Displaying all 7 publications

  1. Idris J, Shirai Y, Andou Y, Mohd Ali AA, Othman MR, Ibrahim I, et al.
    Waste Manag Res, 2016 Feb;34(2):176-80.
    PMID: 26612557 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X15616472
    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis*
  2. Claoston N, Samsuri AW, Ahmad Husni MH, Mohd Amran MS
    Waste Manag Res, 2014 Apr;32(4):331-9.
    PMID: 24643171 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X14525822
    Biochar has received great attention recently due to its potential to improve soil fertility and immobilize contaminants as well as serving as a way of carbon sequestration and therefore a possible carbon sink. In this work, a series of biochars were produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and rice husk (RH) by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (350, 500, and 650°C) and their physicochemical properties were analysed. The results indicate that porosity, ash content, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH value of both EFB and RH biochars were increased with temperature; however, yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and H, C, and N content were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The Fourier transform IR spectra were similar for both RH and EFB biochars but the functional groups were more distinct in the EFB biochar spectra. There were reductions in the amount of functional groups as pyrolysis temperature increased especially for the EFB biochar. However, total acidity of the functional groups increased with pyrolysis temperature for both biochars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis
  3. Lam SS, Wan Mahari WA, Ma NL, Azwar E, Kwon EE, Peng W, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2019 Sep;230:294-302.
    PMID: 31108440 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.054
    Used baby diaper consists of a combination of decomposable cellulose, non-biodegradable plastic materials (e.g. polyolefins) and super-absorbent polymer materials, thus making it difficult to be sorted and separated for recycling. Microwave pyrolysis was examined for its potential as an approach to transform used baby diapers into value-added products. Influence of the key operating parameters comprising process temperature and microwave power were investigated. The pyrolysis showed a rapid heating process (up to 43 °C/min of heating rate) and quick reaction time (20-40 min) in valorizing the used diapers to generate pyrolysis products comprising up to 43 wt% production of liquid oil, 29 wt% gases and 28 wt% char product. Microwave power and operating temperature were observed to have impacts on the heating rate, process time, production and characteristics of the liquid oil and solid char. The liquid oil contained alkanes, alkenes and esters that can potentially be used as chemical additives, cosmetic products and fuel. The solid char contained high carbon, low nitrogen and free of sulphur, thus showing potential for use as adsorbents and soil additives. These observations demonstrate that microwave pyrolysis has great prospect in transforming used baby diaper into liquid oil and char products that can be utilised in several applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis
  4. Baroutian S, Aroua MK, Raman AA, Sulaiman NM
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jan;102(2):1095-102.
    PMID: 20888219 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.076
    In this study, a novel continuous reactor has been developed to produce high quality methyl esters (biodiesel) from palm oil. A microporous TiO2/Al2O3 membrane was packed with potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst amount and cross flow circulation velocity on the production of biodiesel in the packed bed membrane reactor. The highest conversion of palm oil to biodiesel in the reactor was obtained at 70 °C employing 157.04 g catalyst per unit volume of the reactor and 0.21 cm/s cross flow circulation velocity. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel were determined and compared with the standard specifications. High quality palm oil biodiesel was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in the packed bed membrane reactor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis*
  5. Ahmad AA, Hameed BH
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Jan 15;173(1-3):487-93.
    PMID: 19765899 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.111
    This study deals with the use of activated carbon prepared from bamboo waste (BMAC), as an adsorbent for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of cotton textile mill wastewater. Bamboo waste was used to prepare activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) as chemical agent. The effects of three preparation variables activation temperature, activation time and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio on the color and COD removal were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD) and quadratic models were developed to correlate the preparation variables to the color and COD. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum condition was obtained by using temperature of 556 degrees C, activation time of 2.33 h and chemical impregnation ratio of 5.24, which resulted in 93.08% of color and 73.98% of COD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis*
  6. Ahmad AA, Hameed BH, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Oct 30;170(2-3):612-9.
    PMID: 19515487 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.021
    The purpose of this work is to obtain optimal preparation conditions for activated carbons prepared from rattan sawdust (RSAC) for removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution. The RSAC was prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM based on a three-variable central composite design was used to determine the effect of activation temperature (400-600 degrees C), activation time (1-3h) and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio (3:1-6:1) on C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) percentage removal and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables to the two responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for preparation of RSAC, which were based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: temperature of 470 degrees C, activation time of 2h and 14min and chemical impregnation ratio of 4.45.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis*
  7. Kong SR, Yamamoto M, Shaari H, Hayashi R, Seki O, Mohd Tahir N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0256853.
    PMID: 34495997 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256853
    The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Charcoal/analysis
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