Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 133 in total

  1. Arifin Wan Nor
    For pre-post and cross-over design analysis of numerical data, paired t-test is the simplest analysis to perform. Planning such study, it is imperative to calculate appropriate sample size required for the test to detect hypothesized difference. However, the sample size formula requires determination of standard deviation of difference, which is not commonly reported. In this article, the author guides the reader to calculation of standard deviation of difference from standard deviation of each separate occasion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  2. Kok KY, Rajendran P
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150558.
    PMID: 26943630 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150558
    The differential evolution algorithm has been widely applied on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) path planning. At present, four random tuning parameters exist for differential evolution algorithm, namely, population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. These tuning parameters are required, together with user setting on path and computational cost weightage. However, the optimum settings of these tuning parameters vary according to application. Instead of trial and error, this paper presents an optimization method of differential evolution algorithm for tuning the parameters of UAV path planning. The parameters that this research focuses on are population size, differential weight, crossover, and generation number. The developed algorithm enables the user to simply define the weightage desired between the path and computational cost to converge with the minimum generation required based on user requirement. In conclusion, the proposed optimization of tuning parameters in differential evolution algorithm for UAV path planning expedites and improves the final output path and computational cost.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  3. Buyong MR, Larki F, Faiz MS, Hamzah AA, Yunas J, Majlis BY
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(5):10973-90.
    PMID: 25970255 DOI: 10.3390/s150510973
    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (F(DEP)) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The F(DEP) is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (f(xo)). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode's side wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  4. Teng CL, Chia KM, D'Cruz J, Gomez CA, Muthusamy N, Saadon NS, et al.
    Fam Pract, 2020 10 19;37(5):637-640.
    PMID: 32417893 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmaa048
    BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether peak flow measurement is best done in the standing or sitting position.

    METHODS: In this cross-over study, study participants were randomized to perform the initial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement in either standing or sitting position. The highest of three readings in each position were compared using paired t-test. A mean difference of

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  5. Baxter T, Grimmett W, Reardon D
    Air Med J, 2021 08 03;40(6):455-458.
    PMID: 34794789 DOI: 10.1016/j.amj.2021.07.001
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the SÜPEVAC unit (German Malaysian Medical Industries, Selangor, Malaysia), a novel field suction unit powered by a positive pressure gas source and capable of hospital-grade suction levels and rates.

    METHODS: This was a randomized crossover trial in a simulated clinical setting to compare the SÜPEVAC unit with standard hospital wall suction. Twenty-two fellows of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, or the College of Intensive Care Medicine were recruited. Outcomes were assessed via a structured survey and measuring the time to view the glottis.

    RESULTS: This study found there was no significant difference between the SÜPEVAC unit and wall suction with regard to suction time (P = .762; 95% confidence interval, -0.683 to 0.338) or qualitative assessment via the survey.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SÜPEVAC unit is comparable with wall suction in a clinical setting. Further research is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  6. Mahlangu JN, Weldingh KN, Lentz SR, Kaicker S, Karim FA, Matsushita T, et al.
    J Thromb Haemost, 2015 Nov;13(11):1989-98.
    PMID: 26362483 DOI: 10.1111/jth.13141
    Vatreptacog alfa, a recombinant human factor VIIa (rFVIIa) analog developed to improve the treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients with inhibitors, differs from native FVIIa by three amino acid substitutions. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, confirmatory phase III trial (adept(™) 2), 8/72 (11%) hemophilia A or B patients with inhibitors treated for acute bleeds developed anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to vatreptacog alfa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  7. Hamzah NH
    Forensic Sci Int, 2016 07;264:106-12.
    PMID: 27081766 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.050
    The ability to objectify ballistic evidence is a challenge faced by firearms examiners around the world. A number of researchers are trying to improve bullet-identification systems to address deficiencies detailed within the National Academy of Science report (2009). More recently focus has turned to making use of more sophisticated imaging modalities to view entire regions of the projectile and the development of automated systems for the comparison of the topographical surfaces recorded. Projectiles from a newly bought air pistol with 0.177 calibre pellets (unjacketed), fired series of 609 pellets were examined using an optical microscope. A mathematical methodology was developed to pre-process the resultant topographical maps generating point data for comparison, analysed using the principal component analysis (PCA). In most cases limited to reasonable success was achieved. The objective method still requires an operator to identify the Land Engraved Areas to be scanned, however the mathematical alignments were objectively achieved. The PCA results illustrated that the striation marks were neither exclusive nor specific to the LEA regions but rather crossed over regions. This study also proves that a single weapon does not necessarily leave identical marks of projectiles on its surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  8. Latiff LA, Parhizkar S, Dollah MA, Hassan ST
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Dec;17(12):980-5.
    PMID: 25859301
    The aim of this open label crossover study was to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa on reproductive health and metabolic profile of perimenopausal women in Rawang, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  9. Dzulkarnain AAA, Sani MKA, Rahmat S, Jusoh M
    J Audiol Otol, 2019 Jul;23(3):121-128.
    PMID: 30857383 DOI: 10.7874/jao.2018.00381
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a scant evidence on the use of simulations in audiology (especially in Malaysia) for case-history taking, although this technique is widely used for training medical and nursing students. Feedback is one of the important components in simulations training; however, it is unknown if feedback by instructors could influence the simulated patient (SP) training outcome for case-history taking among audiology students. Aim of the present study is to determine whether the SP training with feedback in addition to the standard role-play and seminar training is an effective learning tool for audiology case-history taking.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six second-year undergraduate audiology students participated. A cross-over study design was used. All students initially attended two hours of seminar and role-play sessions. They were then divided into three types of training, 1) SP training (Group A), 2) SP with feedback (Group B), and 3) a non-additional training group (Group C). After two training sessions, the students changed their types of training to, 1) Group A and C: SP training with feedback, and 2) Group B: non-additional training. All the groups were assessed at three points: 1) pre-test, 2) intermediate, and 3) post-test. The normalized median score differences between and within the respective groups were analysed using non-parametric tests at 95% confidence intervals.

    RESULTS: Groups with additional SP trainings (with and without feedback) showed a significantly higher normalized gain score than no training group (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The SP training (with/ without feedback) is a beneficial learning tool for history taking to students in audiology major.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  10. Mahli N, Md Zain J, Mahdi SNM, Chih Nie Y, Chian Yong L, Shokri AFA, et al.
    Front Med (Lausanne), 2021;8:677626.
    PMID: 34026801 DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.677626
    This prospective, randomized, cross-over study compared the performance of the novel Flexible Tip Bougie™ (FTB) with a conventional bougie as an intubation aid in a simulated difficult airway manikin model among anaesthesiology trainees with regards of first pass success rate, time to intubation, number of attempts and ease of use. Sixty-two anesthesiology trainees, novice to the usage of FTB, participated in this study. Following a video demonstration, each participant performed endotracheal intubation on a manikin standardized to a difficult airway view. Each participant performed direct laryngoscopy and intubated the manikin using a conventional bougie and FTB, at least 1 day in between devices, in a randomized order. The first pass success rate was significantly higher with FTB (98.4%) compared to conventional bougie (85.5%), p = 0.008. The median time to intubation was significantly faster when using FTB, median = 32.0 s [Interquartile range (IQR): 23.8-41.3 s] compared to when using conventional bougie, median = 41.5 s (IQR: 31.8-69.5 s), p < 0.001. The FTB required significantly less intubation attempts compared to conventional bougie, p = 0.024. The overall ease of use, scored on a Likert scale from 1 to 5, was significantly higher in the FTB (4.26 ± 0.53) compared to the conventional bougie (3.19 ± 0.83), p < 0.001. This simulated difficult airway manikin study finding suggested that FTB is a useful adjunct for difficult airway intubation. The FTB offered a higher first pass success rate with a faster time to intubation and less required attempts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  11. Siner A, Sevanesan MS, Ambomai T, Abd Wahab Z, Lasem L
    BMC Res Notes, 2020 Aug 28;13(1):404.
    PMID: 32859257 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-05250-8
    OBJECTIVE: Glycaemic Index (GI) ranks the body's response to carbohydrate content in food such that high GI food increases postprandial blood glucose levels. One of the popular drinks at food and beverage outlets is a drink made from calamansi, a citrus that is believed not to induce an increase in blood glucose levels. In this non-randomised single-blind (participants) study, capillary blood from 10 healthy males were sampled following consumption of either glucose or the calamansi drink. The blood glucose measurements were then used to calculate the GI for the drink.

    RESULTS: The GI of the calamansi drink tested was calculated as 37, a value within the range of low GI foods. Trial registration Clinical Trials identifier NCT04462016; Retrospectively registered on July 1, 2020.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  12. Lim SY, Dora R, Yatiman NH, Wong JE, Haron H, Poh BK
    Appetite, 2021 12 01;167:105629.
    PMID: 34364967 DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105629
    Studies have shown that monosodium glutamate (MSG) can enhance satiety and reduce appetite among infants and adults. In a multi-ethnic country such as Malaysia, it is also important to consider whether ethnic variations will influence the effects of MSG on appetite regulation. Thus, this crossover study aimed to investigate the effects of MSG on the subjective appetite and subsequent energy intake among Malaysian children from the three major ethnic groups, namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians. A total of 92 participants aged 9-11 years from the three ethnic groups were recruited for this study. A cup of low-energy vegetable preload soup (100g, with MSG or without MSG) was served to each of the participants on the day of the study, followed by an ad libitum meal 45 min later. Appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and desire to snack were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS) before the preload, after the preload, before the ad libitum meal and after the ad libitum meal. Results showed that the subjective appetite of the children did not differ between preload conditions (MSG+ or MSG-) throughout the study. Malay, Chinese and Indian children had similar total energy intake during the subsequent meal after the consumption of preload soups. In conclusion, the addition of MSG to low energy preload neither influenced the perception of appetite nor total energy intake in a subsequent ad libitum meal among children. No difference attributable to the participants' ethnicity was observed. Future studies should be conducted to examine whether repeated ingestion of MSG-containing protein-rich preload has potential longer-term effects on appetite and subsequent meal intakes among children from different ethnicities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  13. Lv X, Zhong G, Yao H, Wu J, Ye S
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021 Nov;59(11):725-733.
    PMID: 34448694 DOI: 10.5414/CP203986
    OBJECTIVE: An earlier three-way crossover study evaluating bioequivalence of 3 cefalexin formulations (capsule for reference, capsule and tablet for test) in healthy subjects in Malaysia showed that the intra-individual coefficients of variation were 9.25% for AUC0-t, 9.54% for AUC0-∞, and 13.90% for Cmax. It is preliminarily stated that cefalexin is not a high-variation product. The here-presented clinical study in China was carried out to analyze the pharmacokinetic properties of two preparations in fasting and postprandial condition to assess the bioequivalence of the test preparation and reference preparation when administered on a fasting and postprandial basis in healthy Chinese subjects and to observe the safety of the test preparation and reference preparation in healthy Chinese subjects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this trial, a total of 56 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the fasting group and the postprandial group. The two groups were given 250 mg of the test and reference preparation, respectively. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the plasma concentration of cefalexin. PhoenixWinNonlin software (V7.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefalexin using the non-compartmental model (NCA), and the bioequivalence and safety results were calculated by SAS (V9.4) software.

    RESULTS: The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference preparations were as follows, the fasting group: Cmax 12.59 ± 2.65 μg/mL, 12.72 ± 2.28 μg/mL; AUC0-8h 20.43 ± 3.47 h×μg/mL, 20.66 ± 3.38 h×μg/mL; AUC0-∞ 20.77 ± 3.53 h×μg/mL, 21.02 ± 3.45 h×μg/mL; the postprandial group: Cmax 5.25 ± 0.94 μg/mL, 5.23 ± 0.80 μg/mL; AUC0-10h 16.92 ± 2.03 h×μg/mL, 17.09 ± 2.31 h×μg/mL; AUC0-∞ 17.33 ± 2.09 h×μg/mL, 17.67 ± 2.45 h×μg/mL.

    CONCLUSION: The 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean ratios of test preparation and reference preparation were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUC0-10h, and AUC0-∞ were within the 80.00% ~ 125.00% range in both groups. Both Cmax and AUC met the pre-determined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. The test and reference products were bioequivalent after administration under fasting as well as under fed conditions in healthy Chinese subjects. This study may suggest that successful generic versions of cefalexin not only guarantee the market supply of such drugs but can also improve the safety and effectiveness and quality controllability of cefalexin through a new process and a new drug composition ratio.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  14. Punithavathi N, Ong LM, Irfhan Ali HA, Mohd Izmi IA, Dharminy T, Ang AH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):16-20.
    PMID: 24814623 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Conventional Chest Physiotherapy (CCPT) remains the mainstay of treatment for sputum mobilization in patients with productive cough such as bronchiectasis and "Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease" (COPD). However CCPT is time consuming requires the assistance of a physiotherapist and limits the independence of the patient. Mechanical percussors which are electrical devices used to provide percussion to the external chest wall might provide autonomy and greater compliance. We compared safety and efficacy of a mechanical chest percusser devised by Formedic Technology with conventional chest percussion.
    METHODS: Twenty patients (mean age 64years) were randomly assigned to receive either CCPT or mechanical percussor on the first day and crossed over by "Latin square randomisation" to alternative treatment for 6 consecutive days and the amount of sputum expectorated was compared by dry and wet weight. Adverse events and willingness to use was assessed by a home diary and a questionnaire.
    RESULTS: There were 13 males and 7 females, eight diagnosed as bronchiectasis and 12 COPD. The mean dry weight of sputum induced by CCPT (0.54g ± 0.32) was significantly more compared with MP (0.40g + 0.11); p-value = 0.002. The mean wet weight of sputum with CCPT (10.71g ± 8.70) was also significantly more compared with MP (5.99g ± 4.5); p-value < 0.001. There were no significant difference in adverse events and majority of patients were willing to use the device by themselves.
    CONCLUSION: The mechanical percussor although produces less sputum is well tolerated and can be a useful adjunct to CCPT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  15. Vijayan V, Rachel T
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):591-4.
    PMID: 23770951 MyJurnal
    The anticoagulation of choice for mechanical heart valves is the oral anticoagulant warfarin. Warfarin is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, intrauterine fetal deaths and warfarin embryopathy. This longitudical cross-over study of 5 women observed all 5 having livebirths of healthy infants after heparin-managed pregnancies. Their earlier 8 pregnancies had all resulted in perinatal losses or miscarriages when on regimes based on warfarin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  16. Tassaneeyakul W, Kumar S, Gaysonsiri D, Kaewkamson T, Khuroo A, Tangsucharit P, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2010 Sep;48(9):614-20.
    PMID: 20860915
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone orodispersible tablet products, Risperidone 1 mg Mouth dissolving tablet, Ranbaxy (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia, as a test product and Risperdal 1 mg Quicklet, Janssen Ortho LLC, Gurabo, Puerto Rico, as a reference product, in healthy male volunteers under fasting condition.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, single dose, crossover with a washout period of 2 weeks, was conducted in 24 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following drug administration. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a validated LC-MS-MS method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined using a non-compartmental model.

    RESULTS: The geometric means ratios (%) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the test and reference products for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf of risperidone were 104.49 % (92.79% - 117.66%), 100.96 % (92.15% - 110.61 %) and 97.99 % (90.72% - 105.85%). The 90% CI of geometric means ratios of the test and reference products for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf of 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 97.00%, 96.97% and 97.49%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 90% CI for the geometric means ratios (test/reference) of the log-trasformed Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf of risperidone and its major active metabolite were within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria of 80% - 125% of the US-FDA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  17. Yuen KH, Wong JW, Billa N, Choy WP, Julianto T
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):482-6.
    PMID: 11072466
    The bioavailability of a generic preparation of ketoconazole (Zorinax from Xepa-Soul Pattinson, Malaysia) was evaluated in comparison with the innovator product (Nizoral from Janssen Pharmaceutica, Switzerland). Eighteen healthy male volunteers participated in the study conducted according to a two-way crossover design. The bioavailability was compared using the parameters, total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-infinity), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax). No statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the two products in all the three parameters. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity and Cmax values of Zorinax over Nizoral was found to lie between 0.82-1.04 and 0.83-1.02, respectively, being within the acceptable equivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. These findings indicate that the two preparations are comparable in the extent and rate of absorption. In addition, the elimination rate constant (ke) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated. For both parameters, there was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained from the data of the two preparations. Moreover, the values are comparable to those reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  18. Sheikh Ghadzi SM, Karlsson MO, Kjellsson MC
    CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol, 2017 10;6(10):686-694.
    PMID: 28575547 DOI: 10.1002/psp4.12214
    In antihyperglycemic drug development, drug effects are usually characterized using glucose provocations. Analyzing provocation data using pharmacometrics has shown powerful, enabling small studies. In preclinical drug development, high power is attractive due to the experiment sizes; however, insulin is not always available, which potentially impacts power and predictive performance. This simulation study was performed to investigate the implications of performing model-based drug characterization without insulin. The integrated glucose-insulin model was used to simulate and re-estimated oral glucose tolerance tests using a crossover design of placebo and study compound. Drug effects were implemented on seven different mechanisms of action (MOA); one by one or in two-drug combinations. This study showed that exclusion of insulin may severely reduce the power to distinguish the correct from competing drug effect, and to detect a primary or secondary drug effect, however, it did not affect the predictive performance of the model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  19. Nikol L, Kuan G, Ong M, Chang YK, Terry PC
    Front Psychol, 2018;9:1114.
    PMID: 30072929 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01114
    Running in high heat and humidity increases psychophysiological strain, which typically impairs running performance. Listening to synchronous music has been shown to provide psychophysiological benefits, which may enhance running performance. The present randomized, crossover study examined effects of listening to synchronous music on psychophysiological parameters and running performance in hot and humid conditions. Twelve male runners (21.7 ± 2.2 y; 166.17 ± 7.18 cm; 60.32 ± 9.52 kg; 59.29 ± 5.95 ml kg-1 min-1) completed two running trials in simulated conditions (31°C and 70% humidity) with and without synchronous music. Participants ran on a treadmill inside a climatic chamber for 60 min at 60%


    O2max and continued to run to exhaustion at 80%


    O2max. Time-to-exhaustion under the synchronous music condition was 66.59% longer (mean = 376.5 s vs. 226.0 s, p = 0.02, d = 0.63) compared to the no music condition. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower for the synchronous music condition at each time point (15, 30, 45, and 60 min) of the steady state portion of the running trials. Small differences in heart rate were detected between conditions. No significant between-condition differences were found in urine specific gravity, percentage of body weight loss, thermal comfort, and blood lactate. Findings suggest that listening to synchronous music is beneficial to running performance and perceived exertion in hot and humid conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
  20. Ramamurthy S, Meng Er H, Nadarajah VD, Pook PCK
    Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 2016 03 21;8(3):364-374.
    PMID: 30070247 DOI: 10.1016/j.cptl.2016.02.017
    OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of open and closed book formative examinations on pharmacy students' learning approach and also to assess their performance and perception about open book (OB) and closed book (CB) systems of examination.

    METHODS: A crossover study was conducted among Year 1 and Year 2 pharmacy students. Students were invited to participate voluntarily for one OB and one CB online formative test in a chemistry module in each year. Evaluation of their learning approach and perception of the OB and CB systems of examination was conducted using Deep Information Processing (DIP) questionnaire and Student Perception questionnaire respectively. The mean performance scores of OB and CB examinations were compared.

    RESULTS: Analysis of DIP scores showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the learning approach adopted for the two different examination systems. However, the mean score obtained in the OB examination was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than those obtained in the CB examination. Preference was given by a majority of students for the OB examination, possibly because it was associated with lower anxiety levels, less requirement of memorization, and more problem solving.

    CONCLUSION: There is no difference in deep learning approach of students, whether the format is of the OB or CB type examinations. However, the performance of students was significantly better in OB examination than CB. Hence, using OB examination along with CB examination will be useful for student learning and help them adapt to growing and changing knowledge in pharmacy education and practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross-Over Studies
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