Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 111 in total

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  1. Law YH
    Science, 2019 03 01;363(6430):914-915.
    PMID: 30819943 DOI: 10.1126/science.363.6430.914
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce*
  2. Biglari V, Alfan EB, Ahmad RB, Hajian N
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(10):e73853.
    PMID: 24146741 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073853
    Previous researches show that buy (growth) companies conduct income increasing earnings management in order to meet forecasts and generate positive forecast Errors (FEs). This behavior however, is not inherent in sell (non-growth) companies. Using the aforementioned background, this research hypothesizes that since sell companies are pressured to avoid income increasing earnings management, they are capable, and in fact more inclined, to pursue income decreasing Forecast Management (FM) with the purpose of generating positive FEs. Using a sample of 6553 firm-years of companies that are listed in the NYSE between the years 2005-2010, the study determines that sell companies conduct income decreasing FM to generate positive FEs. However, the frequency of positive FEs of sell companies does not exceed that of buy companies. Using the efficiency perspective, the study suggests that even though buy and sell companies have immense motivation in avoiding negative FEs, they exploit different but efficient strategies, respectively, in order to meet forecasts. Furthermore, the findings illuminated the complexities behind informative and opportunistic forecasts that falls under the efficiency versus opportunistic theories in literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/economics; Commerce/trends*
  3. Djauhari, M.A., Gan, S.L.
    ASM Science Journal, 2014;8(2):150-158.
    MyJurnal
    We had reviewed the current practice in stocks market analysis where stock is represented by its closing price, and then found that this approach may be misleading. In actuality, in the daily activity of stocks market, stock is represented by four prices, namely opening, highest, lowest, and closing prices. Thus, stock is a multivariate time series of those four prices and not a univariate time series of closing price only. In this paper all four prices will be considered. Then, the notion of multivariate time series similarity among stocks will be developed as a generalisation of univariate time series similarity. The results are used to construct stocks network in multivariate setting. To filter the economic information contained in that network, the standard tools in econophysics is used. Furthermore, the topological properties of stocks are analysed by using the most common centrality measures. As an example, Bursa Malaysia data are investigated and we show that the proposed approach can better figure out the real situation compared to the current one.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  4. Ebrahim Jahanshiri, Taher Buyong, Abdul Rashid Mohd. Shariff
    MyJurnal
    Mass valuation of properties is important for purposes like property tax, price indices construction, and understanding market dynamics. There are several ways that the mass valuation can be carried out. This paper reviews the conventional MRA and several other advanced methods such as SAR, Kriging, GWR, and MWR. SAR and Kriging are good for modeling spatial dependence while GWR and MWR are good for modeling spatial heterogeneity. The difference between SAR and Kriging is the calculation of weights. Kriging weights are based on the spatial dependence or so called the semi-variogram analysis of the price data whereas the weights in SAR are based on the spatial contiguity between the sample data. MWR and GWR are special types of regression where study region is subdivided into local sections to increase the accuracy of prediction through neutralizing the heterogeneity of autocorrelations. MWR assigns equal weights for observations within a window while GWR uses distance decay functions. The merits and drawbacks of each method are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  5. Hambali, A., Sapuan, S.M., Ismail, N., Nukman, Y., Abdul Karim, M.S.
    MyJurnal
    Nowadays, Concurrent Engineering (CE) is becoming more important as companies compete in the worldwide market. Reduced time in product development process, higher product quality, lower cost in manufacturing process and fulfilment of customers’ requirements are the key factors to determine the success of a company. To produce excellent products, the concept of Concurrent Engineering must be implemented. Concurrent Engineering is a systematic approach which can be achieved when all design activities are integrated and executed in a parallel manner. The CE approach has radically changed the method used in product development process in many companies. Thus, this paper reviews the basic principles and tools of Concurrent Engineering and discusses how to employ them. Similarly, to ensure a product development process in the CE environment to run smoothly and efficiently, some modifications of the existing product development processes are proposed; these should start from market investigation to detail design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  6. Shakila, S., Noryati, A., Maheran, M.J.
    MyJurnal
    The study of stock market volatility has been the focus of market participants primarily because most
    of the applications in financial economics are concerned with volatility. The economic structure in
    Malaysia is divided into three sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary. As the stability of the stock
    market is important for businesses, this paper carefully reviews the concept of volatility and analyses
    how different business sectors in Malaysia are affected by stock market volatility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  7. Norhafiza Mohamed, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Muhamad Zaki Yusup, Mohd Razali Muhamad
    MyJurnal
    This paper aims to explore the level of manufacturing performance, environmental
    actions and customer activities in implementing green supply chain initiatives. Besides,
    the relationship between environmental actions and customer activities towards
    manufacturing performance also been investigated. For this purposes, the data was
    collected using questionnaire-based survey among Malaysian manufacturing firms.
    Using the descriptive and correlation test, the data was analyzed. From the results, it
    is showing that the manufacturing performance through the implementation of green
    supply chain management has a positive relationship to environmental action and
    customer activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  8. Hung HC, Iizuka Y, Bellwood P, Nguyen KD, Bellina B, Silapanth P, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007 Dec 11;104(50):19745-50.
    PMID: 18048347
    We have used electron probe microanalysis to examine Southeast Asian nephrite (jade) artifacts, many archeologically excavated, dating from 3000 B.C. through the first millennium A.D. The research has revealed the existence of one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world. Green nephrite from a source in eastern Taiwan was used to make two very specific forms of ear pendant that were distributed, between 500 B.C. and 500 A.D., through the Philippines, East Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and peninsular Thailand, forming a 3,000-km-diameter halo around the southern and eastern coastlines of the South China Sea. Other Taiwan nephrite artifacts, especially beads and bracelets, were distributed earlier during Neolithic times throughout Taiwan and from Taiwan into the Philippines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/history*
  9. Jaber AM, Ismail MT, Altaher AM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:708918.
    PMID: 25140343 DOI: 10.1155/2014/708918
    This paper mainly forecasts the daily closing price of stock markets. We propose a two-stage technique that combines the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with nonparametric methods of local linear quantile (LLQ). We use the proposed technique, EMD-LLQ, to forecast two stock index time series. Detailed experiments are implemented for the proposed method, in which EMD-LPQ, EMD, and Holt-Winter methods are compared. The proposed EMD-LPQ model is determined to be superior to the EMD and Holt-Winter methods in predicting the stock closing prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/trends*
  10. Ting CY, Ho CC, Yee HJ, Matsah WR
    Big Data, 2018 03;6(1):42-52.
    PMID: 29570414 DOI: 10.1089/big.2017.0085
    Studies have shown that certain features from geography, demography, trade area, and environment can play a vital role in retail site selection, largely due to the impact they asserted on retail performance. Although the relevant features could be elicited by domain experts, determining the optimal feature set can be intractable and labor-intensive exercise. The challenges center around (1) how to determine features that are important to a particular retail business and (2) how to estimate retail sales performance given a new location? The challenges become apparent when the features vary across time. In this light, this study proposed a nonintervening approach by employing feature selection algorithms and subsequently sales prediction through similarity-based methods. The results of prediction were validated by domain experts. In this study, data sets from different sources were transformed and aggregated before an analytics data set that is ready for analysis purpose could be obtained. The data sets included data about feature location, population count, property type, education status, and monthly sales from 96 branches of a telecommunication company in Malaysia. The finding suggested that (1) optimal retail performance can only be achieved through fulfillment of specific location features together with the surrounding trade area characteristics and (2) similarity-based method can provide solution to retail sales prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/economics*
  11. Liber AC, Ross H, Omar M, Chaloupka FJ
    Tob Control, 2015 Jul;24 Suppl 3:iii83-iii87.
    PMID: 25808666 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052028
    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/economics*; Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence
  12. Jernigan DH
    J Public Health Policy, 1999;20(1):56-80.
    PMID: 10874398
    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce/methods*
  13. Binh NH, Anh PN, Phuong NM
    Pharm Pat Anal, 2016 Jul;5(4):261-70.
    PMID: 27346326 DOI: 10.4155/ppa-2016-0008
    Ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) will attract a large number of foreign drug companies in the coming years to Vietnam. It is anticipated to bring investment to Vietnam's pharmaceutical industries, lead to increased infrastructure and enable the use of more sophisticated technologies for the discovery, development and manufacture of drugs. However, with respect to pharmaceutical companies, which are producing generic drugs primarily, the availability of biologic will be reduced. Thus, the consequence is, an increase in drug cost resulting in difficulties for patients wishing to procure these drugs. This will be particularly detrimental for developing countries, such as Vietnam and Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce*
  14. Cunningham AB, Ingram W, Brinckmann JA, Nesbitt M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Oct 28;225:128-135.
    PMID: 29944892 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.06.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study of global trade in fruits of the widely used traditional medicine, Helicteres isora L. It is used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medical systems and/or local folk traditional medicines in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The roots are used in Traditional Chinese Medicines in China and the fruits in jamu products in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In addition, H. isora fruits are also used in "traditional" medical systems far beyond the natural distribution of this species, for example in Zulu herbal medicine (South Africa) and Kurdish herbal medicines (Iraq).

    AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study had three aims: (i) to assess the global trade in H. isora fruits; (ii) to study the H. isora trade from West Timor to Java in terms of actors and prices along the value chain and (iii) to get a better understanding of the potential of this species to improve household income in eastern Indonesia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study uses historical records, a contemporary analysis of global trade data (2014-2016) and field assessments of value chains and the biological factors influencing H. isora fruit production.

    RESULTS: Globally, the major exporter of H. isora fruits is India, which exports H. isora fruits to 19 countries, far beyond the natural geographical distribution of this species. Over a 36-month period (January 2014-December 2016), India exported 392 t of H. isora fruits, with a Free-On-Board (FOB) value of Indian rupiah (INR) 18,337,000 (US$ 274,055). This represents an average annual export quantity of about 130,526 kg/year. Over this three year period, most of these exports (85.5%) were to Indonesia (346.58 t), followed by Thailand (6.85%). Indian H. isora exports are also used in many other medical systems, including Kurdish and Zulu "traditional" medicines in Iraq and South Africa. Formation of an Indian diaspora in Bahrain, Mauritius, South Africa, Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago over the past 130 years is one of the drivers of H. isora fruit trade outside the natural geographic distribution of the species. In Indonesia, demand for H. isora fruits is supplemented by an intra-island trade in Java and an inter-island trade from East Nusa Tenggara. West Timor, for example, exports around 31-37 t of air-dried H. isora fruits per year to Java. At the farm gate, local harvesters in West Timor get 4000 IDR (c. 0.3 US$) per kg, with businesses in Java paying 25,000 IDR (c.US$2) per kg for H. isora fruits. This is similar to the price paid for H. isora fruits imported from India to Java.

    CONCLUSIONS: India is the major exporter of whole dried H. isora fruits, including to countries where this species has never been in traditional use. In Indonesia, H. isora fruit extracts are used in the cosmetic industry as well as in jamu herbal medicines, including "Tolak Angin", the country's most popular commercial "jamu" preparation. Indonesia also is the major importer of H. isora fruits from India. In eastern Indonesia, improved income to local villagers from the H. isora fruit trade could come from improved H. isora fruit quality due to better drying techniques. This would also reduce health risks along the supply chain from to mycotoxins that have been recorded on poorly dried H. isora fruits. There also is an opportunity for cultivation of H. isora in small-holder teak plantations in Indonesia, with harvest of H. isora fruits as well as the medicinal bark.

    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce*
  15. Muntaner C, Mahabir DF
    Int J Health Policy Manag, 2017 07 01;6(7):419-421.
    PMID: 28812839 DOI: 10.15171/ijhpm.2016.145
    (TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements. The aims of this commentary on the study of Labonté et al are to show that an understanding of the health effects of the TPP is incomplete without a political analysis of policy formation, and that realist methods can be useful to uncover the mechanisms underlying TPP's political and policy processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce*
  16. Djauhari, M.A.
    ASM Science Journal, 2011;5(2):123-137.
    MyJurnal
    Almost a half century after it was introduced, Wilks’ statistic has come into application in industrial manufacturing process variability monitoring. This is an important breakthrough in the way experts monitor the variability of manufacturing processes which is vital in modern industry. It leaves behind the traditional practice characterized by the use of sample size n which equals 1, if the process variability monitoring is based on individual observations and is greater than the number of variables p if one works with subgroup observations. The use of Wilks’ statistic allows us to work with n < p. This paper contains a review on process variability monitoring based on individual observations. First, some historical backgrounds of process variability monitoring in the general scheme was reviewed before it was revealed where the philosophy of Wilks’ statistic could be further interpreted. Subsequently it was indicated that the way to monitor the process variability depended on how the variability itself was measured. Finally, a new statistic for detecting the shift in variability based on individual observations was introduced and then a new control chart was proposed. The performance of the proposed chart as compared with Wilks chart, was quite promising. Therefore, some recommendations were given to better understand the history of manufacturing process variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  17. Saad Mohd Said, Zairihan Abdul Halim, Fatimah Said
    MyJurnal
    This study analyzes the determinants of workplace injuries across 44 four-digit manufacturing industries in Malaysia from 1993 to 2008 through the business cycle and structural approaches. The results of fixed-effects estimations revealed that workplace injuries in Malaysian manufacturing sector were negatively influenced by firm size and positively influenced by business cycle. Consistent with the findings of previous studies in other countries, the empirical evidence of this study supports the pro-cyclical behavior of injury rates in manufacturing industries towards business cycle. The analysis demonstrates that both structural and cyclical variation effects are important determinants of workplace injuries in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  18. Khongtong, J., Ab Karim, S., Othman, M., Bolong, J.
    MyJurnal
    Street food in NST province is crucial for the people due to the changing of lifestyles. The
    consumers demand enhances the number of street vendors in the province. Nevertheless, there
    are vendors that are not practicing good hygienic compared to other province. The objectives
    of this study are to identify the pattern of street food consumption, and consumers’ opinion
    towards the street food. Observation and in-depth interview were used to collect data. Ten
    respondents with various demographic backgrounds were interviewed on their experiences,
    and opinions toward street food. The data found that the street food consuming pattern was
    formed in six major themes: consumer characteristic, type of food, location, time of consuming,
    ways to consume and reasons of consuming. Additionally, the study also declared consumer’s
    opinion on the problems related to street food. The finding aims local authority to have more
    understanding on the culture of street food consumption, and the problems that have been
    existed to find the appropriate improvement, and do not induce any conflict between local
    authority with street vendors and authority with consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
  19. S. Kiumarsi, Jayaraman, K., Salmi Mohd Isa, Asra Varastegani
    MyJurnal
    Bakery products become a regular food in most part of the world and are essential commodities today. There is a high potential for business growth in selling bakery products. In the business world, Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are primarily engaged in the bakery business, but cannot compete with the branded bakery Industry. The SMEs in Malaysia are striving hard to achieve growth in the business of bakery products. The present case study deals with the issues faced by SMEs and provided some valid recommendations to resolve the existing problems in the bakery business. The case analysis and its findings reveal that SMEs have unstructured marketing strategies and needs enhancements in the areas of packaging, value add to the bakery products, focus on promotion and appropriate advertising strategies. Further, the analysis reveals that more coverage of selling points for bakery products, the increased number of distribution centers and proper incentives to the agents may definitely improve the marketing of bakery products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Commerce
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