Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Ng ZX, Chai JW, Kuppusamy UR
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Mar;62(2):158-63.
    PMID: 21250903 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2010.526931
    The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  2. Mayes S, Ho WK, Chai HH, Gao X, Kundy AC, Mateva KI, et al.
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):803-820.
    PMID: 31267230 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03191-6
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods
  3. Jinap S, Mohd-Mokhtar MS, Farhadian A, Hasnol ND, Jaafar SN, Hajeb P
    Meat Sci, 2013 Jun;94(2):202-7.
    PMID: 23501251 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.013
    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  4. Asghar MT, Yusof YA, Mokhtar MN, Yaacob ME, Ghazali HM, Varith J, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Aug;100(10):4012-4019.
    PMID: 32337729 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10446
    BACKGROUND: Coconut sugar has a caramel color with a taste like brown sugar. It is commonly used as natural sweetener. However, coconut sugar has been produced from coconut sap using a traditional method that involves heating the sap at high temperature (>100 °C) in an open pan for a long period (3-5 h). This conventional method results in an over-cooked sugar, which leads to quality deterioration in terms of both its physical and chemical properties. The current study aimed to investigate the processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using alternative processing techniques such as rotary vacuum evaporation (RE) and microwave evaporation (ME), comparing them with open-heat evaporation (OHE) technique.

    RESULTS: Coconut sugar syrup produced by rotary evaporation at 60 °C and 250 mbar vacuum (RE-60) required the shortest production time (12.2 min) and the lowest processing temperature (54.8 °C) when compared with ME (13 min and 103.2 °C) and OHE (46.8 min and 101.6 °C). It also had a light brownish color with a higher L* value (35.17) than the ME (29.84) and OHE (23.84) methods. It was found to contain higher amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and lower amounts of disaccharides (sucrose). Furthermore, the amount of energy required for RE-60 (0.35 kWh) was much less than for OHE (0.83 kWh).

    CONCLUSION: This study provided an alternative processing method for the sugar processing industry to produce coconut sugar using the rotary evaporation method at 60 °C under 250 mbar vacuum with better physicochemical qualities, shorter processing time, and minimum input energy. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  5. Sanny M, Jinap S, Bakker EJ, van Boekel MA, Luning PA
    Food Chem, 2012 May 1;132(1):134-43.
    PMID: 26434272 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.044
    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  6. Ismail M, Mariod A, Pin SS
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2013 Jan-Mar;12(1):21-31.
    PMID: 24584862
    The effect of preparation methods (raw, half-boiled and hard-boiled) on protein and amino acid contents, as well as the protein quality (amino acid score) of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched Malaysian eggs was investigated.
    The protein content was determined using a semi-micro Kjeldahl method whereas the amino acid composition was determined using HPLC.
    The protein content of raw regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs were 49.9 ±0.2%, 55.8 ±0.2% and 56.5 ±0.5%, respectively. The protein content of hard-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 56.8 ±0.1%, 54.7 ±0.1%, and 53.7 ±0.5%, while that for half-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 54.7 ±0.6%, 53.4 ±0.4%, and 55.1 ±0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in protein and amino acid contents of half-boiled, hard-boiled as compared with raw samples, and valine was found as the limiting amino acid. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) of total amino score in regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs after heat treatments.Furthermore, hard-boiling (100°C) for 10 minutes and half-boiling (100°C) for 5 minutes affects the total amino score, which in turn alter the protein quality of the egg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  7. Daniali G, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2018 Apr 15;245:1-6.
    PMID: 29287315 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.070
    This work investigated the underlying formation of acrylamide from amino acids in frying oils during high temperatures and at different times via modeling systems. Eighteen amino acids were used in order to determine which one was more effective on acrylamide production. Significantly the highest amount of acrylamide was produced from asparagine (5987.5µg/kg) and the lowest from phenylalanine (9.25µg/kg). A constant amount of asparagine and glutamine in palm olein and soy bean oils was heated up in modelling system at different temperatures (160, 180 and 200°C) and times (1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5min). The highest amount of acrylamide was found at 200°C for 7.5min (9317 and 8511µg/kg) and lowest at 160°C for 1.5min (156 and 254µg/kg) in both frying oils and both amino acids. Direct correlations have been found between time (R2=0.884), temperature (R2=0.951) and amount of acrylamide formation, both at p<0.05.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  8. Ibrahim NUA, Abd Aziz S, Hashim N, Jamaludin D, Khaled AY
    J Food Sci, 2019 Apr;84(4):792-797.
    PMID: 30861127 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14436
    Total polar compounds (TPC) and free fatty acids (FFA) are important indicators in evaluating the quality of frying oil. Conventional methods to determine TPC and FFA are often time consuming, involved laboratory analyses which required skilled personnel and used substantial amount of harmful solvent. In this study, dielectric spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the relation between dielectric property of refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) during deep frying with TPC and FFA. In total, 150 batches of French fries were intermittently fried at 185 ± 5 °C for 7 hr a day over 5 consecutive days. A total of 30 frying oil samples were collected. The dielectric property of frying oil samples were measured using impedance analyzer with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 10 MHz. The TPC of frying oil samples were measured with a Testo 270, while the FFA analysis was done using Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) test method. Results showed that dielectric constant, TPC and FFA of RBDPO increased as the frying time increased. Dielectric constant increased from 3.09 to 3.17, while TPC and FFA increased from 9.96 to 19.52 and from 0.08% to 0.36%, respectively. Partial least square (PLS) analysis produced good prediction of TPC and FFA with the application of genetic algorithm (GA). Model developed for prediction of TPC and FFA yielded highly significant correlation with R2 of 0.91 and 0.95, respectively and both had root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) of 1.06%. This study demonstrates the potential of dielectric spectroscopy in monitoring palm olein degradation during frying. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The application of dielectric spectroscopy to detect degradation of palm olein during frying was studied. The dielectric property of palm olein during frying has successfully correlated with TPC and FFA. The model developed in this study could be used for the development of a sensing system for palm olein degradation monitoring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  9. Loganathan R, Tarmizi AHA, Vethakkan SR, Teng KT
    J Oleo Sci, 2020 Mar 01;69(3):167-183.
    PMID: 32051355 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19209
    Red palm olein is known to be high in carotenes and vitamin E (tocols) and possess various nutritional benefits. This study evaluates the effect of prolonged heating using three common cooking techniques i.e. deep-fat fryer, microwave oven and conventional oven, on the profiles of carotenes and tocols as well as the physico-chemical changes occurring in red palm olein when compared to conventional palm olein. Physico-chemical changes in all oils were gauged based on their peroxide, p-anisidine and total oxidation values, acidity, and fatty acid composition. Both red palm olein and palm olein were thermally stable based on their lower rate of hydrolytic and oxidative degradations as well as higher tocols retention, which allow the oils to undergo heating up to 3 hours using deep-fat fryer and conventional oven. Nevertheless, red palm olein seemed not suitable for prolonged heating processes considering lower retention of carotenes. Microwave heating also influenced the stability of phytonutrients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  10. Ali MA, Nouruddeen ZB, Muhamad II, Latip RA, Othman NH
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2013 Jul-Sep;12(3):241-52.
    PMID: 24584953
    Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, commonly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative-stable palm olein (PO) to heat sensitive canola oil (CO), may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods
  11. Ng ZX, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Food Chem, 2014 Apr 1;148:155-61.
    PMID: 24262540 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.025
    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  12. Lim PK, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP, Khatib A
    J Food Sci, 2014 Jan;79(1):T115-21.
    PMID: 24344977 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12250
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  13. Rahman MM, Zamri M, Fadilla N
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jun 15;15(12):589-94.
    PMID: 24191621
    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  14. Daniali G, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Sanny M, Tan CP
    Food Chem, 2016 Dec 01;212:244-9.
    PMID: 27374529 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.174
    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  15. Li KS, Ali MA, Muhammad II, Othman NH, Noor AM
    J Oleo Sci, 2018 May 01;67(5):497-505.
    PMID: 29628486 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess17203
    The impact of microwave roasting on the thermooxidative degradation of perah seed oil (PSO) was evaluated during heating at a frying temperature (170°C). The roasting resulted significantly lower increment of the values of oxidative indices such as free acidity, peroxide value, p-anisidine, total oxidation (TOTOX), specific extinctions and thiobarbituric acid in oils during heating. The colour L* (lightness) value dropped gradually as the heating time increased up to 12 h, whereas a*(redness) and b* (yellowness) tended to increase. The viscosity and total polar compound in roasted PSO was lower as compared to that in unroasted one at each heating times. The tocol retention was also high in roasted samples throughout the heating period. The relative contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were decreased to 94.42% and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were increased to 110.20% in unroasted sample, after 12 h of heating. On the other hand, in 3 min roasted samples, the relative contents of PUFAs were decreased to 98.08% and of SFAs were increased to 103.41% after 12 h of heating. Outcome from analyses showed that microwave roasting reduced the oxidative deteriorations of PSO during heating.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  16. Li KS, Ali A, Muhammad II
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2017 Jul-Sep;16(3):283-292.
    PMID: 29055976 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0497
    BACKGROUND: Perah seed is one of the most underutilized oilseeds, containing high nutritional values and high percentage of α-linoleneic acid, which may have a high potential in food and pharmaceutical applica- tions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of microwave (MW) cooking on the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of perah seeds.

    METHODS: In this study, the proximate composition and amygdalin concentration of MW ir- radiated perah seeds were determined. The total phenolic content (TPC), Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and antioxidant activity of methanol (PME), 70% methanol in water (PMW), ethanol (PEE), 70% ethanol  in water (PEW) extracts and methanol extract of oil (PMO) were evaluated during MW cooking. The anti- oxidant activity was evaluated using multiple assays, namely DPPH radical scavenging activity, β-Carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power.

    RESULTS: Microwave cooking did not significantly increase crude lipid and carbohydrate content, and the amounts of other nutrients such as ash, crude protein and fibre remained almost unchanged. As evaluated  by HPLC, the amygdalin concentration in the seeds was reduced by MW cooking. The TPC, MRP and anti- oxidant activity of the solvent extracts of perah seeds increased significantly with increasing roasting time. Of all the extracts, PMW at all MW cooking times displayed the highest antioxidant effectiveness. However, thermal treatment significantly reduced the antioxidant properties of PMO. The values for TPC, MRP and antioxidant effectiveness of the samples were ranked in the following order: PMW > PEW > PME > PEE > PMO, in both control and microwaved samples.

    CONCLUSIONS: In determining the overall quality of the products, MW cooking time was found to be a critical factor. Solubilization of phenolic compounds and formation of MRPs during MW cooking could have caused the increase in antioxidant activity of the perah seeds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  17. Jaafar M, Marcilla AL, Felipe-Sotelo M, Ward NI
    Food Chem, 2018 Apr 25;246:258-265.
    PMID: 29291847 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.019
    Water from La Pampa, Argentina, was used for washing and cooking rice to examine the in-situ impact of using naturally-contaminated water for food preparation on the elemental dietary intake. Whilst washing with the control tap water (28 μg/L As) reduced the concentration of As in rice by 23%, the use of different well waters (281-1144 μg/L) increased As levels significantly (48-227%) in comparison with the original concentration in the rice (0.056 µg/g). Cooking the rice at a low water-to-rice ratio (2:1) using modern methods increased the levels of As in the cooked samples by 2-3 orders of magnitude for both pre-washed and un-washed rice. Similar trends were observed for vanadium. Although the levels of manganese, iron, copper, zinc and molybdenum in rice were reduced during washing and cooking for most water samples, the molybdenum concentration in the cooked rice doubled (2.2-2.9 µg/g) when using water containing >1 mg/L Mo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  18. Zzaman W, Bhat R, Yang TA, Easa AM
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Oct;97(13):4429-4437.
    PMID: 28251656 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8302
    BACKGROUND: Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated.

    RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.

    CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  19. Ismail I, Hwang YH, Joo ST
    Meat Sci, 2019 Nov;157:107882.
    PMID: 31295690 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.107882
    This paper describes the influence of different factors on toughness of beef semitendinosus (ST) by means of low temperature-long time cooking with single-stage (60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, and 75 °C for 6 h and 12 h) and two-stage sous-vide procedure (45 + 60 °C, 45 + 65 °C, 45 + 70 °C, and 45 + 75 °C; 49 + 60 °C, 49 + 65 °C, 49 + 70 °C, and 49 + 75 °C for 3 h at the first temperature, and either 3 or 9 h at the second temperature). Reduced toughness of ST beef steak muscle could be attained in 6 h at 60 °C and 45 + 60 °C were due from the minimum shrinkage of sarcomere as well as lower perimysial thickness, cooking loss, and elastic modulus. Collagen solubility showed a positive correlation to the toughness values. The relationship between proteolytic activity and shear force can be seen after 12 h of cooking duration. For the other quality attributes, two stepped cooking temperature-time combination seems to be more effective in preserving the redness values and water content than a single-stage sous-vide method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  20. Ojukwu M, Tan JS, Easa AM
    J Food Sci, 2020 Sep;85(9):2720-2727.
    PMID: 32776580 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15357
    A process for enhancing textural and cooking properties of fresh rice flour-soy protein isolate noodles (RNS) to match those of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) was developed by incorporating microbial transglutaminase (RNS-MTG), glucono-δ-lactone (RNS-GDL), and both MTG and GDL into the RNS noodles (RNS-COM). The formation of γ-glutamyl-lysine bonds in RNS-COM and RNS-MTG was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scanning electron microscope showed that compared to others, the structure of RNS-COM was denser, smoother with extensive apparent interconnectivity of aggregates. The optimum cooking time was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN (rice flour noodles); tensile strength was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN; and elasticity were in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG, RNS-GDL > RN. Overall, RNS-COM showed similar textural and structural breakdown parameters as compared to those of YAN. Changes in microstructures and improvement of RNS-COM in certain properties were likely due to enhanced crosslinking of proteins attributed to MTG- and GDL-induced cold gelation of proteins at reduced pH value. It is possible to use the combination of MTG and GDL to improve textural and mechanical properties of RNS comparable to those of YAN. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Combined MTG and GDL yield rice flour noodles with improved textural properties. The restructured rice flour noodles have the potential to replace yellow alkaline noodles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods
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