A systematic approach to death registration and reporting is essential for studies and comparison within or between countries. One of the accepted methods in the system is to have medically certified death. The objective of this study was to improve the proportion of medically certified death (MCD) in the state of Malacca. Structured questionnaires were used by Medical Assistants (MAs) in the investigation of the cause of death for non-medically certified deaths. Data on certification of death by MAs in Malacca was analysed and compared with the total deaths obtained from the Department of Statistics. Possible determinants of deaths were investigated. Total deaths in the state of Malacca during the study period from 2000 - 2001 were 5941. About 35% (883/2493) of the total deaths in year 2000 and 45% (1550/3448) in 2001 certified by MAs were examined. By districts, 50.6% were certified in the district of Malacca Tengah, 13.4% Jasin and 36.0% Alor Gajah in 2000; 65.9% occurred in Malacca Tengah, 11.0% Jasin and 23.2% Alor Gajah in 2001. This project helped to increase the percentage of the medically certified deaths in Malacca from 49.8% in year 1998, 49% in 1999 to 73% in 2000 and 85% in 2001. The proportion of MCD in Malacca in 2000 (73%) may be increased to 93% if all MCDs done by MAs were accepted by the Department of Statistics. There is still a high proportion (23.6%) of ill-defined conditions such as old age and sudden death being diagnosed by MAs. The study shows that the quality of mortality data particularly in the percentage of medically certified deaths can be improved.
All deaths due to unnatural causes and deaths that are believed to be due to natural causes but where the medical cause of death is not certain or known are subjected to an inquest. The objective of an inquest is to ascertain facts pertaining to the death. This is achieved by inquiry and at the conclusion of the inquest a verdict is arrived as to whether the death was due to a natural, accidental, suicidal or a homicidal cause. An inquest is not a trial. There is no complainant or defendant and at the conclusion of the inquest no judgment is passed. The inquest system exists in all parts of the world. In the English legal system, the person who conducts an inquest is called a Coroner. In Scotland, he is called a Procurator Fiscal. The United States of America use the Medical Examiner system. Most continental European countries and their former colonies follow the Code Napoleon. A postmortem examination may become necessary in certain deaths that come up for inquests. In these situations the authority which conducts the inquest will order a doctor to perform a postmortem examination (medico-legal autopsy). To perform a medico-legal autopsy, consent from the relatives of the deceased is not required. In an unexpected sudden death, only a doctor after a postmortem examination may be able to determine the cause of death. However, it is often wrongly assumed that the objective of a postmortem examination is only to ascertain the cause of death. This article deals with the purpose of the inquest and roles of the medico-legal autopsy.
Tractor rollover occurs when a tractor tips sideways or backwards and overturns, potentially crushing the operator. Rollovers are typically considered to occur more frequently during a sharp turn at a high speed on sloping terrains, although data show that rollovers do occur on flat land after hitting obstacles or through inappropriate use and hitching of implements. It is important to highlight that tractor overturns are the major cause of death in farm operations. The overturns are as a result of interactions between the tractor operator, the tractor and the environment. A review of the relevant literature reveals that more than 800 people are killed each year in tractor accidents, and for every person killed, at least 40 others are injured. This paper focuses on tractor overturns because they account for more than half of all the tractor-related deaths. In addition, farm tractor operational safety principles are also highlighted.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. While it is relatively easy to identify those who are obviously at high risk and those at the lowest risk for CVD, it is often the large group of individuals with what appears to be modestly abnormal risk factors who contributes most to the burden of CVD. This is where estimation of CVD risk is necessary. Many tools for risk assessment have been devised. All these risk scores have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, they may also not be directly applicable to a local population. Ideally, each country should have its own risk score that takes into account other factors as well. In the interim, it is worthwhile to be familiar with one of these scores, select one that is most appropriate for your patient and discuss treatment options based on the estimated risk.
The duty of confidentiality in the normal doctor-patient relationship is well recognized. However, the duty of confidentiality between the pathologist who performs the autopsy and the requesting authorities and the next-of-kin is not as clearly spelt out. This article discusses the problems faced by the pathologist with regards to hospital and medico-legal autopsies in Malaysia. A proposed ethical guideline is included on how to deal with peculiar issues regarding confidentiality and the pathologist.
A one year prospective study of perinatal deaths was conducted to test the feasibility of using the Wigglesworth pathophysiological classification in the Malaysian health service. Four regions with high perinatal mortality rates were selected. Deaths were actively identified. Nursing staff were trained to use the classification and every death was reviewed by a clinician. A total of 26,198 births and 482 perinatal deaths were reported. The perinatal mortality rate was 18.4. Only 14 (2.9%) deaths had their Wigglesworth category reclassified. Most deaths were in the normally formed macerated stillbirths (34.4%), asphyxial conditions (26.8%), and immaturity (20.1%) subgroups. The results were compared with data from other countries that used this classification. This study has shown that the Wigglesworth pathophysiological classification can be applied to perinatal deaths in the existing Malaysian health service.
How people perceive risk influences their behaviour towards these risks. We do not know how workers perceive risk of dying from diseases or accidents. This study was conducted among 198 workers of a security company in Malaysia. The workers were asked to score on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 the perceived risk of death of Malaysians from selected causes of death. The highest perceived risks of death were, in order of ranking, motor vehicle accidents, cancer and diabetes mellitus whereas according to the certified causes of death in Malaysia the highest risks of death among the selected items were cardiovascular disease, cancer and stroke. The difference in perception and mortality data needs be addressed.
Background: Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies.
Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database. Search terms included: 'repatriation of remains', 'death', 'abroad', 'tourism', 'travel', 'travellers', 'travelling' and 'repatriation'. Additional articles were obtained from grey literature sources and reference lists.
Results: The local national embassy, travel insurance broker and tour operator are important sources of information to facilitate the repatriation of the deceased traveller. Formal identification of the deceased's remains is required and a funeral director must be appointed. Following this, the coroner in the country or jurisdiction receiving the repatriated remains will require a number of documents prior to providing clearance for burial. Costs involved in repatriating remains must be borne by the family of the deceased although travel insurance may help defray some of the costs. If the death is secondary to an infectious disease, cremation at the site of death is preferred. No standardized procedure is in place to deal with the remains of a migrant's body at present and these remains are often not repatriated to their country of origin.
Conclusions: Repatriation of human remains is a difficult task which is emotionally challenging for the bereaving family and friends. As a travel medicine practitioner, it is prudent to discuss all eventualities, including the risk of death, during the pre-travel consultation. Awareness of the procedures involved in this process may ease the burden on the grieving family at a difficult time.
OBJECTIVES: Automatic text classification techniques are useful for classifying plaintext medical documents. This study aims to automatically predict the cause of death from free text forensic autopsy reports by comparing various schemes for feature extraction, term weighing or feature value representation, text classification, and feature reduction.
METHODS: For experiments, the autopsy reports belonging to eight different causes of death were collected, preprocessed and converted into 43 master feature vectors using various schemes for feature extraction, representation, and reduction. The six different text classification techniques were applied on these 43 master feature vectors to construct a classification model that can predict the cause of death. Finally, classification model performance was evaluated using four performance measures i.e. overall accuracy, macro precision, macro-F-measure, and macro recall.
RESULTS: From experiments, it was found that that unigram features obtained the highest performance compared to bigram, trigram, and hybrid-gram features. Furthermore, in feature representation schemes, term frequency, and term frequency with inverse document frequency obtained similar and better results when compared with binary frequency, and normalized term frequency with inverse document frequency. Furthermore, the chi-square feature reduction approach outperformed Pearson correlation, and information gain approaches. Finally, in text classification algorithms, support vector machine classifier outperforms random forest, Naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, and ensemble-voted classifier.
CONCLUSION: Our results and comparisons hold practical importance and serve as references for future works. Moreover, the comparison outputs will act as state-of-art techniques to compare future proposals with existing automated text classification techniques.
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.
METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).
FINDINGS: Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4-61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5-72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7-17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5-70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6-5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8-18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6-16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9-14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1-44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7-51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8-34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3-37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.
INTERPRETATION: At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.
FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Malaysian collaborators: Southern University College, Skudai, Malaysia (Y J Kim PhD); School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia (K I Musa MD); Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (R Sahathevan PhD); Department of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (C T Sreeramareddy MD); WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia (A L Thorne-Lyman ScD)
Haemangioma can be present in the lung but rarely causes complications unless there is a bleed. Ghon's focus is a result of post primary tuberculosis. It is a caseating granuloma which invades the surrounding tissue. It is usually benign and may resolve spontaneously without causing complications or active tuberculosis. This case illustrates an unfortunate patient who had a pre-existing haemangioma in the lung which was in close proximity of a Ghon's focus that had invaded on to the haemangioma leading to haemorrhage causing death. This study seeks to highlight the importance of conducting a full post mortem in cases of maternal mortality.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of death in childhood, is caused by deletion of the SMN1 gene, located at chromosome 5q13. The molecular pathogenesis, which results in motor neuron degeneration within the anterior horn of spinal cord, is a focus of debate among scientists. The unique nature of the duplicative 5q chromosomal region provides considerable yet challenging opportunity for disease correction as well as complication in performing molecular diagnosis and understanding the molecular pathogenesis. This article reviewed recent findings in the molecular pathogenesis of SMA as well as the research advances in the molecular diagnosis and therapeutic approaches.
Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB) is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0-<10 µg/ml). The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.
Principal causes of death
Return op diseases and deaths, 1914 in the Hospitals in Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang
Quarantine station, Port Swettenham
Malaria advisor board
Institute for Medical Research
Malaria board bureau, Kuala Lumpur, F.M.S., March 1, 1915. By C. Strickland, Travelling Medical Entomologist, F.M.S.
An outbreak of fever at Morib in the Federated Malay States
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death today. The current identification method of the diseases is analyzing the Electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a medical monitoring technology recording cardiac activity. Unfortunately, looking for experts to analyze a large amount of ECG data consumes too many medical resources. Therefore, the method of identifying ECG characteristics based on machine learning has gradually become prevalent. However, there are some drawbacks to these typical methods, requiring manual feature recognition, complex models, and long training time. This paper proposes a robust and efficient 12-layer deep one-dimensional convolutional neural network on classifying the five micro-classes of heartbeat types in the MIT- BIH Arrhythmia database. The five types of heartbeat features are classified, and wavelet self-adaptive threshold denoising method is used in the experiments. Compared with BP neural network, random forest, and other CNN networks, the results show that the model proposed in this paper has better performance in accuracy, sensitivity, robustness, and anti-noise capability. Its accurate classification effectively saves medical resources, which has a positive effect on clinical practice.