METHODS: 15wt% of zirconia (ZrO2) as well as 30, 35, and 40wt% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were compounded with PA 12, followed by the fabrication of filament feedstocks using a single screw extruder. The fabricated filament feedstocks were used to print the impact specimens. The melt flow rate, tensile properties of fabricated filament feedstocks, and 3D printed impact properties of the specimens were assessed using melt flow indexer, universal testing machine, and Izod pendulum tester, respectively. The microstructure of selected filament feedstocks and broken impact specimens were analysed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLF) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the materials by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) (MTT) assay.
RESULTS: Hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 indicated sufficient flowability for FDM 3D printing. The tensile strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstocks slightly reduced as compared to unfilled PA 12. However, the tensile modulus and impact strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 increased by 8%-31% and 98%-181%, respectively. A significant increase was also detected in the cell viability of the developed composites at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml.
SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstock with improved properties is suitable for an FDM-based 3D printer, which enables the creation of patient-specific craniofacial implant at a lower cost to serve low-income patients.
METHODS: Tobramycin (30 mg/mL) was incorporated into CPB by dipping method and the efficacy of TOB-loaded CPB was studied in a rabbit osteomyelitis model. For juxtaposition, CPB with and without TOB were prepared. Twenty-five New Zealand white rabbits were grouped (n = 5) as sham (group 1), TOB-loaded CPB without S. aureus (group 2), S. aureus only (group 3), S. aureus + CPB (group 4), and S. aureus + TOB-loaded CPB (group 5). Groups infected with S. aureus followed by CPB implantation were immediately subjected to surgery at the mid-shaft of the tibia. After 28 days post-surgery, all rabbits were euthanized and the presence or absence of chronic osteomyelitis and the extent of architectural destruction of the bone were assessed by radiology, bacteriology and histological studies.
RESULTS: Tobramycin-loaded CPB group potentially inhibited the growth of S. aureus causing 3.2 to 3.4 log10 reductions in CFU/g of bone tissue compared to the controls. Untreated groups infected with S. aureus showed signs of chronic osteomyelitis with abundant bacterial growth and alterations in bone architecture. The sham group and TOB-loaded CPB group showed no evidence of bacterial growth.
CONCLUSIONS: TOB-incorporated into CPB for local bone administration was proven to be more successful in increasing the efficacy of TOB in this rabbit osteomyelitis model and hence could represent a good alternative to other formulations used in the treatment of osteomyelitis.