Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM, Deslypere JP, Janus E
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Jul;169(1):1-10.
    PMID: 12860245
    In Western countries, it has been shown that coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to high serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. In less developed continents such as Asia and Africa, serum lipid levels are low and CHD incidence is much lower as compared with Western countries. With growing urbanization and industrialization in Asia, it has been shown that there is a concomitant rise in the level of serum TC and with it a rise in CHD. In all the Asian countries, serum TC levels are also higher in the urban compared with the rural population. Singapore, the only Asian country which is 100% urbanized since 1980, showed a rise of serum TC similar to that seen in the US and UK from the 1950s to the 1980s followed thereafter by a fall. This is reflected in the trend (rise followed by a fall) of CHD morbidity and mortality as well. In spite of a declining trend in serum TC level, CHD morbidity and mortality are still high in Singapore and comparable to the Western countries. The rest of the Asian countries show a different pattern from Singapore. In general, there is still a rising trend in serum TC level and in CHD mortality in most Asian countries. However, Japan is considered an exception in having a decreasing CHD mortality in spite of an increasing trend in serum TC. This may be attributed to a better control of other CHD risk factors such as hypertension and smoking. The rising trend in serum TC level remains a cause for concern, as this will emerge as a major problem for CHD morbidity and mortality in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  2. Jeyamalar R
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Mar;46(1):1-6.
    PMID: 1836032
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  3. Hughes K, Lun KC, Sothy SP, Thai AC, Leong WP, Yeo PB
    Int J Epidemiol, 1992 Jun;21(3):473-7.
    PMID: 1634308
    This study was a cross-sectional random survey of the whole of Singapore, based on 2143 subjects (aged 18-69 years, response rate 60.3%). The presence of corneal arcus was determined by a doctor using the naked eye in good light. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured by standardized techniques. The prevalence rates overall of corneal arcus were: 18-29 years (males 0.5%, females 0.3%), 30-49 years (males 18.1%, females 13.3%) and 50-69 years (males 70.7%, females 55.3%). In the 30-49 age group, people with arcus had higher serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than people without arcus, the mean differences being, males 0.31 mmol/l (P = 0.040) and females 0.62 mmol/l (P less than 0.001) with an increased likelihood of having values greater than 5.5.mmol/l of males 1.8 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.0-3.4) and females 2.6 (95% CI: 1.4-4.8). There were no significant differences for LDL-cholesterol in the 50-69 age group. Arcus was weakly associated with fasting plasma glucose in the 30-49 age group. Arcus was not associated with serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum fasting triglyceride, blood pressure and cigarette smoking. It is concluded that while corneal arcus is primarily an age-related change, its formation is accelerated by high serum LDL-cholesterol so that in people under 50 years it is a marker for the condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  4. Teo PH, Chong YH, Abdul Rahman MZ
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):125-33.
    PMID: 3237128
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  5. Quek DK, Lim LY, Ong SB
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Sep;44(3):210-23.
    PMID: 2626136
    In a prospective case-control study over a two-year period involving 1006 women, 264 women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 305 with non-infarct acute coronary syndromes (CAD) were compared with 437 women with no coronary heart disease (Controls), to determine the relationship between cigarette smoking and other risks factors with coronary heart disease. A history of current cigarette smoking was strongly associated with the risk of coronary events for both AMI And CAD (p less than 0.001). 23.9% of patients with acute coronary syndromes were current smokers, compared with only 12.8% among controls. Overall, women smokers had about a two-fold increase in risk for all coronary events. Younger women smokers (less than 40 years) and those between 61-70 years had particularly higher risks (10.3 and 2.7 times respectively (p less than 0.01, p less than 0.02). A dose-response pattern of increased AMI risks (from 2.0 to 2.9 times) among women smokers was also found, corresponding to the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p less than 0.05). Other significant coronary risk factors established were: postmenopausal status (OR 6.5), diabetes mellitus (OR 5.1), hypertension (OR 1.6), family history of premature coronary heart disease less than 50 years (OR 1.3) and use of oral contraceptive pills (OR 1.4). Our results thus emphasize that cigarette smoking is an important determinant of acute coronary events even among Malaysian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  6. Loncin H, Gurian JM, Loncin ME
    J Atheroscler Res, 1968 5 1;8(3):471-82.
    PMID: 5660508
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  7. Hemmati R, Bidel Z, Nazarzadeh M, Valadi M, Berenji S, Erami E, et al.
    J Relig Health, 2019 Aug;58(4):1203-1216.
    PMID: 30350244 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-018-0722-z
    Although the association between religion/spirituality (R/S) and psychological outcomes is well established, current understanding of the association with cardiovascular disease remains limited. We sought to investigate the association between Islamic R/S and coronary heart disease (CHD), and place these findings in light of a meta-analysis. In this case-control study, 190 cases with non-fatal CHD were identified and individually matched with 383 hospital-based controls. R/S was measured by self-administered 102 items questionnaire. A tabular meta-analysis was performed of observational studies on R/S (high level versus low level) and CHD. In addition, a dose-response meta-analysis was conducted using generalized least-squares regression. Participants in the top quartile had decreased odds of CHD comparing to participants in the lowest quartile of religious belief (OR 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.59), religious commitment (OR 0.36, CI 95% 0.13-0.99), religious emotions (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.18-0.87), and total R/S score (OR 0.30, CI 95% 0.13-0.67). The meta-analysis study showed a significant relative risk of 0.88 (CI 95% 0.77-1.00) comparing individuals in high level versus low level of R/S. In dose-response meta-analysis, comparing people with no religious services attendance, the relative risks of CHD were 0.77 (CI 95% 0.65-0.91) for one times attendance and 0.27 (CI 95% 0.11-0.65) for five times attendance per month. R/S was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHD. The possible causal nature of the observed associations warrants randomized clinical trial with large sample size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  8. Lee WL, Chinna K, Lim Abdullah K, Zainal Abidin I
    Int J Nurs Pract, 2019 Feb;25(1):e12715.
    PMID: 30515964 DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12715
    AIM: To investigate semantic equivalence between two translated versions of the heart quality of life (HeartQoL) questionnaire produced by the forward-backward and dual-panel methods.

    METHODS: The forward-backward and dual-panel versions of HeartQoL were self-administered among 60 participants who met the inclusion criteria of being a native Bahasa Malaysia-speaking Malay, aged 18 and older, having an indexed diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease and being cognitively fit. The administration sequence of the two versions was randomized. Additionally, three sociolinguists, who were blinded to translation processes and survey findings, rated the translated versions against the source version on three aspects of semantic equivalence.

    RESULTS: Textual content in both translated versions was considerably similar (n = 9/14 items, ≈64%). The overall results from weighted kappa, raw agreement, intraclass correlations, and Wilcoxon signed-rank as well as experts' ratings were confirmative of semantic equivalence between the forward-backward and dual-panel versions of the HeartQoL. However, some mixed findings were indicative of potential gaps in both translated versions against the source version.

    CONCLUSION: Both the forward-backward and dual-panel methods produced semantically equivalent versions of HeartQoL; but translation alone is insufficient to narrow the subtle gaps caused by differences in culture and linguistic style.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  9. Khor GL
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2001;10(2):76-80.
    PMID: 11710361
    By 2020, non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are expected to account for seven out of every 10 deaths in the developing countries compared with less than half this value today. As a proportion of total deaths from all-causes, CVD in the Asia Pacific region ranges from less than 20% in countries such as Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia to 20-30% in urban China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Malaysia. Countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Singapore have relatively high rates that exceed 30-35%. The latter countries also rank high for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rate (more than 150 deaths per 100,000). In contrast, death from cerebrovascular disease is higher among East Asian countries including Japan, China and Taiwan (more than 100 per 100,000). It is worth noting that a number of countries in the region with high proportions of deaths from CVD have undergone marked declining rates in recent decades. For example, in Australia, between 1986 and 1996, mortality from CHD in men and women aged 30-69 years declined by 46 and 51%, respectively. In Japan. stroke mortality dropped from a high level of 150 per 100,000 during the 1920s-1940s to the present level of approximately 100 per 100,000. Nonetheless, CVD mortality rate is reportedly on the rise in several countries in the region, including urban China, Malaysia, Korea and Taiwan. In China, CVD mortality increased as a proportion of total deaths from 12.8% in 1957 to 35.8% in 1990. The region is undergoing a rapid pace of urbanization, industrialization and major technological and lifestyle changes. Thus, monitoring the impact of these changes on cardiovascular risks is essential to enable the implementation of appropriate strategies towards countering the rise of CVD mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology
  10. Khoo KL, Van Acker P, Tan H, Deslypere JP
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):409-18.
    PMID: 11221151
    A total of 86 unrelated Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were studied for mutations in their low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene. Amongst them, 23 had a LDL-R gene mutation, while none having an Apolipoprotein B-3500 (Apo B-3500) mutation. Patients with the LDL-R gene defect appeared to have a higher level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an increased incidence of xanthomas and coronary heart disease (CHD), but no relationships were found between the type of LDL-R gene mutations and their lipid levels or clinical signs of CHD. In contrast to Western data, our findings seemed to indicate a predominance of mutations in the ligand binding domain and an absence of Apo B-3500 gene mutation. The latter finding may offer a genetic basis as to why Asian patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia have lower LDL-C levels and less premature CHD than their Western counterparts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology
  11. Nawawi HM, Nor IM, Noor IM, Karim NA, Arshad F, Khan R, et al.
    J Cardiovasc Risk, 2002 Feb;9(1):17-23.
    PMID: 11984213
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  12. Burns-Cox CJ, Chong YH, Gillman R
    Br Heart J, 1972 Sep;34(9):953-8.
    PMID: 4116420
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  13. Balasundaram R
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1970;64(4):607-14.
    PMID: 5485621 DOI: 10.1016/0035-9203(70)90085-4
    The pattern and incidence of cardiovascular disease was studied in a general practice in an urban-rural area in the west coast of West Malaysia. Hypertension, rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease accounted for 85% of the 476 patients with evidence of cardiovascular disease. Ischaemic heart disease, arteriosclerotic heart disease and other conditions accounted for the rest. Emphasis is laid on the salient features of incidence in general practice. Comparison is made with previous clinical and pathological studies from this region.
    Study site: General practjce clinic, Telok Anson [Teluk Intan], District of Lower Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology
  14. Prathap K, Montgomery GL
    Pathology, 1974 Jul;6(3):255-61.
    PMID: 4412062
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  15. Ho KT, Chin KW, Ng KS, Alemao E, Rajagopalan S, Yin D
    Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 2006;6(6):383-91.
    PMID: 17192128
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with hypercholesterolemia being a major risk factor. Evidence-based consensus guidelines have recommended consideration of increasingly stringent cholesterol-lowering goals, yet most patients do not meet these targets. Coronary heart disease (CHD) event and mortality rates and mean serum cholesterol levels have declined in Singapore in recent years; however, certain groups remain at elevated risk.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) proportions of patients with CHD in Singapore who achieved goals for serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); and (ii) factors influencing goal attainment.

    METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted using records from the Singapore Cardiac Databank, a national registry of CHD patients. Serum LDL-C goal attainment was assessed in 5174 survivors of acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization (i.e. coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary interventions), of whom 3811 (73.7%) were at very high risk.

    RESULTS: At baseline, the mean patient age was 60.3 years, mean serum value of total cholesterol was 228 mg/dL, and mean LDL-C was 163 mg/dL. Of all CHD patients, approximately 70% did not achieve a serum LDL-C target of <100 mg/dL. Most patients receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) regimens were treated initially with low- to medium-equipotency regimens and were never titrated to stronger regimens. The vast majority (approximately 94%) of patients at very high risk did not achieve the stringent serum LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL. Patients receiving higher potency statins were significantly more likely to achieve LDL-C goals, whereas those with higher baseline LDL-C levels or Malaysian ethnicity were less likely to achieve LDL-C goals.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most CHD patients in the large group of Singapore residents with CHD in the present study did not achieve recommended LDL-C targets. A more effective disease-management approach, including patient education concerning lifestyle modification (e.g. diet, physical activity), efforts to enhance medication adherence, and more effective, well tolerated therapies such as high-equipotency or high-dose statins and statin combination regimens, may be needed to improve achievement of consensus cholesterol targets. This is the first study of cholesterol goal attainment in a large group of Southeast Asians and serves as a baseline for future evaluations in Asian populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology
  16. Ismail MN, Chee SS, Nawawi H, Yusoff K, Lim TO, James WP
    Obes Rev, 2002 Aug;3(3):203-8.
    PMID: 12164473 DOI: 10.1046/j.1467-789x.2002.00074.x
    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  17. Hughes K, Aw TC, Kuperan P, Choo M
    J Epidemiol Community Health, 1997 Aug;51(4):394-9.
    PMID: 9328546
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is at least partly explained by central obesity, insulin resistance, and syndrome X (including possible components).
    DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the general population.
    SETTING: Singapore.
    PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 961 men and women (Indians, Malays, and Chinese) aged 30 to 69 years.
    MAIN RESULTS: Fasting serum insulin concentration was correlated directly and strongly with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and abdominal diameter. The fasting insulin concentration was correlated inversely with HDL cholesterol and directly with the fasting triglyceride concentration, blood pressures, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), but it was not correlated with LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins B and A1, lipoprotein(a), (Lp(a)), fibrinogen, factor VIIc, or prothrombin fragment (F)1 + 2. This indicates that the former but not the latter are part of syndrome X. While Malays had the highest BMI, Indians had a higher WHR (men 0.93 and women 0.84) than Malays (men 0.91 and women 0.82) and Chinese (men 0.91 and women 0.82). In addition, Indians had higher fasting insulin values and more glucose intolerance than Malays and Chinese. Indians had lower HDL cholesterol, and higher PAI-1, tPA, and Lp(a), but not higher LDL cholesterol, fasting triglyceride, blood pressures, fibrinogen, factor VIIc, or prothrombin F1 + 2.
    CONCLUSIONS: Indians are more prone than Malays or Chinese to central obesity with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and there are no apparent environmental reasons for this in Singapore. As a consequence, Indians develop some but not all of the features of syndrome X. They also have higher Lp(a) values. All this puts Indians at increased risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis and must be at least part of the explanation for their higher rates of CHD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  18. Chia YC, Ching SM, Lim HM
    J Hypertens, 2017 05;35 Suppl 1:S50-S56.
    PMID: 28350621 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001333
    OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
    RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
    CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
  19. Walli-Attaei M, Joseph P, Rosengren A, Chow CK, Rangarajan S, Lear SA, et al.
    Lancet, 2020 07 11;396(10244):97-109.
    PMID: 32445693 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30543-2
    BACKGROUND: Some studies, mainly from high-income countries (HICs), report that women receive less care (investigations and treatments) for cardiovascular disease than do men and might have a higher risk of death. However, very few studies systematically report risk factors, use of primary or secondary prevention medications, incidence of cardiovascular disease, or death in populations drawn from the community. Given that most cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a need for comprehensive information comparing treatments and outcomes between women and men in HICs, middle-income countries, and low-income countries from community-based population studies.

    METHODS: In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study (PURE), individuals aged 35-70 years from urban and rural communities in 27 countries were considered for inclusion. We recorded information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, medication use, cardiac investigations, and interventions. 168 490 participants who enrolled in the first two of the three phases of PURE were followed up prospectively for incident cardiovascular disease and death.

    FINDINGS: From Jan 6, 2005 to May 6, 2019, 202 072 individuals were recruited to the study. The mean age of women included in the study was 50·8 (SD 9·9) years compared with 51·7 (10) years for men. Participants were followed up for a median of 9·5 (IQR 8·5-10·9) years. Women had a lower cardiovascular disease risk factor burden using two different risk scores (INTERHEART and Framingham). Primary prevention strategies, such as adoption of several healthy lifestyle behaviours and use of proven medicines, were more frequent in women than men. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (4·1 [95% CI 4·0-4·2] for women vs 6·4 [6·2-6·6] for men per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0·75 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]) and all-cause death (4·5 [95% CI 4·4-4·7] for women vs 7·4 [7·2-7·7] for men per 1000 person-years; aHR 0·62 [95% CI 0·60-0·65]) were also lower in women. By contrast, secondary prevention treatments, cardiac investigations, and coronary revascularisation were less frequent in women than men with coronary artery disease in all groups of countries. Despite this, women had lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular disease events (20·0 [95% CI 18·2-21·7] versus 27·7 [95% CI 25·6-29·8] per 1000 person-years in men, adjusted hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·64-0·83]) and women had lower 30-day mortality after a new cardiovascular disease event compared with men (22% in women versus 28% in men; p<0·0001). Differences between women and men in treatments and outcomes were more marked in LMICs with little differences in HICs in those with or without previous cardiovascular disease.

    INTERPRETATION: Treatments for cardiovascular disease are more common in women than men in primary prevention, but the reverse is seen in secondary prevention. However, consistently better outcomes are observed in women than in men, both in those with and without previous cardiovascular disease. Improving cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, especially in LMICs, should be vigorously pursued in both women and men.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology
  20. Tai ES, Lim SC, Chew SK, Tan BY, Tan CE
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2000 Aug;49(2-3):159-68.
    PMID: 10963828 DOI: 10.1016/s0168-8227(00)00152-2
    We studied insulin resistance and beta-cell function with reference to ethnic group, glucose tolerance and other coronary artery disease risk factors in a cross section of the Singapore population which comprises Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. 3568 individuals aged 18-69 were examined. Blood pressure, anthropometric data, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were assayed in the fasting state. Glucose and serum insulin were measured 2 h after an oral glucose challenge. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated using homeostasis model assessment. Asian Indians had higher insulin resistance than Chinese or Malays. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) were associated with greater insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Insulin resistance was positively correlated with blood pressure in women and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride in both men and women. It was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol and LDL/apolipoprotein B ratio. beta-cell function showed no significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors studied. It appears that both impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance are important for the development of hyperglycemia whereas insulin resistance alone seems more important in the development of coronary artery disease as it correlates with several known coronary artery disease risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coronary Disease/epidemiology*
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