Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 165 in total

  1. Bossart KN, Rockx B, Feldmann F, Brining D, Scott D, LaCasse R, et al.
    Sci Transl Med, 2012 Aug 08;4(146):146ra107.
    PMID: 22875827 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004241
    In the 1990s, Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV), two closely related and previously unrecognized paramyxoviruses that cause severe disease and death in humans and a variety of animals, were discovered in Australia and Malaysia, respectively. Outbreaks of disease have occurred nearly every year since NiV was first discovered, with case fatality ranging from 10 to 100%. In the African green monkey (AGM), NiV causes a severe lethal respiratory and/or neurological disease that essentially mirrors fatal human disease. Thus, the AGM represents a reliable disease model for vaccine and therapeutic efficacy testing. We show that vaccination of AGMs with a recombinant subunit vaccine based on the henipavirus attachment G glycoprotein affords complete protection against subsequent NiV infection with no evidence of clinical disease, virus replication, or pathology observed in any challenged subjects. Success of the recombinant subunit vaccine in nonhuman primates provides crucial data in supporting its further preclinical development for potential human use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops/immunology*; Cercopithecus aethiops/virology*
  2. Salmijah S., Anita Mohd. Zubir, Maimon A.
    Metaldehyde is used widely in Malaysia for the control of molluscs. This communication reports the cytotoxic effects of this chemical on cultured cells as assessed by cell morphology and the DNA synthesising capability as well as its transport into cells. After 15 days of exposure with 20.0 ppm of the compound, the DNA synthesising capability was shown to be unaffected. The IC50 for Vero cells was 276.0 ppm. Transport of thymidine across cells was found to be not significantly affected even at high metaldehyde concentrations (up to 320.0 ppm) suggesting integrity of cells were not significantly affected. The present cellular studies have therefore shown that the cytotoxic effects of this chemical is rather low.
    Metaldehida digunakan dengan meluas di Malaysia untuk mengawal perosak moluska. Kesan sitotoksik bahan kimia ini di peringkat sel dari segi ciri-ciri perubahan moifologi dan keupayaan mensintesis DNA serta kajian awal kesannya terhadap proses kemasukan ke dalam sel dilaporkan di sini. Keupayaan mensintesis DNA didapati tidak terjejas secara signifikan selepas diberikan 20.0 ppm metaldehida secara berterusan selama 15 hari. Nilai IC50 bagi sel Vero adalah 276.0 ppm. Kemasukan timidina ke dalam sel tidak terjejas secara signifikan apabila sel diperlakukan dengan metaldehida, walaupun pada kepekatan yang agak tinggi iaitu sehingga 320.0 ppm. Kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa kesan sitotoksik oleh metaldehida adalah rendah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  3. Johnston SC, Briese T, Bell TM, Pratt WD, Shamblin JD, Esham HL, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(2):e0117817.
    PMID: 25706617 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117817
    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4) plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops/virology*
  4. Yadav PD, Sudeep AB, Mishra AC, Mourya DT
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2012 Nov;136(5):792-8.
    PMID: 23287126
    Chittoor virus (CHITV) belongs to genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae. It has been isolated from various species of mosquitoes and pig from different parts of India. Five isolates of CHITV were characterized at the molecular level and compared with other Batai viruses (BATV) to find out any kind of reassortment in their genome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  5. Saadatnia G, Haj Ghani H, Khoo BY, Maimunah A, Rahmah N
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):125-30.
    PMID: 20562822
    In vitro culture of Toxoplasma gondii can provide tachyzoites which are active, viable and with desirable purity. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize the cell culture method for T. gondii propagation to obtain a consistent source of parasites with maximum yield and viability, but minimum host cell contamination for use in production of excretory-secretory antigen. Tachyzoites with seed counts of 1x10(6), 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) harvested from infected mice were added to VERO cells of different degrees of confluence, namely 50%, 85% and 100%, and examined periodically using an inverted microscope. When the maximum release of the tachyzoites was observed from the host cells, the culture supernatant was removed and the tachyzoites harvested. Using a Neubauer chamber, the percentages of viable tachyzoites and host cell contamination were determined using trypan blue stain. Parameters that gave the best yield and purity of viable tachyzoites were found to be as follows: VERO cells at 85% confluence in DMEM medium and inoculum comprising 1x10(7) tachyzoites. After about 3 days post infection, the tachyzoites multiplied 78x, with a yield of ~7.8x10(8) per flask, 99% viability and 3% host cell contamination. This study has successfully optimized the method of propagation of T. gondii tachyzoites in VERO cells which produce parasites with high yield, purity and viability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  6. Keniscope C, Juliana R, Subri H, Shangari SR, Wan Nor Azlina WA, Hamizah A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):37-40.
    PMID: 19852319 MyJurnal
    The clinical presentation of acute measles is normally quite typical, especially in the presence of Koplik's spots, that laboratory test is seldom required to confirm the diagnosis. However, with wide measles vaccination coverage and the extensive use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy, the diagnosis of atypical manifestations of acute measles may require laboratory confirmation. When compared with B95a cell-line, this study shows that the Vero/hSLAM cell-line is sensitive and is recommended for use in the primary isolation of wild-type measles virus from clinical specimens. Throat swab and urine specimens are the clinical specimens of choice and both are recommended for optimal isolation of measles virus from patients suspected of acute measles virus infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  7. Tay ST, Devi S, Puthucheary S, Kautner I
    Zentralbl. Bakteriol., 1996 Mar;283(3):306-13.
    PMID: 8861868
    By means of the gentamicin HEp-2 cell invasion assay, it was demonstrated that 82% of the Campylobacters tested were cell-invasive, including 83% of isolates from bloody diarrhoea and 80% of isolates from watery diarrhoea. The large number of invasive strains from watery diarrhoea suggests the possible role of invasiveness in the production of watery diarrhoea. Whether this stage can progress further to more severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhoea remains to be elucidated. Whether this progression to bloody diarrhoea occurs as a result of toxin production is still debatable. In Vero cells, invasion was less efficient and intracellular multiplication was not observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  8. Siew, Ching Ngai, Ramasamy, Rajesh, Syahril Abdullah
    Many diseases are potential targets for gene therapy using either non-viral or viral vectors. Unlike nonviralmethods, viral vectors, such as lentiviruses, have the ability to integrate into the host chromosome,which can lead to long-term transgene expression. Lentiviruses have advantages over other types ofviruses due to their capacity to transduce non-dividing cells. An optimized generation of lentivirusescarrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by either UbC (LV/UbC/GFP) orCMV (LV/CMV/GFP) promoter is described in this paper. The lentiviruses were produced by cotransfectinglentiviral expression constructs and packaging mix into 293FT lentivirus producer cell lines.Lipofectamine was highly efficient in transfecting the cells compared to Transfast and Polyethyleneimine(PEI). Following cell transfection, syncytia were clearly visible at day 2. Lentiviruses were harvestedat days 1, 2 and 3 post-transfection. The highest transduction efficiency was read from LV/CMV/GFPharvested at day 2 post-transfection and LV/UbC/GFP harvested at day 3 post-transfection. Finally,the GFP expression in COS-7 cells was determined at day 2 and day 14 post-transduction for transientand stable GFP expression. It was found that the GFP expression declined overtime. However, thetransduction efficiency and duration of the transgene expression in COS-7 cells transduced with LV/CMV/GFP were higher compared to LV/UbC/GFP. In conclusion, we have successfully produced lentivirusescarrying GFP with different promoters and shown that the viruses were able to infect COS-7 cells atdifferent efficiencies. Meanwhile, the generation of the active lentiviruses will allow us to proceed to the subsequent analysis of the effect of regulatory elements in future study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  9. Yusof, F., Chowdhury, S., Faruck, M. O., Sulaiman, N.
    Cancer still presents enormous challenges in the medical world. Currently, the search for
    anticancer compounds has garnered a lot of interest, especially in finding them from the natural
    sources. In this study, by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay, compounds,
    extracted from supermeal worm (Zophobas morio) larvae using two types of acidified organic
    solvent (ethanol and isopropanol), were shown to inhibit the growth of a breast cancer line,
    MCF-7. A comparative study of the effect was carried out on a normal cell line, Vero. Results
    showed that, the two types of extracts inhibits growth of MCF-7 cell at varying degrees, on
    the other hand, have much less effect on Vero cell. Extracts analysed by UV-vis spectroscopy,
    showed peaks in the range of 260 to 280 nm, inferring the presence of aromatic amino acids,
    whereas the highest peak of 3.608 AU at 230 nm indicates the presence of peptide bonds. By
    Raman spectroscopy, peaks are observed at 1349 cm-1, 944 cm-1 and 841 cm-1 indicating the
    presence of Tyr, Try and Gly, confirming the UV-vis analyses. All results of analyses implied
    that the anticancer compounds contain peptides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  10. Anita Lett J, Sundareswari M, Ravichandran K, Latha B, Sagadevan S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:487-495.
    PMID: 30606558 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.082
    The practice of bone implants is the standard procedure for the treatment of skeletal fissures, or to substitute and re-establish lost bone. A perfect scaffold ought to be made of biomaterials that duplicate the structure and properties of natural bone. However, the production of living tissue constructs that are architecturally, functionally and mechanically comparable to natural bone is the major challenge in the treatment and regeneration of bone tissue in orthopaedics and in dentistry. In this work, we have employed a polymeric replication method to fabricate hydroxyapatite (HAP) scaffolds using gum tragacanth (GT) as a natural binder. GT is a natural gum collected from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, possessing antibacterial and wound healing properties. The synthesized porous HAP scaffolds were analyzed structurally and characterized for their phase purity and mechanical properties. The biocompatibility of the porous HAP scaffold was confirmed by seeding the scaffold with Vero cells, and its bioactivity assessed by immersing the scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). Our characterization data showed that the biocompatible porous HAP scaffolds were composed of highly interconnecting pores with compressive strength ranging from 0.036 MPa to 2.954 MPa, comparable to that of spongy bone. These can be prepared in a controlled manner by using an appropriate binder concentration and sintering temperature. These HAP scaffolds have properties consistent with normal bone and should be further developed for potential application in bone implants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  11. Shafee N, AbuBakar S
    FEBS Lett., 2002 Jul 31;524(1-3):20-4.
    PMID: 12135735
    Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) infection induced apoptotic cellular DNA fragmentation in Vero cells within 8 days of infection. The addition of high concentrations of extracellular Zn(2+) but not Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) to the cell culture medium hastened the detection of apoptosis to within 4 h after infection. No apoptotic cellular DNA fragmentation was detected in the cell culture treated with Zn(2+) alone or infected with heat- or ultraviolet light-inactivated DENV-2 in the presence of Zn(2+). These results suggest that (i) apoptosis is induced in African green monkey kidney cells infected with live DENV-2 and (ii) the addition of high extracellular Zn(2+) accelerates detection of apoptosis in the DENV-2-infected cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  12. Fish-Low CY, Abubakar S, Othman F, Chee HY
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Apr;41(1):41-46.
    PMID: 31025636
    INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of dengue disease exists in sylvatic and endemic ecotypes. The cell morphological changes and viral morphogenesis of two dengue ecotypes were examined at the ultrastructural level to identify potential similarities and differences in the surrogate model of enzootic host.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vero cells were inoculated with virus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1. Cell cultures were harvested over a time course and processed for transmission electron microscopic imaging.

    RESULTS: The filopodia protrusions on cell periphery preceded virus entry. Additionally, sylvatic DENV infection was found spreading slower than the endemic DENV. Morphogenesis of both dengue ecotypes was alike but at different level of efficiency in the permissive cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ultrastructural study on sylvatic DENV and this comparative study revealed the similarities and differences of cellular responses and morphogenesis of two dengue ecotypes in vitro. The study revealed the weaker infectivity of sylvatic DENV in the surrogate model of enzootic host, which supposed to support better replication of enzootic DENV than endemic DENV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  13. Xu Y, Victorio CBL, Meng T, Jia Q, Tan YJ, Chua KB
    Virol Sin, 2019 Jun;34(3):262-269.
    PMID: 31016480 DOI: 10.1007/s12250-019-00116-1
    Our previous work has shown that Saffold virus (SAFV) induced several rodent and primate cell lines to undergo apoptosis (Xu et al. in Emerg Microb Infect 3:1-8, 2014), but the essential viral proteins of SAFV involved in apoptotic activity lack study. In this study, we individually transfected the viral proteins of SAFV into HEp-2 and Vero cells to assess their ability to induce apoptosis, and found that the 2B and 3C proteins are proapoptotic. Further investigation indicated the transmembrane domain of the 2B protein is essential for the apoptotic activity and tetramer formation of the 2B protein. Our research provides clues for the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by SAFV in different cell lines. It also opens up new directions to study viral proteins (the 2B, 3C protein), and sets the stage for future exploration of any possible link between SAFV, inclusive of its related uncultivable genotypes, and multiple sclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  14. Husin F, Chan YY, Gan SH, Sulaiman SA, Shueb RH
    PMID: 25767554 DOI: 10.1155/2015/596109
    Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides) extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  15. Mire CE, Geisbert JB, Agans KN, Versteeg KM, Deer DJ, Satterfield BA, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2019 06;25(6):1144-1152.
    PMID: 31107231 DOI: 10.3201/eid2506.181620
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes high case-fatality rates (CFRs) in humans. Two NiV strains have caused outbreaks: the Malaysia strain (NiVM), discovered in 1998-1999 in Malaysia and Singapore (≈40% CFR); and the Bangladesh strain (NiVB), discovered in Bangladesh and India in 2001 (≈80% CFR). Recently, NiVB in African green monkeys resulted in a more severe and lethal disease than NiVM. No NiV vaccines or treatments are licensed for human use. We assessed replication-restricted single-injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine NiV vaccine vectors expressing the NiV glycoproteins against NiVB challenge in African green monkeys. All vaccinated animals survived to the study endpoint without signs of NiV disease; all showed development of NiV F Ig, NiV G IgG, or both, as well as neutralizing antibody titers. These data show protective efficacy against a stringent and relevant NiVB model of human infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops*
  16. Cong Y, Lentz MR, Lara A, Alexander I, Bartos C, Bohannon JK, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 04;11(4):e0005532.
    PMID: 28388650 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005532
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8-10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops/virology
  17. Lazouskaya NV, Palombo EA, Poh CL, Barton PA
    J. Virol. Methods, 2014 Mar;197:67-76.
    PMID: 24361875 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.12.005
    Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) is a causative agent of mild Hand Foot and Mouth Disease but is capable of causing severe complications in the CNS in young children. Reverse genetics technology is currently widely used to study the pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the factors which can contribute to infectivity of EV 71 RNA transcripts in vitro. Two strategies, overlapping RT-PCR and long distance RT-PCR, were employed to obtain the full-length genome cDNA clones of the virus. The length of the poly(A) tail and the presence of non-viral 3'-terminal sequences were studied in regard to their effects on infectivity of the in vitro RNA transcripts of EV 71 in cell culture. The data revealed that only cDNA clones obtained after long distance RT-PCR were infectious. No differences were observed in virus titres after transfection with in vitro RNA harbouring a poly(A) tail of 18 or 30 adenines in length, irrespective of the non-viral sequences at the 3'-terminus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  18. Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Oct;2(10):826-9.
    PMID: 23569855 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60237-8
    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  19. Ismail S, Jalilian FA, Talebpour AH, Zargar M, Shameli K, Sekawi Z, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:696835.
    PMID: 23484141 DOI: 10.1155/2013/696835
    Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values) was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL) suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
  20. Rothan HA, Han HC, Ramasamy TS, Othman S, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2012;12:314.
    PMID: 23171075 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-314
    Global resurgence of dengue virus infections in many of the tropical and subtropical countries is a major concern. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of successful drugs that are both economical and offer a long-lasting protection. The viral NS2B-NS3 serine protease (NS2B-NS3pro) is a promising target for the development of drug-like inhibitors, which are not available at the moment. In this study, we report retrocyclin-1 (RC-1) production in E. coli as a recombinant peptide to test against dengue NS2B-NS3pro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cercopithecus aethiops
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