Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

  1. Nazri SM, Tengku MA, Winn T
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):134-8.
    PMID: 18705446 MyJurnal
    Shift work is associated with various health problems and there is concern that shift workers are at higher risk to develop dyslipidaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2004 to compare the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyper-LDL and hypo-HDL-cholesterolaemia) and to examine the relationship between shift work and dyslipidaemia among 148 randomly selected male workers from one of the factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Information on psychosocial and life-style factors, anthropometric and blood pressure measurement, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles analyses were obtained. In multiple variable analysis, the presence of any abnormalities in the lipid profiles was regarded as having dyslipidaemia. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (47.4%) and hypertriglyceridaemia (42.1%) were significantly higher among shift workers compared to day workers with p-value of 0.014 and 0.044 respectively. There was no significant different in the prevalence of hyper-LDL and hypo-HDL-cholesterolaemia and shift work was not significantly associated with dyslipidaemia, OR(adj) = 1.27; 95% CI 0.63-2.57.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  2. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Mohamed IN, Aminuddin A, Johari MH, Ngah WZ
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(4):349-55.
    PMID: 24578612 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7104
    Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  3. Hadaegh F, Harati H, Zabetian A, Azizi F
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):332-8.
    PMID: 17240585
    There are contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of serum lipids. The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid levels in different seasons in participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This was a cross-sectional study among 2890 men and 4004 women 20-64 years old from the participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 1999 and 2001. Mean values of serum lipids in different seasons were compared with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) after adjustment for age, physical activity level, smoking, BMI and Waist-to-hip ratio. In men, there was a significant trend for change in the values of cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C in different seasons, with higher cholesterol and LDL-C values in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). In women, only the mean values of triglycerides were significantly different between different seasons with values lower in winter than in summer. There was a 26.2% relative increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) in winter than in summer in men. The corresponding increase in the prevalence of high LDL-C (> or = 160 mg/dl) was 26.7% and 24.9% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high triglycerides (> or = _ 200mg/dl) in women significantly decreased (23.8%) in winter relative to summer (P < 0.001). This study showed that there is seasonal variability in serum lipid values and this variability is greater in men than women. The increase in the prevalence of high LDL in winter in both sexes must be considered in population screening and in the follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  4. Loke DF, Viegas OA, Ratnam SS
    Gynecol. Obstet. Invest., 1993;36(2):108-13.
    PMID: 8225044
    Serum lipid profiles were studied in 167 healthy fertile Singaporean women, aged between 18 and 40 and comprising 114 Chinese, 28 Malays and 25 Indians. Parity or ethnic differences did not affect lipid concentrations. Except for triglycerides which showed a decreasing trend, there was no significant variation in lipid concentrations with age. However, all lipid concentrations except HDL cholesterol (which decreased) appeared to increase with body mass index. Compared with other populations, these Singaporean women appeared to have higher mean concentrations of total cholesterol and lower mean concentrations of HDL cholesterol. The possibility that these differences could have contributed to the increasing incidence of coronary heart disease in Singapore is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  5. Mafauzy M, Mokhtar M, Wan Mohamad WB, Musalmah M
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Sep;50(3):272-7.
    PMID: 8926908
    Thirty-four (34) subjects with primary hyperlipidaemia were enrolled for this study. After low fat dietary therapy for 6 weeks, subjects' whose serum total cholesterol fell to below 6.2 mmol/l (11 subjects) were excluded from the study and those whose serum total cholesterol were 6.2 mmol/l or more (23 subjects) were started on pravastatin 10 mg nocte. After 8 weeks of treatment, there was a significant decrease in the mean total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However 13 of the subjects still had serum total cholesterol 6.2 mmol/l or more and their pravastatin dose was increased to 20 mg nocte. After 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. There was also a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. The triglyceride fell by a mean of 15.7%, total cholesterol by a mean of 18.1% and LDL-cholesterol by a mean of 26.3%. HDL-cholesterol on the other hand, increased by 19.4%. The subjects whose total cholesterol fell below 6.2 mmol/l at week 8 had significantly lower total cholesterol to begin with than those whose total cholesterol failed to do so and hence were commenced on 20 mg pravastatin. This suggests that the optimum dose of the drug is dependent on the initial level of total cholesterol. We conclude that pravastatin is effective as a lipid lowering agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  6. Al-Mahmood A, Ismail A, Rashid F, Mohamed W
    J Atheroscler Thromb, 2006 Jun;13(3):143-8.
    PMID: 16835469
    There are numerous reports on insulin resistance in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia but most of the studies involved obese or diabetic subjects. We were interested to study such events but in a population free from other confounders influencing insulin sensitivity (i.e., obesity, glucose intolerance and hypertension). From the population of a cross-sectional study we obtained 12 subjects with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and compared their insulin sensitivity with that of normolipidemic subjects in that study. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status were computed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) software. The insulin sensitivity of hypertriglyceridemic subjects was found to be lower than in normolipidemic subjects. For the hypertriglyceridemic subjects, insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) was 60.07% (values adjusted for age, BMI, waist circumference, and cholesterol levels), which was substantially lower than that of normolipidemic subjects (150.03%; p<0.001). The insulin secretory status (HOMA%B) of the two groups was 248.17% and 124.63%, respectively, and significantly different (p<0.001). Relative insulin resistance, HOMA-IR, of the two groups was 4.90 and 1.54, respectively. We therefore concluded that in comparison with normolipidemic subjects, the insulin sensitivity of otherwise healthy non-obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects was lower, and that B cells had to work harder to compensate for the lowered insulin sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  7. Iwani NA, Jalaludin MY, Zin RM, Fuziah MZ, Hong JY, Abqariyah Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 06;7:40055.
    PMID: 28059134 DOI: 10.1038/srep40055
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of triglyceride to hdl-c ratio (TG:HDL-C) as an insulin resistance (IR) marker for overweight and obese children. A total of 271 blood samples of obese and overweight children aged 9-16 years were analysed for fasting glucose, lipids and insulin. Children were divided into IR and non-insulin resistance, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The children were then stratified by tertiles of TG: HDL-C ratio. The strength between TG:HDL-C ratio and other parameters of IR were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Odds ratio was estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stages and IR potential risk factors. Children with IR had significantly higher TG:HDL-C ratio (2.48) (p = 0.01). TG:HDL-C ratio was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.104, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  8. Fairus S, Nor RM, Cheng HM, Sundram K
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Oct;84(4):835-42.
    PMID: 17023711
    BACKGROUND: The detection of tocotrienols in human plasma has proven elusive, and it is hypothesized that they are rapidly assimilated and redistributed in various mammalian tissues.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary study objective was to evaluate the postprandial fate of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol in human plasma and lipoproteins.

    DESIGN: Seven healthy volunteers (4 males, 3 females) were administered a single dose of vitamin E [1011 mg palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) or 1074 mg alpha-tocopherol] after a 7-d conditioning period with a tocotrienol-free diet. Blood was sampled at baseline (fasted) and 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after supplementation. Concentrations of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in plasma, triacylglycerol-rich particles (TRPs), LDLs, and HDLs were measured at each interval.

    RESULTS: After intervention with TRF, plasma tocotrienols peaked at 4 h (4.79 +/- 1.2 microg/mL), whereas alpha-tocopherol peaked at 6 h (13.46 +/- 1.68 microg/mL). Although tocotrienols were similarly detected in TRPs, LDLs, and HDLs, tocotrienol concentrations were significantly lower than alpha-tocopherol concentrations. In comparison, plasma alpha-tocopherol peaked at 8 h (24.3 +/- 5.22 microg/mL) during the alpha-tocopherol treatment and emerged as the major vitamin E isomer detected in plasma and lipoproteins during both the TRF and the alpha-tocopherol treatments.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienols are detected in postprandial plasma, albeit in significantly lower concentrations than is alpha-tocopherol. This finding confirms previous observations that, in the fasted state, tocotrienols are not detected in plasma. Tocotrienol transport in lipoproteins appears to follow complex biochemically mediated pathways within the lipoprotein cascade.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  9. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Mohamed IN, Ahmad F, Ramli ES, Aminuddin A, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(2):151-7.
    PMID: 24465160 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.7152
    Recent studies revealed a possible reciprocal relationship between the skeletal system and obesity and lipid metabolism, mediated by osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific protein. This study aimed to validate the relationship between serum osteocalcin and indices of obesity and lipid parameters in a group of Malaysian men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  10. Karupaiah T, Sundram K
    Nutr J, 2013;12:122.
    PMID: 23953645 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-122
    Postprandial lipemia (PL) contributes to coronary artery disease. The fatty acid composition of dietary fats is potentially a modifiable factor in modulating PL response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  11. Khalatbari Soltani S, Jamaluddin R, Tabibi H, Mohd Yusof BN, Atabak S, Loh SP, et al.
    Hemodial Int, 2013 Apr;17(2):275-81.
    PMID: 22998533 DOI: 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2012.00754.x
    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to either a flaxseed or control group. Patients in the flaxseed group received 40 g/day ground flaxseed for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received their usual diet, without any flaxseed. At baseline and at the end of week 8, 7 mL of blood was collected after a 12- to 14-hour fast and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum concentrations of triglyceride (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL-C (P < 0.01), and CRP (P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the flaxseed group at the end of week 8 compared with baseline, whereas serum HDL-C showed a significant increase (P < 0.01). These changes in the flaxseed group were significant in comparison with the control group. The study indicates that flaxseed consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  12. Al-Khateeb A, Mohamed MS, Imran K, Ibrahim S, Zilfalil BA, Yusof Z
    Kobe J Med Sci, 2011;57(2):E38-48.
    PMID: 22926072
    The importance of serum lipids as cardiovascular risk factors is well recognized. However, most published studies have focused on western countries. The present study aimed to describe and analyze the lipid profile parameters in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients, and to identify concomitant clinical problems and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among such patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  13. Mirhosseini NZ, Yusoff NA, Shahar S, Parizadeh SM, Mobarhen MG, Shakery MT
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2009;18(1):131-6.
    PMID: 19329406
    Introduction: This study sought to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, one of the major public-health challenges worldwide, and its influencing factors among 15 to 17 years old adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran.
    Methods: A total of 622 high school adolescents participated in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were done.
    Results: Applying BMI Z-score for age and gender (WHO 2007), 14.6 % and 3.4 % of subjects were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Enlarged WC (> 80 cm) was seen in 9.5% of subjects. The prevalence of combined hypertension was 6.1% which was increased by the severity of obesity. A total of 24.5% of subjects had hypertriglyceridemia and 57% of them had low level of HDL-cholesterol. Hyperglycemia was present in 16.7% of subjects. Based on the NCEP ATP III (2001) criteria, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 6.5% and increased to 45.1% in obese subjects. Increasing BMI or WC, led to significant increment in the number of metabolic syndrome features (p < 0.001). High socioeconomic status of family, medical history of parents and dietary habits especially high consumption of carbohydrates were influencing factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
    Conclusion: Approximately 6.5% of all and 45% of obese subjects met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Dietary habits especially carbohydrate consumption, socioeconomic status of family and medical history of parents can be influential factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  14. Ismail NM, Abdul Ghafar N, Jaarin K, Khine JH, Top GM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S79-94.
    PMID: 11271860
    The present study aims to examine the effects of a palm-oil-derived vitamin E mixture containing tocotrienol (approximately 70%) and tocopherol (approximately 30%) on plasma lipids and on the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits (2.2-2.8 kg) were divided into three groups; group 1 (control) was fed a normal diet, group 2 (AT) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet and group 3 (PV) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet with oral palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg body weight) given daily for 10 weeks. There were no differences in the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels between the AT and PV groups. The PV group had a significantly higher concentrations of HDL-c and a lower TC/HDL-c ratio compared to the AT group (P < 0.003). The aortic tissue content of cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesions were comparable in both the AT and PV groups. However, the PV group had a lower content of plasma and aortic tissue malondialdehyde (P < 0.005). Our findings suggest that despite a highly atherogenic diet, palm vitamin E improved some important plasma lipid parameters, reduced lipid peroxidation but did not have an effect on the atherosclerotic plaque formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  15. Khor HT, Ng TT
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S3-11.
    PMID: 11271854
    Male hamsters were fed on semi-synthetic diets containing commercial corn oil (CO), isolated corn oil triglycerides (COTG), COTG supplemented with 30 ppm of alpha-tocopherol (COTGTL) and COTG supplemented with 81 ppm of alpha-tocopherol (COTGTH) as the dietary lipid for 45 days. Male albino guinea pigs were fed on commercial chow pellets and treated with different dosages of tocopherol and tocotrienols intra-peritoneally for 6 consecutive days. Serum and liver were taken for analysis. Our results show that stripping corn oil of its unsaponifiable components resulted in COTG which yielded lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum triglycerides (TG) levels. These results indicate that the COTG with its fatty acids are responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect exhibited by corn oil. However, supplementing the COTG diet with alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at 30 ppm significantly raised the serum TC, LDL-C and TG levels, but did not alter the HDL-C level, indicating that alpha-T is hypercholesterolemic. Supplementing the COTG diet with alpha-T at 81 ppm raised the serum TC level but to a lesser extent as compared to that obtained with 30-ppm alpha-T supplementation. The increased TC, in this case, was reflected mainly by an increased in HDL-C level as the LDL-C level was unchanged. The TG level was also raised but to a lesser extent than that obtained with a lower alpha-T supplementation. The liver HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity was exhibited (56%) by the COTG as compared to CO. Supplementation of alpha-T at 30 ppm to the COTG diet resulted in further inhibition (76%) of the liver HMGCR activity. On the contrary, supplementation of alpha-T at 81 ppm to COTG diet resulted in a highly stimulatory effect (131%) on the liver HMGCR activity. Short-term studies with guinea pigs treated intra-peritoneally with alpha-T showed that at low dosage (5 mg) the HMGCR activity was inhibited by 46% whereas increasing the dosage of alpha-T to 20 mg yielded lesser inhibition (18%) as compared to that of the control. Further increase in the dosage of alpha-T to 50 mg actually resulted in 90% stimulation of the liver HMGCR activity as compared to the control. These results clearly indicate that the effect of alpha-T on HMGCR activity was dose-dependent. Treatment of the guinea pigs with 10 mg of tocotrienols (T3) resulted in 48% inhibition of the liver HMGCR activity. However, treatment with a mixture of 5 mg of alpha-T with 10 mg of T3 resulted in lesser inhibition (13%) of the liver HMGCR activity as compared to that obtained with 10 mg of T3. The above results indicate that the alpha-T is hypercholesterolemic in the hamster and its effect on liver HMGCR is dose-dependent. T3 exhibited inhibitory effect on liver HMGCR and alpha-T attenuated the inhibitory effect of T3 on liver HMGCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  16. Gajra B, Candlish JK, Saha N, Mak JW, Tay JS
    Hum. Hered., 1994 Jul-Aug;44(4):209-13.
    PMID: 8056432
    Members of the Semai group of Orang Asli ('aborigines') in peninsular Malaysia were examined for apolipoprotein E (apo E) variants in relation to plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The e2 and e4 alleles were found to be higher than in most other groups as reported. The sample as a whole was normotriglyceridaemic (mean plasma TG, 1.5 mmol/l) and very markedly hypocholesterolaemic (mean plasma TC 1.7 mmol/l). The distribution of apo E variants was not related to any of the plasma lipids or apolipoprotein fractions using results from all subjects, but if a distinctly hypertriglyceridaemic sub-section was omitted (TG > 1.7 mmol/l) then apo E variants were determinants of plasma TC, LDLC, and apo B concentrations, the lower values of these being associated with the 2-2 and 2-3 genotypes, and the higher with 3-4, and 4-4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  17. Saha N, Wong HB
    Biol. Neonate, 1987;52(2):93-6.
    PMID: 3115319
    The mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indians is more than three times that in the Chinese and Malays of Singapore. Serum total and HDL cholesterol as well as apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, AII and B levels were determined in a group of 349 newborns (cord blood) from both sexes in these three ethnic groups in order to examine if a trend is reflected at birth. Both serum LDL cholesterol and Apo B levels were low in the newborn, while HDL cholesterol and Apo AII levels were almost the same as in adults. Serum Apo AI levels were also low in newborns. No consistent difference as to ethnic group or sex was observed in any of the parameters investigated, except that the females had significantly higher levels of serum Apo AI in all the ethnic groups. Serum total and HDL cholesterol levels in Singapore newborns were comparable to those reported in Caucasians and Asians. The trends of incidence of CAD were not reflected in the lipid profiles studied at birth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  18. Lau H, Shahar S, Mohamad M, Rajab NF, Yahya HM, Din NC, et al.
    Clin Interv Aging, 2019;14:43-51.
    PMID: 30613138 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S183425
    Background: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a key node in the cognitive control network that supports working memory. DLPFC dysfunction is related to cognitive impairment. It has been suggested that dietary components and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) play a vital role in brain health and cognitive function.

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between dietary nutrient intake and lipid levels with functional MRI (fMRI) brain activation in DLPFC among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Participants and methods: A total of 15 community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment, aged ≥60 years, participated in this cross-sectional study at selected senior citizen clubs in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The 7-day recall Diet History Questionnaire was used to assess participants' dietary nutrient intake. Fasting blood samples were also collected for lipid profile assessment. All participants performed N-back (0- and 1-back) working memory tasks during fMRI scanning. DLPFC (Brodmann's areas 9 and 46, and inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyrus) was identified as a region of interest for analysis.

    Results: Positive associations were observed between dietary intake of energy, protein, cholesterol, vitamins B6 and B12, potassium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, and HDL-C with DLPFC activation (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that vitamin B6 intake, β=0.505, t (14)=3.29, P=0.023, and Digit Symbol score, β=0.413, t (14)=2.89, P=0.045; R2=0.748, were positively related to DLPFC activation.

    Conclusion: Increased vitamin B6 intake and cognitive processing speed were related to greater activation in the DLPFC region, which was responsible for working memory, executive function, attention, planning, and decision making. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood*
  19. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
    Nature, 2020 06;582(7810):73-77.
    PMID: 32494083 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2338-1
    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular risk-changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
  20. Eshkoor SA, Hamid TA, Shahar S, Mun CY
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2017;21(2):220-226.
    PMID: 28112780 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-016-0779-x
    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in the elderly that is the spontaneous leakage of urine. It is an age-related problem and increases especially in people aged above 65 years. It can cause many psychological, behavioral, biological, economic and social effects. The treatment of urinary incontinence can reduce morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of variables including age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, body weight, blood elements and nutritional parameters on urinary incontinence among the Malaysian elderly.

    METHODS: The study was on 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of independent variables for urinary incontinence among respondents.

    RESULTS: The findings indicated that approximately 3.80% of subjects had urinary incontinence. In addition, constipation was found a significant factor that increased the risk of urinary incontinence in samples (p=0.006; OR=3.77). The increase in dietary monounsaturated fat (p=0.038; OR=0.59) and plasma triglyceride levels (p=0.029; OR=0.56) significantly reduced the risk of incontinence in subjects. Many of suspected variables including socio-demographic factors, diseases, nutritional minerals, blood components and body weight were non-relevant factors to urinary incontinence in respondents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Constipation increased the risk of urinary incontinence in subjects, and increase in dietary monounsaturated fat and plasma triglyceride levels decreased the risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholesterol, HDL/blood
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