A process for enhancing textural and cooking properties of fresh rice flour-soy protein isolate noodles (RNS) to match those of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN) was developed by incorporating microbial transglutaminase (RNS-MTG), glucono-δ-lactone (RNS-GDL), and both MTG and GDL into the RNS noodles (RNS-COM). The formation of γ-glutamyl-lysine bonds in RNS-COM and RNS-MTG was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Scanning electron microscope showed that compared to others, the structure of RNS-COM was denser, smoother with extensive apparent interconnectivity of aggregates. The optimum cooking time was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN (rice flour noodles); tensile strength was in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG > RNS-GDL > RN; and elasticity were in the order: YAN > RNS-COM > RNS-MTG, RNS-GDL > RN. Overall, RNS-COM showed similar textural and structural breakdown parameters as compared to those of YAN. Changes in microstructures and improvement of RNS-COM in certain properties were likely due to enhanced crosslinking of proteins attributed to MTG- and GDL-induced cold gelation of proteins at reduced pH value. It is possible to use the combination of MTG and GDL to improve textural and mechanical properties of RNS comparable to those of YAN. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Combined MTG and GDL yield rice flour noodles with improved textural properties. The restructured rice flour noodles have the potential to replace yellow alkaline noodles.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.