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  1. Tariq U, Hussain R, Tufail K, Haider Z, Tariq R, Ali J
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109863.
    PMID: 31349467 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109863
    Quick setting and poor injectability due to liquid-solid phase separation have limited the clinical use of brushite and monetite cements. The presence of certain ions in the cement during the setting reaction moderate the setting time and properties of the cement. This study reports the preparation of injectable bone cement by using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) extracted from femur lamb bone by calcination at 1450 °C. EDX analysis infers the presence of Mg and Na ions as trace elements in BCP. X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared cement confirmed the formation of brushite (DCPD) along with monetite (DCPA) as a minor phase. DCPA phase diminished gradually with a decrease in powder to liquid ratio (PLR). Initial and final setting time of 5.3 ± 0.5 and 14.67 ± 0.5 min respectively are obtained and within the acceptable recommended range for orthopedic applications. Exceptional injectability of ≈90% is achieved for all prepared bone cement samples. A decrease in compressive strength was observed with increase in the liquid phase of the cement, which is attributed to the higher degree of porosity in the set cement. Immersion of bone cement in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 7 days resulted in the formation of apatite layer on the surface of cement with Ca/P ratio 1.71, which enhanced the compressive strength from 2.88 to 9.15 MPa. The results demonstrate that bone cement produced from BCP extracted from femur lamb bone can be considered as potential bone substitute for regeneration and repair of bone defects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  2. Sadeghinezhad E, Kazi SN, Dahari M, Safaei MR, Sadri R, Badarudin A
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2015;55(12):1724-43.
    PMID: 24731003 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.752343
    Heat exchanger performance degrades rapidly during operation due to formation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces which ultimately reduces service life of the equipment. Due to scaling, product deteriorates which causes lack of proper heating. Chemistry of milk scaling is qualitatively understood and the mathematical models for fouling at low temperatures have been produced but the behavior of systems at ultra high temperature processing has to be studied further to understand in depth. In diversified field, the effect of whey protein fouling along with pressure drop in heat exchangers were conducted by many researchers. Adding additives, treatment of heat exchanger surfaces and changing of heat exchanger configurations are notable areas of investigation in milk fouling. The present review highlighted information about previous work on fouling, influencing parameters of fouling and its mitigation approach and ends up with recommendations for retardation of milk fouling and necessary measures to perform the task.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  3. Rafieerad AR, Ashra MR, Mahmoodian R, Bushroa AR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Dec 1;57:397-413.
    PMID: 26354281 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.058
    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  4. Abdullah AM, Mohamad D, Rahim TNAT, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:719-725.
    PMID: 30889745 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.02.007
    This study reports the influence of ZrO2/β-TCP hybridization on the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of polyamide 12 composites to be suited for bone replacement. Amount of 15 wt% of nano-ZrO2 along with 5,10,15,20 and 25 wt% of micro-β-TCP was compounded with polyamide 12 via a twin-screw extruder. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled polyamide 12 exhibited higher thermal, mechanical and physical properties in comparison to unfilled polyamide 12 at certain filler loading; which is attributed to the homogenous dispersion of ZrO2/β-TCP fillers particle in polyamide 12 matrix. The hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 demonstrated an increment of tensile strength by up to 1%, tensile modulus of 38%, flexural strength of 15%, flexural modulus of 45%, and surface roughness value of 93%, as compared to unfilled PA 12. With enhanced thermal, mechanical and physical properties, the newly developed hybrid ZrO2/β-TCP filled PA 12 could be potentially utilized for bone replacement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  5. Low KL, Tan SH, Zein SH, Roether JA, Mouriño V, Boccaccini AR
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2010 Jul;94(1):273-86.
    PMID: 20336722 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.31619
    A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  6. Baradaran S, Moghaddam E, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Basirun WJ, Mehrali M, Sookhakian M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:656-668.
    PMID: 25686995 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.050
    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  7. Chew KK, Low KL, Sharif Zein SH, McPhail DS, Gerhardt LC, Roether JA, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2011 Apr;4(3):331-9.
    PMID: 21316621 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.10.013
    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  8. Toibah AR, Sopyan I, Mel M
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:83-4.
    PMID: 19024995
    The incorporation of magnesium ions into the calcium phosphate structure is of great interest for the development of artificial bone implants. This paper investigates the preparation of magnesium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP) via sol gel method at various concentrations of added Mg. The effect of calcinations temperature (ranging from 500 degrees C to 900 degrees C) and concentrations of Mg incorporated into BCP has been studied by the aid of XRD, TGA and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in transmittance mode analysis. The study indicated that the powder was pure BCP and Mg-BCP with 100% purity and high crystallinity. The results also indicated that beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) phase can be observed when the powder was calcined at 800 degrees C and above.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  9. Abdullah AM, Rahim TNAT, Hamad WNFW, Mohamad D, Akil HM, Rajion ZA
    Dent Mater, 2018 11;34(11):e309-e316.
    PMID: 30268678 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.09.006
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical and biological properties of newly developed hybrid ceramics filled and unfilled polyamide 12 (PA 12) for craniofacial reconstruction via a fused deposition modelling (FDM) framework.

    METHODS: 15wt% of zirconia (ZrO2) as well as 30, 35, and 40wt% of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were compounded with PA 12, followed by the fabrication of filament feedstocks using a single screw extruder. The fabricated filament feedstocks were used to print the impact specimens. The melt flow rate, tensile properties of fabricated filament feedstocks, and 3D printed impact properties of the specimens were assessed using melt flow indexer, universal testing machine, and Izod pendulum tester, respectively. The microstructure of selected filament feedstocks and broken impact specimens were analysed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (HPdLF) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the materials by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid) (MTT) assay.

    RESULTS: Hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 indicated sufficient flowability for FDM 3D printing. The tensile strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstocks slightly reduced as compared to unfilled PA 12. However, the tensile modulus and impact strength of hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 increased by 8%-31% and 98%-181%, respectively. A significant increase was also detected in the cell viability of the developed composites at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed hybrid ceramics filled PA 12 filament feedstock with improved properties is suitable for an FDM-based 3D printer, which enables the creation of patient-specific craniofacial implant at a lower cost to serve low-income patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  10. Sulaiman SB, Keong TK, Cheng CH, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2013 Jun;137(6):1093-101.
    PMID: 23852290
    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  11. Chahal S, Chalal S, Fathima SJ, Yusoff MB
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2014;24(1):799-806.
    PMID: 24211966 DOI: 10.3233/BME-130871
    In this study, randomly oriented hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol (HEC/PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The blend solutions of HEC/PVA with different weight ratio of HEC to PVA were prepared using water as solvent to fabricate nanofibers. These nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with bone-like apatite by immersing into 10x simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time periods. The morphology and structure of the nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC. FESEM-EDS and FTIR analysis were used to confirm the deposition of apatite on the surface of nanofibers. The results of this study suggest that this apatite coated nanofibrous scaffolds could be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  12. Mohammadi H, Sepantafar M
    Iran. Biomed. J., 2016 Sep;20(4):189-200.
    PMID: 26979401
    Titanium and its alloy are known as important load-bearing biomaterials. The major drawbacks of these metals are fibrous formation and low corrosion rate after implantation. The surface modification of biomedical implants through various methods such as plasma spray improves their osseointegration and clinical lifetime. Different materials have been already used as coatings on biomedical implant, including calcium phosphates and bioglass. However, these materials have been reported to have limited clinical success. The excellent bioactivity of calcium silicate (Ca-Si) has been also regarded as coating material. However, their high degradation rate and low mechanical strength limit their further coating application. Trace element modification of (Ca-Si) bioceramics is a promising method, which improves their mechanical strength and chemical stability. In this review, the potential of trace element-modified silicate coatings on better bone formation of titanium implant is investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  13. Md Ramli SH, Wong TW, Naharudin I, Bose A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Nov 05;152:370-381.
    PMID: 27516284 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.07.021
    Conventional alginate pellets underwent rapid drug dissolution and failed to exert colon targeting unless subjected to complex coating. This study designed coatless delayed-release oral colon-specific alginate pellets for ulcerative colitis treatment. Alginate pellets, formulated with water-insoluble ethylcellulose and various calcium salts, were prepared using solvent-free melt pelletization technique which prevented reaction between processing materials during agglomeration and allowed reaction to initiate only in dissolution. Combination of acid-soluble calcium carbonate and highly water-soluble calcium acetate did not impart colon-specific characteristics to pellets due to pore formation in fragmented matrices. Combination of moderately water-soluble calcium phosphate and calcium acetate delayed drug release due to rapid alginate crosslinking by soluble calcium from acetate salt followed by sustaining alginate crosslinking by calcium phosphate. The use of 1:3 ethylcellulose-to-alginate enhanced the sustained drug release attribute. The ethylcellulose was able to maintain the pellet integrity without calcium acetate. Using hydrophobic prednisolone as therapeutic, hydrophilic alginate pellets formulated with hydrophobic ethylcellulose and moderately polar calcium phosphate exhibited colon-specific in vitro drug release and in vivo anti-inflammatory action. Coatless oral colon-specific alginate pellets can be designed through optimal formulation with melt pelletization as the processing technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  14. Touri M, Moztarzadeh F, Osman NAA, Dehghan MM, Mozafari M
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Mar 01;84:236-242.
    PMID: 29519434 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.11.037
    Tissue engineering scaffolds with oxygen generating elements have shown to be able to increase the level of oxygen and cell survivability in specific conditions. In this study, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with the composition of 60% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 40% beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), which have shown a great potential for bone tissue engineering applications, were fabricated by a direct-write assembly (robocasting) technique. Then, the three-dimensional (3D)-printed scaffolds were coated with different ratios of an oxygen releasing agent, calcium peroxide (CPO), which encapsulated within a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix through dip-coating, and used for in situ production of oxygen in the implanted sites. The structure, composition and morphology of the prepared scaffolds were characterized by different techniques. The oxygen release kinetics and biological investigations of the scaffolds were also studied in vitro. The results showed that oxygen release behaviour was sustained and dependant on the concentration of CPO encapsulated in the PCL coating matrix. It was also demonstrated that the coated scaffolds, having 3% CPO in the coating system, could provide a great potential for promoting bone ingrowth with improving osteoblast cells viability and proliferation under hypoxic conditions. The findings indicated that the prepared scaffolds could play a significant role in engineering of large bone tissue implants with limitations in oxygen diffusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  15. Lulu GA, Karunanidhi A, Mohamad Yusof L, Abba Y, Mohd Fauzi F, Othman F
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob, 2018 Dec 28;17(1):46.
    PMID: 30593272 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-018-0296-3
    BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone following infection with pyogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus. Tobramycin (TOB) is a promising aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tobramycin-loaded calcium phosphate beads (CPB) in a rabbit osteomyelitis model.

    METHODS: Tobramycin (30 mg/mL) was incorporated into CPB by dipping method and the efficacy of TOB-loaded CPB was studied in a rabbit osteomyelitis model. For juxtaposition, CPB with and without TOB were prepared. Twenty-five New Zealand white rabbits were grouped (n = 5) as sham (group 1), TOB-loaded CPB without S. aureus (group 2), S. aureus only (group 3), S. aureus + CPB (group 4), and S. aureus + TOB-loaded CPB (group 5). Groups infected with S. aureus followed by CPB implantation were immediately subjected to surgery at the mid-shaft of the tibia. After 28 days post-surgery, all rabbits were euthanized and the presence or absence of chronic osteomyelitis and the extent of architectural destruction of the bone were assessed by radiology, bacteriology and histological studies.

    RESULTS: Tobramycin-loaded CPB group potentially inhibited the growth of S. aureus causing 3.2 to 3.4 log10 reductions in CFU/g of bone tissue compared to the controls. Untreated groups infected with S. aureus showed signs of chronic osteomyelitis with abundant bacterial growth and alterations in bone architecture. The sham group and TOB-loaded CPB group showed no evidence of bacterial growth.

    CONCLUSIONS: TOB-incorporated into CPB for local bone administration was proven to be more successful in increasing the efficacy of TOB in this rabbit osteomyelitis model and hence could represent a good alternative to other formulations used in the treatment of osteomyelitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
  16. Haque ST, Islam RA, Gan SH, Chowdhury EH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 14;21(18).
    PMID: 32937817 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21186721
    Background: The limitations of conventional treatment modalities in cancer, especially in breast cancer, facilitated the necessity for developing a safer drug delivery system (DDS). Inorganic nano-carriers based on calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have gained attention due to their biocompatibility, reduced toxicity, and improved therapeutic efficacy. Methods: In this study, the potential of goose bone ash (GBA), a natural derivative of HA or CA, was exploited as a pH-responsive carrier to successfully deliver doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline drug into breast cancer cells (e.g., MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells). GBA in either pristine form or in suspension was characterized in terms of size, morphology, functional groups, cellular internalization, cytotoxicity, pH-responsive drug (DOX) release, and protein corona analysis. Results: The pH-responsive drug release study demonstrated the prompt release of DOX from GBA through its disintegration in acidic pH (5.5-6.5), which mimics the pH of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments as well as the stability of GBA in physiological pH (pH 7.5). The result of DOX binding with GBA indicated an increment in binding affinity with increasing concentrations of DOX. Cell viability and cytotoxicity analysis showed no innate toxicity of GBA particles. Both qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake analysis in both cell lines displayed an enhanced cellular internalization of DOX-loaded GBA compared to free DOX molecules. The protein corona spontaneously formed on the surface of GBA particles exhibited its affinity toward transport proteins, structural proteins, and a few other selective proteins. The adsorption of transport proteins could extend the circulation half-life in biological environment and increase the accumulation of the drug-loaded NPs through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect at the tumor site. Conclusion: These findings highlight the potential of GBA as a DDS to successfully deliver therapeutics into breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry
  17. Bang LT, Ramesh S, Purbolaksono J, Long BD, Chandran H, Ramesh S, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2015 Aug;10(4):045011.
    PMID: 26225725 DOI: 10.1088/1748-6041/10/4/045011
    Interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics are considered to be potential bone substitutes. However, insufficient mechanical properties when using tricalcium phosphate powders remain a challenge. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a new approach to produce an interconnected alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) scaffold and to perform surface modification on the scaffold with a composite layer, which consists of hybrid carbonate apatite / poly-epsilon-caprolactone (CO3Ap/PCL) with enhanced mechanical properties and biological performance. Different CO3Ap combinations were tested to evaluate the optimal mechanical strength and in vitro cell response of the scaffold. The α-TCP scaffold coated with CO3Ap/PCL maintained a fully interconnected structure with a porosity of 80% to 86% and achieved an improved compressive strength mimicking that of cancellous bone. The addition of CO3Ap coupled with the fully interconnected microstructure of the α-TCP scaffolds coated with CO3Ap/PCL increased cell attachment, accelerated proliferation and resulted in greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Hence, our bone substitute exhibited promising potential for applications in cancellous bone-type replacement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Calcium Phosphates/chemistry*
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