. Several methods to prevent breeding of mosquitoes in septic tanks were discussed. The easiest method is to mosquito-proof the septic tanks but this has been tried not too successfully. A method using expanded polystyrene balls is suggested. Other methods include the use of parasitic nematodes and the use of insecticides but these are not favourable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  13. Nijman V
    Zoo Biol, 2016 Jan-Feb;35(1):1-3.
    PMID: 26661798 DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21256
    Ogata and Seino [Zoo Biol, 2015, 34:76-79] sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop of five proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus from Yokahama Zoo, Japan, that were imported from Surabaya Zoo, Indonesia. They compared their sequences with those of 16 proboscis monkeys from Sabah, Malaysia, and on the basis of a haplotype network analysis of 256 base pairs concluded that the northern Malaysian and southern Indonesian populations of proboscis monkeys are genetically differentiated. I provide information on the origin of the Indonesian proboscis monkeys, showing that they were the first-generation offspring of wild-caught individuals from the Pulau Kaget Strict Nature Reserve in the province of South Kalimantan. Using a phylogenetic approach and adding additional sequences from Indonesia and Malaysia, I reanalyzed their data, and found no support for a north-south divide. Instead the resulting tree based on 433 base pairs sequences show two strongly supported clades, both containing individuals from Indonesia and Malaysia. Work on captive individuals, as reported by Ogata and Seino, can aid in developing appropriate markers and techniques, but to obtain a more complete understanding of the genetic diversity and differentiation of wild proboscis monkeys, more detailed geographic sampling from all over Borneo is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding/methods*
  14. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Loong KP, Eng KL, Samarawickrema WA
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1985 Jun;1(2):186-90.
    PMID: 2906664
    Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Mansonia uniformis, Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae in Malaysia. Gravid females oviposited in 500 ml beakers with a layer of water covered with small leaves of Salvinia. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields than those with plants. Production of Ma. uniformis was higher than the other two species. Twelve generations of Ma. uniformis and 11 generations of Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae were monitored in the laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  15. Sherman A, Rubinstein M, Eshed R, Benita M, Ish-Shalom M, Sharabi-Schwager M, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:277.
    PMID: 26573148 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0663-6
    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding; Breeding
  16. Keong BP, Harikrishna JA
    Biochem Genet, 2012 Feb;50(1-2):135-45.
    PMID: 22089543 DOI: 10.1007/s10528-011-9479-8
    A preliminary screening was conducted on BC3F1 and BC4F1 backcross families developed from crossing Oryza sativa (MR219) and O. rufipogon (IRGC105491). Despite earlier results showing that O. rufipogon alleles (wild introgression) contributed to both number of panicles (qPPL-2) and tillers (qTPL-2) at loci RM250, RM208, and RM48 in line A20 of the BC2F2 population, we observed that wild introgression was lost at loci RM250 and RM208 but retained at locus RM48 in BC3F1 and BC4F1. Progeny tests conducted utilizing genotype and phenotype data on both BC4F1 and a reference population, BC2F7 (A20 line), did not show significant differences between groups having the MR219 allele and wild introgression at locus RM48. This suggests that there is no additive and transgressive effect of wild introgression in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generated. The presence of wild introgression was largely due to gene contamination by cross-pollination during field breeding practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
  17. Lind CE, Kilian A, Benzie JAH
    Anim. Genet., 2017 Jun;48(3):362-364.
    PMID: 28094451 DOI: 10.1111/age.12536
    The development of genomic markers is described for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) genotype-by-sequencing platform. A total of 13 215 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and 12 490 silicoDArT (dominant) markers were identified from broodstock of two selective breeding programs [Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain from Malaysia and the Abbassa strain from Egypt]. Over 10 000 SNPs were polymorphic in either strain, and 2985 and 3087 showed strain-specific polymorphisms for the GIFT and Abbassa strains respectively. We demonstrate the potential utility of these markers for rapid genomic screening and use in breeding programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Selective Breeding; Breeding
  18. Faiz Ahmad, Zaiton Ahmad, Affrida Abu Hassan, Sakinah Ariffin, Norazlina Noordin, Shakinah Salleh, et al.
    The research on radiation induced mutation has been conducted as one of the promising method of plant breeding in Malaysia since 1980s. Nuclear Malaysia is leading research institute inMalaysia conducting plant mutationbreeding research. Gamma Greenhousefacility located in Nuclear Malaysiais one of the irradiation facilitiesto serve as a chronic irradiation facility for inducing mutation in various organisms including plants, fungi and microbes.Chronic irradiation refers to the exposure of materials at a lower dose rate over a long period of time. Previous studies have shown that this type of irradiation can minimize radiation damages to living materials and produces a wider mutation spectrum, therefore is very useful for trait improvements in irradiated organisms. Experiments on induce mutation using Gamma Greenhouse facility for crop improvement program have been conducted since its first operation in 2009. Various plant species including ornamental and herbal plants, food crops and industrial crops have been irradiated to improve their traits such as higher yield and biomass, pest and disease tolerance, higher bioactive compounds, longer bloom time and many others. Most of these crop improvement programs were done through collaborations with other agencies in Malaysia such as universities, research institutes and government departments. A number of publications on crop improvement using Gamma Greenhouse have been published inlocal and international journals as well as seminar presentations at national and international levels. The outputs from induced mutation via chronic radiation using Gamma Greenhouse could be of great interest for plant breeders dealing with improvement and development of new cultivars. This paper discusses the activities and achievement in plant breeding and improvement using Gamma Greenhouse Facility in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding; Breeding
  19. Janssen J, Chng SCL
    Conserv Biol, 2018 02;32(1):18-25.
    PMID: 28671308 DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12978
    The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure on wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive bred can seriously undermine conservation efforts and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia is at the center of such controversy; therefore, we examined Indonesia's captive-breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. We compared the biological parameters used in the CBPP with parameters in the literature and with parameters suggested by experts on each species and identified shortcomings of the CBPP. Production quotas for 99 out of 129 species were based on inaccurate or unrealistic biological parameters and production quotas deviated more than 10% from what parameters in the literature allow for. For 38 species, the quota exceeded the number of animals that can be bred based on the biological parameters (range 100-540%) calculated with equations in the CBPP. We calculated a lower reproductive output for 88 species based on published biological parameters compared with the parameters used in the CBPP. The equations used in the production plan did not appear to account for other factors (e.g., different survival rate for juveniles compared to adult animals) involved in breeding the proposed large numbers of specimens. We recommend the CBPP be adjusted so that realistic published biological parameters are applied and captive-breeding quotas are not allocated to species if their captive breeding is unlikely to be successful or no breeding stock is available. The shortcomings in the current CBPP create loopholes that mean mammals, reptiles, and amphibians from Indonesia declared captive bred may have been sourced from the wild.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breeding*
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