BACKGROUND: Rice flour does not contain gluten and lacks cohesion and extensibility, which is responsible for the poor texture of rice noodles. Different technologies have been used to mitigate this challenge, including hydrothermal treatments of rice flour, direct addition of protein in noodles, use of additives such as hydrocolloids and alginates, and microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Recently, the inclusion of soy protein isolate (SPI), MTG, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) in the rice noodles system yielded rice noodles with improved texture and more compact microstructure, hence the need to optimize the addition of SPI, MTG, and GDL to make quality rice noodles.
RESULTS: Numerical optimization showed that rice noodles prepared with SPI, 68.32 (g kg-1 of rice flour), MTG, 5.06 (g kg-1 of rice flour) and GDL, 5.0 (g kg-1 of rice flour) gave the best response variables; hardness (53.19 N), springiness (0.76), chewiness (20.28 J), tensile strength (60.35 kPa), and cooking time (5.15 min). The pH, sensory, and microstructure results showed that the optimized rice noodles had a more compact microstructure with fewer hollows, optimum pH for MTG action, and overall sensory panelists also showed the highest preference for the optimized formulation, compared to other samples selected from the numerical optimization and desirability tests.
CONCLUSION: Optimization of the levels of SPI, MTG, and GDL yielded quality noodles with improved textural, mechanical, sensory, and microstructural properties. This was partly due to the favourable pH value of the optimized noodles that provided the most suitable conditions for MTG crosslinking and balanced electrostatic interaction of proteins. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.