SEARCH METHODS: Electronic and manual search was done up to October 2017.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Clinical and observational studies that compared GPP to control; patients without GPP evaluated either before or after the age for secondary bone graft (SBG).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Studies selection was done by 2 authors independently. Risk ratio and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.
RESULTS: Thirteen articles were included in the review. All studies were at high risk of bias. Poorer alveolar bone quality was found in the GPP group compared to the SBG group. The pooled data showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of Bergland type III in the GPP group compared to SBG (risk ratio: 11.51, 95% CI: 3.39-35.15). As for facial growth, GPP group resulted in a more retruded maxillary position (as indicated by "Sella-Nasion-Subspinale" angle [SNA value]) compared to control group by -1.36 (CI: -4.21 to 1.49) and -1.66 (CI: -2.48 to -0.84) when evaluated at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The protocol for presurgical infant orthopedics used in conjunction with the GPP procedure might have affected the results of the alveolar bone and facial growth outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of GPP cannot be drawn. Very weak evidence indicated that GPP might not be an efficient method for alveolar bone reconstruction for patients with unilateral and bilateral CLP. Gingivoperiosteoplasty surgery could lead to maxillary growth inhibition in patients with CLP.
METHODS: Dental models of 84 subjects were taken before orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone grafting. The mean age was 7.69 (SD 2.46) years. The DAR and PM were assessed blindly by five raters using the EUROCRAN index (EI). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner agreement, chi square was used to assess the associations, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the responsible factors that affect DAR and PM.
RESULTS: The mean EUROCRAN scores were 2.44 and 1.93 for DAR and PM, respectively. Intra- and inter-examiner agreement was moderate to very good. Using crude and stepwise backward regression analyses, significant associations were found between the modified Millard technique (P = 0.047, P = 0.034 respectively) of cheiloplasty and unfavorable DAR. Complete UCLP (P = 0.017) was also significantly correlated with unfavorable DAR. The PM showed a significant association with the type of cleft, type of cheiloplasty and type of palatoplasty.
CONCLUSION: This multivariate study determined that the complete type of UCLP and the modified Millard technique of cheiloplasty had significantly unfavorable effects on both the DAR and PM.
METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted at the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised data related to a three-month period from January to March 2015 at two medical centres in Lahore. Data from Pakistani centres was analysed based on province, gender, age and clefts of lip and palate conditions and Spearman's correlation matrix.
RESULTS: Of the 1574 cases, 1061(67.4%) were from Punjab, 361(23%) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 85(5%) Sindh and 67(4.2%) were from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The incidence of clefts of lip and palate was higher in males than females. There was higher awareness of the need for timely management in new borns with clefts of lip and palate. Some patients seeking secondary treatment were also being surgically corrected. There is no national registry of children born with cleft defect, making it difficult to assess the full scale of the problem..
CONCLUSIONS: Based on available data, it is likely that there are many adults who have not been treated when younger..
METHODS: Genome-wide linkage analysis was carried out on eight large extended families of NSCL/P with the total of 91 individuals among Malay population using microarray platform. Based on linkage analyses findings, copy number variation (CNV) of LPHN2, SATB2, PVRL3, COL21A1, and TOX3 were identified in four large extended families that showed linkage evidence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as for a validation purpose. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each genes were determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCallerTM Software v2.0. Normal CNC of the target sequence expected was set at two.
RESULTS: Genome-wide linkage analysis had discovered several genes including TOX3 and COL21A1 in four different loci 4p15.2-p16.1, 6p11.2-p12.3, 14q13-q21, and 16q12.1. There was significant decreased, p