Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 317 in total

  1. Jaafar, M.S., Wong, N.J., Noorzaei, J., Thanoon, W.A.
    This study presents an efficient finite element analysis technique which shows great versatility in
    modelling of precast composite flooring system subjected to static loadings. The method incorporates sliding and opening in the analysis of composite structures using the interface element which was specifically designed to simulate the actual behaviour at the interfaces between contacting materials. A three-dimensional finite element model of the precast composite slab which exhibits discontinuous behaviour was performed to demonstrate the potential and applicability of the proposed method of analysis. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the overall response of a discontinuous system to external loading is significantly affected by the bonding condition at the interfaces between the contacting materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  2. Hoong-Pin Lee, Abdullah Zawawi Awang, Wahid Omar
    High strength concrete (HSC) has lower ductility, but higher in strength compared to normal strength concretes. The strength and ductility of HSC can be improved by applying external confinement, such as steel strapping tensioning technique (SSTT). However, SSTT was literately reported effective in confining circular specimens, but the effectiveness of SSTT on square cross section specimens are yet well investigated. This study focuses on HSC square cross section specimens with different corner ratio, which were right angle and rounded corner. In addition, the effect of different number of layer of steel straps confining around the specimens under optimum lateral pre-tensioning stress also been investigated. The number of layers was fixed to two layers and four layers. Fifteen HSC specimens with dimension of 88 mm x 88 mm x 200 mm, which consist of three unconfined specimens, six right angle specimens, and six rounded corner specimens were prepared and tested monotonically to failure. The experimental results show that the strength and ductility of HSC improved significantly by using rounded corner confined specimens and higher number of layer of confinements. This is due to more uniform confining pressure was exerted on entire surface of rounded corner confined specimens. The strength and ductility of the specimens can be improved up to 53.7% and 207.5% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  3. Nuruddin MF, Khan SU, Shafiq N, Ayub T
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:387259.
    PMID: 24707202 DOI: 10.1155/2014/387259
    The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength*
  4. Krishnasamy S, Thiagamani SMK, Muthu Kumar C, Nagarajan R, R M S, Siengchin S, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Dec 01;141:1-13.
    PMID: 31472211 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.231
    Bio-composites are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly, could reduce the overall cost and provide lightweight due to the low density of the natural fibers. In a bid to compete with the synthetic fiber reinforced composites, a single natural fiber composite may not be a good choice to obtain optimal properties. Hence, hybrid composites are produced by adding two or more natural fibers together to obtain improved properties, such as mechanical, physical, thermal, water absorption, acoustic and dynamic, among others. Regarding thermal stability, the composites showed a significant change by varying the individual fiber compositions, fiber surface treatments, addition of fillers and coupling agents. The glass transition temperature and melting point obtained from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are not the same values for several hybrid composites, since the volume variation was not always parallel with the enthalpy change. However, the difference between the temperature calculated from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was lower. Significantly, this critical reviewed study has a potential of guiding all composite designers, manufacturers and users on right selection of composite materials for thermal applications, such as engine components (covers), heat shields and brake ducts, among others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength*
  5. Ismail AS, Jawaid M, Hamid NH, Yahaya R, Hassan A
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 03;26(4).
    PMID: 33546097 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040773
    Polymer blends is a well-established and suitable method to produced new polymeric materials as compared to synthesis of a new polymer. The combination of two different types of polymers will produce a new and unique material, which has the attribute of both polymers. The aim of this work is to analyze mechanical and morphological properties of bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends to find the best formulation for future study. Bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends were fabricated using the hand lay-up method at different loading of bio-phenolic (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%, and 25 wt%) in the epoxy matrix whereas neat bio-phenolic and epoxy samples were also fabricated for comparison. Results indicated that mechanical properties were improved for bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends compared to neat epoxy and phenolic. In addition, there is no sign of phase separation in polymer blends. The highest tensile, flexural, and impact strength was shown by P-20(biophenolic-20 wt% and Epoxy-80 wt%) whereas P-25 (biophenolic-25 wt% and Epoxy-75 wt%) has the highest tensile and flexural modulus. Based on the finding, it is concluded that P-20 shows better overall mechanical properties among the polymer blends. Based on this finding, the bio-phenolic/epoxy blend with 20 wt% will be used for further study on flax-reinforced bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength*
  6. Sapuan SM, Aulia HS, Ilyas RA, Atiqah A, Dele-Afolabi TT, Nurazzi MN, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 27;12(10).
    PMID: 32992450 DOI: 10.3390/polym12102211
    This work represents a study to investigate the mechanical properties of longitudinal basalt/woven-glass-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester-resin hybrid composites. The hybridization of basalt and glass fiber enhanced the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. The unsaturated polyester resin (UP), basalt (B) and glass fibers (GF) were fabricated using the hand lay-up method in six formulations (UP, GF, B7.5/G22.5, B15/G15, B22.5/G7.5 and B) to produce the composites, respectively. This study showed that the addition of basalt to glass-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester resin increased its density, tensile and flexural properties. The tensile strength of the B22.5/G7.5 hybrid composites increased by 213.92 MPa compared to neat UP, which was 8.14 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was used to observe the fracture mode and fiber pullout of the hybrid composites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  7. Kirmasha YK, Sharba MJ, Leman Z, Sultan MTH
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 28;13(21).
    PMID: 33126437 DOI: 10.3390/ma13214801
    Fiber composites are known to have poor through-thickness mechanical properties due to the absence of a Z-direction binder. This issue is more critical with the use of natural fibers due to their low strength compared to synthetic fibers. Stitching is a through-thickness toughening method that is used to introduce fibers in the Z-direction, which will result in better through-thickness mechanical properties. This research was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of unstitched and silk fiber-stitched woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy composites. The woven kenaf mat was stitched with silk fiber using a commercial sewing machine. The specimens were fabricated using a hand lay-up method. Three specimens were fabricated, one unstitched and two silk-stitched with deferent stitching orientations. The results show that the stitched specimens have comparable in-plane mechanical properties to the unstitched specimens. For the tensile mechanical test, stitched specimens show similar and 17.1% higher tensile strength compared to the unstitched specimens. The flexural mechanical test results show around a 9% decrease in the flexural strength for the stitched specimens. On the other hand, the Izod impact mechanical test results show a significant improvement of 33% for the stitched specimens, which means that stitching has successfully improved the out-of-plane mechanical properties. The outcome of this research indicates that the stitched specimens have better mechanical performance compared to the unstitched specimens and that the decrease in the flexural strength is insignificant in contrast with the remarkable enhancement in the impact strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  8. Qian Y, Bian L, Wang K, Chia WY, Khoo KS, Zhang C, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Mar;266:128948.
    PMID: 33220979 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128948
    In this study, to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of curdlan film, a curdlan/nanocellulose (NC) blended film was prepared and characterized for the first time. NC was successfully prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with NaOH/urea treatment. The particle size of NC was observed to be 70-140 nm by cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM). The blended film was prepared by adding the NC to curdlan solution. The tensile strength (TS) of the blended film reached the maximum value of 38.6 MPa, and the elongation at break (EB) was 40%. The DSC curve showed that the heat absorption peak of the film was 240 °C, indicating that the blended film has good temperature stability. Additionally, some other film properties were also improved, including gas barrier properties and transparency. Obvious morphological and molecular differences between the blended film and the pure curdlan film were discovered by SEM and FTIR analysis. Finally, the blended film was used for the preservation of chilled meat and extended the storage time of meat to 12 days. These results provided a theoretical basis for future application and development of biodegradable film.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  9. Fu G, Huo D, Shyha I, Pancholi K, Saharudin MS
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2019 Jun 26;9(7).
    PMID: 31247963 DOI: 10.3390/nano9070917
    Efficient machining of the polyester nanocomposite components requires a better understanding of machinability characteristics of such material, which has become an urgent requirement for modern industrial production. In this research, the micro-milling of polyester/halloysite nano-clay (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0 wt%) nanocomposites were carried out and the outcomes in terms of tool wear, cutting force, the size effect, surface morphology, and surface roughness were compared with those for plain polyester. In order to accomplish the machining of the material in ductile mode, the required feed per tooth was found to be below 0.3 µm. The degree of surface breakage was also found to decrease in ductile mode. A maximum flank wear VB of 0.012 mm after removing 196 mm3 of workpiece material was measured.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  10. Amir Syafiq Samsudin, Mohd Hisbany Mohd Hashim, Siti Hawa Hamzah, Afidah Abu Bakar
    Scientific Research Journal, 2018;15(1):15-29.
    Nowadays, demands in the application of fibre in concrete increase gradually as an engineering material. Rapid cost increment of material causes the increase in demand of new technology that provides safe, efficient and economical design for the present and future application. The introduction ofribbed slab reduces concrete materials and thusthe cost, but the strength of the structure also reduces due to the reducing of material. Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has the ability to maintain a part of its tensile strength prior to crack in order to resist more loading compared to conventional concrete. Meanwhile, the ribbed slab can help in material reduction. This research investigated on the bending strength of 2-ribbed and 3-ribbed concrete slab with steel fibre reinforcement under static loading with a span of 1500 mm and 1000 mm x 75 mm in cross section. An amount of 40 kg/m steel fibre of all total concrete volume was used as reinforcement instead of conventional bars with concrete grade 30 N/mm2 . The slab wastested underthree-point bending. Load versus deflection curve was plotted to illustrate the result and to compare the deflection between control and ribbed slab. Thisresearch showsthat SFRCRibbed Slab capable to withstand the same amount of load as normal slab structure, although the concrete volume reduces up to 20%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  11. Hosen MA, Alengaram UJ, Jumaat MZ, Sulong NHR, Darain KMU
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 May 19;9(5).
    PMID: 30970858 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050180
    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures require strengthening for numerous factors, such as increased load, modification of the structural systems, structural upgrade or errors in the design and construction stages. The side near-surface mounted (SNSM) strengthening technique with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars is a relatively new emerging technique for enhancing the flexural capacities of existing RC elements. Nine RC rectangular beams were flexurally strengthened with this technique and tested under four-point bending loads until failure. The main goal of this study is to optimize the structural capacity of the RC beams by varying the amount of strengthening reinforcement and bond length. The experimental test results showed that strengthening with SNSM GFRP bars significantly enhanced the flexural responses of the specimens compared with the control specimen. The first cracking and ultimate loads, energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness were remarkably enhanced by the SNSM technique. It was also confirmed that the bond length of the strengthened reinforcement greatly influences the energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness. The effect of the bond length on these properties is more significant compared to the amount of strengthening reinforcement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  12. Roslan N, Abd Rahim SZ, Abdellah AE, Abdullah MMAB, Błoch K, Pietrusiewicz P, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 05;14(7).
    PMID: 33916414 DOI: 10.3390/ma14071795
    Achieving good quality of products from plastic injection moulding processes is very challenging, since the process comprises many affecting parameters. Common defects such as warpage are hard to avoid, and the defective parts will eventually go to waste, leading to unnecessary costs to the manufacturer. The use of recycled material from postindustrial waste has been studied by a few researchers. However, the application of an optimisation method by which to optimise processing parameters to mould parts using recycled materials remains lacking. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) methods were conducted on thick plate parts moulded using virgin and recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) materials (100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50; virgin to recycle material ratios) to find the optimal input parameters for each of the material ratios. Shrinkage in the x and y directions increased in correlation with the recycled ratio, compared to virgin material. Meanwhile, the tensile strength of the thick plate part continued to decrease when the recycled ratio increased. R30 (70:30) had the optimum shrinkage in the x direction with respect to R0 (100:0) material where the shrinkage increased by 24.49% (RSM) and 33.20% (PSO). On the other hand, the shrinkage in the y direction for R30 material increased by 4.48% (RSM) and decreased by 2.67% (PSO), while the tensile strength of R30 (70:30) material decreased by 0.51% (RSM) and 2.68% (PSO) as compared to R0 (100:0) material. Validation tests indicated that the optimal setting of processing parameter suggested by PSO and RSM for R0 (100:0), R30 (70:30), R40 (60:40) and R50 (50:50) was less than 10%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  13. Al-Nini A, Nikbakht E, Syamsir A, Shafiq N, Mohammed BS, Al-Fakih A, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 09;13(14).
    PMID: 32659956 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143064
    The concrete-filled double skin steel tube (CFDST) is a more viable option compared to a concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) due to consisting a hollow section, while degradation is enhanced simply by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). Hence, the stabilization of a concrete's ductile strength needs high- performance fiber-reinforced cementitious conmposite. This study investigates the behavior of high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite-filled double-skin steel tube (HPCFDST) beams strengthened longitudinally with various layers, lengths, and configurtion of CFRP sheets. The findings showed that, with increased CFRP layers, the moment capacity and flexural stiffness values of the retrofitted HPCFDST beams have significantly improved. For an instant, the moment capacity of HPCFDST beams improved by approximately 28.5% and 32.6% when they were wrapped partially along 100% with two and three layers, respectively, compared to the control beam. Moreover, the moment capacity of the HPCFDST beam using two partial layers of CFRP along 75% of its sufficient length was closed to the findings of the beam with two full CFRP layers. For energy absorption, the results showed a vast disparity. Only the two layers with a 100% full length and partial wrapping showed increasing performance over the control. Furthermore, the typical failure mode of HPCFDST beams was observed to be local buckling at the top surface near the point of loading and CFRP rapture at the bottom of effect length.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  14. Hayashi Y, Shirotori K, Kosugi A, Kumada S, Leong KH, Okada K, et al.
    Pharmaceutics, 2020 Jun 28;12(7).
    PMID: 32605318 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12070601
    We previously reported a novel method for the precise prediction of tablet properties (e.g., tensile strength (TS)) using a small number of experimental data. The key technique of this method is to compensate for the lack of experimental data by using data of placebo tablets collected in a database. This study provides further technical knowledge to discuss the usefulness of this prediction method. Placebo tablets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and cornstarch were prepared using the design of an experimental method, and their TS and disintegration time (DT) were measured. The response surfaces representing the relationship between the formulation and the tablet properties were then created. This study investigated tablets containing four different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with a drug load ranging from 20-60%. Overall, the TS of API-containing tablets could be precisely predicted by this method, while the prediction accuracy of the DT was much lower than that of the TS. These results suggested that the mode of action of APIs on the DT was more complicated than that on the TS. Our prediction method could be valuable for the development of tablet formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  15. Syaqira S SN, Leman Z, Sapuan SM, Dele-Afolabi TT, Azmah Hanim MA, S B
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Aug 26;12(9).
    PMID: 32858857 DOI: 10.3390/polym12091923
    Natural fiber reinforced composites have had a great impact on the development of eco-friendly industrial products for several engineering applications. Sugar palm fiber (SPF) is one of the newly found natural fibers with limited experimental investigation. In the present work, sugar palm fiber was employed as the natural fiber reinforcement. The composites were hot compressed with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) to form the structure of laminated composites and then were subjected to tensile testing and moisture absorption. The maximum modulus and tensile strength of 0.84 MPa and 1.59 MPa were registered for samples PVB 80-S and PVB 70-S, respectively. Subsequently, the latter exhibited the highest tensile strain at a maximum load of 356.91%. The moisture absorption test revealed that the samples exhibited better water resistance as the proportion of PVB increased relative to the proportion of SPF due to the remarkable hydrophobic property of PVB in comparison with that of SPF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  16. Al-Fasih MY, Mohamad ME, Ibrahim IS, Ahmad Y, Ariffin MAM, Sarbini NN, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0252050.
    PMID: 34015027 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252050
    Effects of different surface textures on the interface shear strength, interface slip, and failure modes of the concrete-to-concrete bond are examined through finite element numerical model and experimental methods in the presence of the horizontal load with 'push-off' technique under different normal stresses. Three different surface textures are considered; smooth, indented, and transversely roughened to finish the top surfaces of the concrete bases. In the three-dimensional modeling via the ABAQUS solver, the Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) is used to simulate the interface shear failure. It is observed that the interface shear strength increases with the applied normal stress. The transversely roughened surface achieves the highest interface shear strength compared with those finished with the indented and smooth approaches. The smooth and indented surfaces are controlled by the adhesive failure mode while the transversely roughened surface is dominated by the cohesive failure mode. Also, it is observed that the CZM approach can accurately model the interface shear failure with 3-29% differences between the modeled and the experimental test findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  17. Tahmasbi F, Maleki S, Shariati M, Ramli Sulong NH, Tahir MM
    PLoS One, 2016;11(8):e0156989.
    PMID: 27478894 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156989
    This paper investigates the behaviour of C-shaped and L-shaped angle shear connectors embedded in solid concrete slabs. An effective finite element model is proposed to simulate the push out tests of these shear connectors that encompass nonlinear material behaviour, large displacement and damage plasticity. The finite element models are validated against test results. Parametric studies using this nonlinear model are performed to investigate the variations in concrete strength and connector dimensions. The finite element analyses also confirm the test results that increasing the length of shear connector increases their shear strength proportionately. It is observed that the maximum stress in L-shaped angle connectors takes place in the weld attachment to the beam, whereas in the C-shaped angle connectors, it is in the attached leg. The location of maximum concrete compressive damage is rendered in each case. Finally, a new equation for prediction of the shear capacity of C-shaped angle connectors is proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  18. Hamzah, E., Kanniah, M., Harun, M.
    The microstructure, tensile fracture and creep fracture of as-cast beta phase contained γ-TiAl with nominal composition of Ti-48Al-4Cr (at.%) was investigated. The effect of beta phase on tensile and creep strength was determined from fracture analysis. Tensile test were performed at room temperature whereas constant load tensile creep test were performed at temperature 800 0 C and initial stress of 150MPa. Initial as-cast microstructure, microstructure and fracture surface after tensile and creep test were examined using scanning electron microscopy technique. Analysis shows brittle fracture after room temperature tensile test whereas ductile fracture after high temperature creep test. The role of beta phase was discussed. It is concluded that beta phase is sensitive to temperature and detrimental at both room and high temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  19. Aziz Mohamed, A., Hafizal Yazid, Sahrim Ahmad, Rozaidi Rasid, Jaafar Abdullah, Dahlan, M., et al.
    L18 orthogonal array in mix level of Taguchi robust design method was carried out to optimize experimental conditions for the preparation of polymer blend composite. Tensile strength and neutron absorption of the composite were the properties of interest. Filler size, filler loading, ball mixing time and dispersion agent concentration were selected as parameters or factors which are expected to affect the composite properties. As a result of Taguchi analysis, filler loading was the most influencing parameter on the tensile strength and neutron absorption. The least influencing was ball-mixing time. The optimal conditions were determined by using mix-level Taguchi robust design method and a polymer composite with tensile strength of 6.33 MPa was successfully prepared. The composite was found to fully absorb thermal neutron flux of 1.04 x 105n/cm2/s with only 2 mm in thickness. In addition, the filler was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis (EDX).
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
  20. Nor Mariah Adam
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2014;3(1):57-63.
    Sepak Takraw is a popular sport among the Southeast Asian countries and various brands of takraw balls are available in the local market to suit the needs of players. In this study, four different takraw balls commonly used by the Malaysian takraw players were selected for testing of mechanical properties by using compression and fatigue analysis. It was found that the GE takraw balls were more suitable to be used by Malaysian takraw players due to higher fatigue life and tensile strength. This finding is particularly useful for the local sport academy in deciding which ball is to be used in the future takraw competitions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tensile Strength
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