METHODS: We produced two NiV vaccine candidates using the licensed VSV-EBOV vaccine as a backbone and tested its efficacy against lethal homologous and heterologous NiV challenge with Nipah virus Bangladesh and Nipah virus Malaysia, respectively, in the African green monkey model.
FINDINGS: The VSV-EBOV vaccine expressing NiV glycoprotein G (VSV-NiVG) induced high neutralising antibody titers and afforded complete protection from homologous and heterologous challenge. The VSV-EBOV vaccine expressing NiV fusion protein F (VSV-NiVF) induced a lower humoral response and afforded complete homologous protection, but only partial heterologous protection. Both vaccines reduced virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract, and virus replication in the lungs and central nervous system. None of the protected animals vaccinated with VSV-NiVG or VSV-NiVF showed histological lesions in the CNS, but one VSV-NiVF-vaccinated animal that was not protected developed severe meningoencephalitis.
INTERPRETATION: The VSV-NiVG vaccine offers broad protection against NiV disease.
FUNDING: This study was supported by the Intramural Research Program, NIAID, NIH.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vero cells were inoculated with virus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1. Cell cultures were harvested over a time course and processed for transmission electron microscopic imaging.
RESULTS: The filopodia protrusions on cell periphery preceded virus entry. Additionally, sylvatic DENV infection was found spreading slower than the endemic DENV. Morphogenesis of both dengue ecotypes was alike but at different level of efficiency in the permissive cells.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ultrastructural study on sylvatic DENV and this comparative study revealed the similarities and differences of cellular responses and morphogenesis of two dengue ecotypes in vitro. The study revealed the weaker infectivity of sylvatic DENV in the surrogate model of enzootic host, which supposed to support better replication of enzootic DENV than endemic DENV.