Successful implementation of the lean concept as a sustainable approach in the construction industry requires the identification of critical drivers in lean construction. Despite this significance, the number of in-depth studies toward understanding the considerable drivers of lean construction implementation is quite limited. There is also a shortage of methodologies for identifying key drivers. To address these challenges, this paper presents a list of all essential drivers within three aspects of sustainability (social, economic, and environmental) and proposes a novel methodology to rank the drivers and identify the key drivers for successful and sustainable lean construction implementation. In this regard, the entropy weighted Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed in this research. Subsequently, an empirical study was conducted within the Malaysian construction industry to demonstrate the proposed method. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and comparison with the existing method were engaged to validate the stability and accuracy of the achieved results. The significant results obtained in this study are as follows: presenting, verifying and ranking of 63 important drivers; identifying 22 key drivers; proposing an MCDM model of key drivers. The outcomes show that the proposed method in this study is an effective and accurate tool that could help managers make better decisions.
This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings.
Digital technologies (DTs) are proven helpful in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry due to their varied benefits to project stakeholders, such as enhanced visualization, better data sharing, reduction in building waste, increased productivity, sustainable performance and safety improvement. Therefore, researchers have conducted various studies on DTs in the AEC industry over the year; however, this study explores the state-of-the-art research on DTs in the AEC industry by means of a bibliometric-qualitative review method. This research would uncover new knowledge gaps and practical needs in the domain of DTs in the AEC industry. In addition, bibliometric analysis was carried out by utilizing academic publications from Scopus (i.e., 11,047 publications for the AEC industry, 1956 for DTs and 1778 for DTs in the AEC industry). Furthermore, a qualitative review was further conducted on 200 screened selected research publications in the domain of DTs. This study brings attention to the body of knowledge by envisioning trends and patterns by defining key research interests, journals, countries, new advancements, challenges, negative attitudes and future directions towards DTs in the AEC industry. However, this study is the first in its vital importance and uniqueness by providing a broad updated review of DTs in the AEC literature. Furthermore, this research laid a foundation for future researchers, policy makers and practitioners to explore the limitations in future research.
The adoption of green construction practices (GCP) has been on the increase in recent years as a means of reducing the negative effects of construction on the natural environment. However, GCP have been discovered to expose the construction workers to numerous health and safety (HS) risks, resulting from a decline in safety investment due to the economic burden associated with its adoption. This study explores the means through which GCP influence the HS performance of construction projects through economic performance. To obtain the views of contractors, a survey questionnaire was developed, and data was collected from project managers and site managers of "class A" contractors, with a response rate of 81.55%. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was adopted to analyze the data. The results show that the effect of GCP on HS performance is fully mediated by economic performance. The study concludes that for projects that adopt GCP to have high levels of HS performance, they are required to have an optimal economic performance. Efforts should be intensified by the government in providing subsidies, tax waivers, and other incentives for adopters of GCP to ensure the economic performance of their projects since it guarantees high HS performance.
The construction sector is recognized as one of the most dangerous industries in the world. The situation is worsening in Iraq, as a result of a lack of attention to safety in the building industry and the poor implementation of safety programs. This research aims to identify the critical safety factors (CSFs) of safety program implementation in the Iraqi construction industry. The CSFs were first identified from a review of literature before being verified by construction practitioners, using semi-structured interviews. A questionnaire, based on the verified CSFs, was distributed to construction practitioners in Iraq. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to analyze the quantitative data, and the results show that the CSFs can be categorized into four constructs: worker involvement, safety prevention and control system, safety arrangement, and management commitment. Following that, partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was executed to establish the connection between safety program implementation and overall project success. The result confirms that safety program implementation has a significant, positive impact on project success. This article contributes to knowledge and practice by identifying the CSFs for implementing safety programs in the Iraqi construction industry. The successful implementation of a safety program not only improves safety performance, but also helps to meet other project goals.
The durability of buildings which depends on the nature of the supervisory system used in their construction is an important feature of the construction industry. This article tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of untrained and unprofessional building supervisors and their unethical performance on the durability of buildings.
Matched MeSH terms: Construction Industry/education; Construction Industry/ethics*
The construction sector is among the fastest growing sectors in Malaysia; it consumes a vast amount of natural resources and produces a massive volume of construction and demolition waste. The waste is collected in a decentralised manner by sub-contracted companies. It is challenging to obtain reliable information on the amount of construction waste generated, because it is hard to determine its exact quantity and composition. Therefore, this study proposes a quantitative construction waste estimation model for residential buildings according to available data collected from the Construction Industry Development Board, Malaysia. In the development of this model, a theoretical investigation of the construction procedure and the construction waste generation process was conducted. The waste generated rate was determined as 25.79 kg m-2 for new residential constructions, which translates into about 553,406 t of anticipated waste annually.
Infrastructure projects are the foundation for essential public services and have an influential position in societal development. Although the role of infrastructure projects is substantial, they can involve complexities and safety issues that lead to an unsafe environment, and which impacts the project key stakeholders. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the barriers to implementing occupational safety in infrastructure projects in the Gaza Strip, which cause serious threats and reduce project performance. To evaluate the barriers, 39 items were highlighted and modified as per the construction context and environment, and which later were distributed in the form of a questionnaire, to get feedback from consultants and contractors. The analysis shows that in the safety policy barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "a contractor committed to an occupational safety program is not rewarded" first. In the management barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "safety engineer does not have significant powers, such as stopping work when needed" in the first place. In the behavior and culture barriers group, consultants and contractors both ranked the item "workers who are not committed to occupational safety are not excluded" in the first place. Overall, both consultants and contractors shared the same viewpoint in classifying the barriers in the working environment. The outcome of this study is beneficial for Palestinian construction industry policymakers, so they can monitor the highlighted barriers in on-going infrastructure projects and can modify the safety guidelines accordingly.
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.
Matched MeSH terms: Construction Industry/methods*
Associated with the continuing increase of construction activities such as infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing programs, Bangladesh has been experiencing a rapid increase of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Till now, the generation rate of C&D waste has not been well understood or not explicitly documented in Bangladesh. This study aims to provide an approach to estimate C&D waste generation using waste generation rates (WGR) through regression analysis. Furthermore, analyses the economic benefit of recycling C&D waste. The results revealed that WGR 63.74 kg/m2 and 1615 kg/m2 for construction and demolition activities respectively. Approximately, in financial year (FY) 2016, 1.28 million tons (0.149 construction and 1.139 demolition) waste were generated in Dhaka city, of which the three largest proportions were concrete (60%), brick/block (21%) and mortar (9%). After collection they were dumped in either landfills or unauthorized places. Therefore, it can be summarized as: waste is a resource in wrong place. The results of this study indicate that rapid urbanization of Dhaka city would likely experience the peak in the generation of C&D waste. This paper thus designates that C&D waste recycling is an entrepreneurial activity worth venturing into and an opportunity for extracting economic and environmental benefits from waste. The research findings also show that recycling of concrete and brick waste can add economic value of around 44.96 million USD. In addition, recycling of C&D waste leads to important reductions in CO2 emissions, energy use, natural resources and illegal landfills. Therefore, the findings of WGR and economic values provide valuable quantitative information for the future C&D waste management exercises of various stakeholders such as government, industry and academy.
Studies have proven that client satisfaction (CS) is greatly affected by the nature of construction practices on site. However, not much attention has been given to CS in projects that adopt green construction practices (GCPs). This study examines the effect of GCPs on CS, and the means by which CS can be achieved through health and safety performance (HSP). This study also analyses how the relationship between HSP and CS could vary depending on the level of GCPs adopted. A questionnaire with 27 items drawn from literature was used in collecting data from class A contractors in Nigeria. The study's hypotheses were tested using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The findings of the study reveal that GCPs have a positive effect on CS. HSP proved to only partially mediate the relationship between GCPs and CS. The findings also show that the effect of HSP on CS is moderated by GCPs with the stronger effect from projects with low adoption of GCPs. The study's findings highlight the pivotal role of HSP in ensuring CS in construction projects that adopt GCPs. This study makes practical contributions to the body of existing knowledge by highlighting the need for concerted efforts by contractors such as investing in health and safety training and ensuring site workers wear personal protective equipment aimed at adhering to acceptable health and safety standards. This can be achieved through provision of funds for safety activities, monitoring, and supervision of workers to guarantee HSP which translates to CS while adopting GCPs. However, the obstacles to these are the lack of safety culture by construction organizations, lack of enlightenment on the part of construction site workers, and poor safety climate on the construction project site. Additionally, the study provides greater insight on the practice of green construction among contractors by showing that the effect of HSP on CS would differ considerably on account of the level of GCPs adopted.
Recently, there has been great interest on the applicability of Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) as a new ecological construction material that can be sustainable in a gradually expanding construction industry. This paper reports the structural performance particularly on shear behaviour of high strength reinforced recycled concrete beams. Compressive cube strength of the tested beams ranged from 65-74 MPa at the age of 28-days. The experimental program compared conventional concrete mix with concrete mix having substitution of 25% recycled concrete aggregates of grade 25-30 MPa. In this study, three 150 mm x 200 mm x 1200 mm simply supported rectangular concrete beams in each mix were tested under a four-point bending static load with various shear span to effective depth ratios (a/d = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0). Subsequently, the shear behavior of the beams was investigated through studies of load-deflection responses, effect of a/d ratios and crack patterns. The test results reported that the substitution of 25% recycled concrete coarse aggregates barely affects the shear capacity of the high strength reinforced concrete beams with a/d of 1.5 onwards. Finally, experimental results were compared using existing design codes by ACI 318, Eurocode-2 and AS3600 which lie on the safe side.
Precast concrete technology forms an important part in the drive towards a full implementation of the Industrialized Building System (IBS). The IBS requires building components and their dimensions to be standardized, and preferably cast off site. Slabs are major structural elements in buildings, other than beams and columns. Standardized and optimized slabs can significantly enhance the building industries in achieving the full implementation of the IBS. Nevertheless, this requires computer techniques to achieve standardized and optimized slabs which can satisfy all building design requirements, including the standards of architectural and structural design standards. This study proposed a computer technique which analysed and designed five different types of slabs which will satisfy all the requirements in design. The most commonly used slabs included in this study were the solid one way, solid two way, ribbed, voided and composite slabs. The computer techniques enable the design of the most optimized sections for any of the slab types under any loading and span conditions. The computer technique also provides details for the reinforcements required for the slabs.
This paper assessed the relationship between team competency and design risk
management among Kuantan construction industries. Similarly, a survey was
conducted among 10 local and national construction industries in Kuantan with a
stratified random sampling. The returned questionnaires yielded 10 responses which
was used for data analysis. Five point Likert scale categories of risk management from
the previous studies was used and statistical analysis affirmed that there is positive
relationship between team competency and design risk management among Kuantan
In this paper, the influence of effective communication in construction risk
management among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries was assessed. Then a
survey was conducted on pilot test among 10 local construction industries in Kuantan
Malaysian, using stratified random sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were
collected for data analysis. Methodologically, this research is perhaps the first to
study the influence of effective communication on construction risk management
among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. Using the five point Likert scale
categories of risk management from previous studies. Pearson Correlation anaylysis
output results affirmed that there is a strong positive relationship between effective
communication and construction risk management among Kuantan construction
This paper assessed the effect of time overruns on apartment building among
Kuantan Malaysian construction industries. A survey was conducted among 10
construction industries in Kuantan Pahang. Using proportionate stratified random
sampling, out of which 10 questionnaires were distributed for data analysis. Using
five point Likert scale categories from previous studies, statistical analysis affirmed a
significant positive relationship between time overruns and apartment building
among Kuantan Malaysian construction industries.
The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC) is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG) and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.
This study describes the review on maintenance related issues during design and construction stage
within construction industry. The paper highlights the causes and errors made during design and
construction stage and their impact during the operation/production/occupancy stage as well as the
maintenance costs associated with it. The study identifies the mistakes in the working processes within
design and construction stage leading to the errors that affect the durability, performance, reliability,
maintainability, availability and safety of the systems. The paper presents a comprehensive review of
the published literatures, journals, technical papers in the related areas in the construction field. The
review highlights the new approaches and decision framework which link the designers and
construction personnel that could reduce the errors and defects in construction which then lead to
maintenance issues and asset management. The factors of accessibility, materials, design and
documentation standardization have been discussed thoroughly for better understanding in improving
maintenance and physical asset management in project commissioning.