Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 921 in total

  1. Abraham JJ
    Br Med J, 1912;1:438-446.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture
  2. Teng CL, Kamil MA, Abu Hassan Z
    Family Physician, 2005;13:2-4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture
  3. Chua KB, Chua IL, Chua IE, Chong KH, Chua KH
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):99-105.
    PMID: 17191392
    A mycological medium was developed for primary isolation and culture of lipophilic yeasts. It was initially based on published information of nutrients and trace components that would promote the growth of these yeasts. It was subsequently modified and adjusted to specifically promote the growth of lipophilic yeasts and simultaneously avoid the luxurious growth of other fungi and bacteria. With this medium, the conventional bacteriological procedures such as microbial streaking for pure culture and anti-microbial sensitivity testing could be carried out for these lipophilic yeasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media/chemistry*; Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  4. Khalib AL, Ngan HU
    Workplace bullying has drawn greater attention in the last one and half decades. Despite its recognition by many organizations and countries, it is still rife. Why is that so? Could it be that the root of the problem has not been addressed? Or, could it be due to difficulties and resistances in embarking preventive and control measures. In this paper, we will examine the possible causes of workplace bullying based on a proposed model. In depth discussion of the personal and organizational factors are made while the work group and societal factors are dealt with in brief. In summary, the root of workplace bullying is multi-factorial. Understanding the complexity and subtlety of workplace bullying is pertinent in the effort to prevent or curtail it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organizational Culture
  5. Teng CL
    Family Physician, 1996;9(3):23-24.
    This article chronicles the popular health beliefs of the Malays and Chinese regarding chickenpox, as seen through the eyes of a doctor. The interplay of several factors, namely, a marriage of two major cultures, chickenpox in pregnancy, concurrence of two major festivals make this a unique study in medical socio-anthropology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture
  6. Lee, Pay Chiann, Kumar, Sures, Nor Aini Shukor
    This review paper discussed about publications related to micropropagation of bamboo species. In recent years, the application of tissue culture technique like in vitro micropropagation has been used to meet the demands for bamboo planting materials. In the past 30 years, protocols for micropropagation of various bamboo species have been established by researchers from all over the world. The controlling factors for cultures such as the explants, culture medium, carbon sources, combination and concentration of plant growth regulators and other additional additives are varied. The controlling factors are crucial in developing successful regeneration protocols for various bamboo species. This paper attempts to review and summarize the available and up-to-date information regarding in vitro micropropagation of bamboos.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media; Tissue Culture Techniques
  7. Parker DB, Barrett RJ
    Intern Med J, 2003 Sep-Oct;33(9-10):463-4.
    PMID: 14511200 DOI: 10.1046/j.1445-5994.2003.00460.x
    Changes in medical research ethics in the past two decades have made the communication of risk to potential participants a legal imperative. Using ethnographic data from two different cultures, we examine the hazards associated with medical research in relation to the respective societal contexts that imbue them with meaning. The Iban, a Dayak people indigenous to Borneo, perceive the hazards of participating in research in terms of danger to the collective. In Australia they are construed in terms of risk to individuals. Risk in medical research is one manifestation of a broader notion of 'risk' that is constitutive of the research enterprise itself and, we argue, fundamental to post-industrial society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture*
  8. Elsayed EA, Farid MA, El-Enshasy HA
    BMC Biotechnol., 2019 07 16;19(1):46.
    PMID: 31311527 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-019-0546-2
    BACKGROUND: Natamycin is an antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotic with wide applications in health and food industries. Currently, it is the only antifungal food additive with the GRAS status (Generally Regarded as Safe).

    RESULTS: Natamycin production was investigated under the effect of different initial glucose concentrations. Maximal antibiotic production (1.58 ± 0.032 g/L) was achieved at 20 g/L glucose. Under glucose limitation, natamycin production was retarded and the produced antibiotic was degraded. Higher glucose concentrations resulted in carbon catabolite repression. Secondly, intermittent feeding of glucose improved natamycin production due to overcoming glucose catabolite regulation, and moreover it was superior to glucose-beef mixture feeding, which overcomes catabolite regulation, but increased cell growth on the expense of natamycin production. Finally, the process was optimized in 7.5 L stirred tank bioreactor under batch and fed-batch conditions. Continuous glucose feeding for 30 h increased volumetric natamycin production by about 1.6- and 1.72-folds in than the batch cultivation in bioreactor and shake-flasks, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Glucose is a crucial substrate that significantly affects the production of natamycin, and its slow feeding is recommended to alleviate the effects of carbon catabolite regulation as well as to prevent product degradation under carbon source limitation. Cultivation in bioreactor under glucose feeding increased maximal volumetric enzyme production by about 72% from the initial starting conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media/metabolism; Culture Media/chemistry; Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  9. Saadatnia G, Haj Ghani H, Khoo BY, Maimunah A, Rahmah N
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):125-30.
    PMID: 20562822
    In vitro culture of Toxoplasma gondii can provide tachyzoites which are active, viable and with desirable purity. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize the cell culture method for T. gondii propagation to obtain a consistent source of parasites with maximum yield and viability, but minimum host cell contamination for use in production of excretory-secretory antigen. Tachyzoites with seed counts of 1x10(6), 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) harvested from infected mice were added to VERO cells of different degrees of confluence, namely 50%, 85% and 100%, and examined periodically using an inverted microscope. When the maximum release of the tachyzoites was observed from the host cells, the culture supernatant was removed and the tachyzoites harvested. Using a Neubauer chamber, the percentages of viable tachyzoites and host cell contamination were determined using trypan blue stain. Parameters that gave the best yield and purity of viable tachyzoites were found to be as follows: VERO cells at 85% confluence in DMEM medium and inoculum comprising 1x10(7) tachyzoites. After about 3 days post infection, the tachyzoites multiplied 78x, with a yield of ~7.8x10(8) per flask, 99% viability and 3% host cell contamination. This study has successfully optimized the method of propagation of T. gondii tachyzoites in VERO cells which produce parasites with high yield, purity and viability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media; Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  10. Alfaqeh H, Chua KH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:119-20.
    PMID: 19025014
    This study aimed to compare the effects of three different media on the in vivo chondrogenesis of sheep bone marrow stem cells (BMSC). Sheep BMSC were cultured in F12:DMEM + 10% FBS, chondrogenic medium containing 5ng/ml TGF,3 + 50ng/ml IGF-1 and UKM-MECC for three weeks. The cultured cells were then harvested for construct formation with fibrin. Constructed tissues were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for in vivo development. Cell aggregates were formed in both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC demonstrated the early chondrogenesis process. After five weeks of in vivo development, both chondrogenic medium and UKM-MECC promoted cartilage matrix synthesis confirmed by Safranin O staining.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media*; Cell Culture Techniques
  11. Abdul Manas NH, Chong LY, Tesfamariam YM, Zulkharnain A, Mahmud H, Abang Mahmod DS, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2020 Jun 20;317:16-26.
    PMID: 32348830 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.04.011
    Bacterial pigments are potential substitute of chemical photosensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) due to its non-toxic property and cost-effective production from microbial fermentation. Serratia nematodiphila YO1 was isolated from waterfall in Malaysia and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA. Characterization of the red pigment produced by the bacteria has confirmed the pigment as prodigiosin. Prodigiosin was produced from the fermentation of the bacteria in the presence of different oil substrates. Palm oil exhibited the best performance of cell growth and equivalent prodigiosin yield compared to olive oil and peanut oil. Prodigiosin produced with palm oil supplementation was 93 mg/l compared to 7.8 mg/l produced without supplementation, which recorded 11.9 times improvement. Specific growth rate of the cells improved 1.4 times when palm oil was supplemented in the medium. The prodigiosin pigment produced showed comparable performance as a DSSC sensitizer by displaying an open circuit voltage of 336.1 mV and a maximum short circuit current of 0.098 mV/cm2. This study stands a novelty in proving that the production of prodigiosin is favorable in the presence of palm oil substrate with high saturated fat content, which has not been studied before. This is also among the first bacterial prodigiosin tested as photosensitizer for DSSC application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media/pharmacology; Culture Media/chemistry
  12. El Enshasy HA, Elsayed EA, Suhaimi N, Malek RA, Esawy M
    BMC Biotechnol., 2018 11 09;18(1):71.
    PMID: 30413198 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-018-0481-7
    BACKGROUND: Pectinase enzymes present a high priced category of microbial enzymes with many potential applications in various food and oil industries and an estimated market share of $ 41.4 billion by 2020.

    RESULTS: The production medium was first optimized using a statistical optimization approach to increase pectinase production. A maximal enzyme concentration of 76.35 U/mL (a 2.8-fold increase compared with the initial medium) was produced in a medium composed of (g/L): pectin, 32.22; (NH4)2SO4, 4.33; K2HPO4, 1.36; MgSO4.5H2O, 0.05; KCl, 0.05; and FeSO4.5H2O, 0.10. The cultivations were then carried out in a 16-L stirred tank bioreactor in both batch and fed-batch modes to improve enzyme production, which is an important step for bioprocess industrialization. Controlling the pH at 5.5 during cultivation yielded a pectinase production of 109.63 U/mL, which was about 10% higher than the uncontrolled pH culture. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivation using sucrose as a feeding substrate with a rate of 2 g/L/h increased the enzyme production up to 450 U/mL after 126 h.

    CONCLUSIONS: Statistical medium optimization improved volumetric pectinase productivity by about 2.8 folds. Scaling-up the production process in 16-L semi-industrial stirred tank bioreactor under controlled pH further enhanced pectinase production by about 4-folds. Finally, bioreactor fed-batch cultivation using constant carbon source feeding increased maximal volumetric enzyme production by about 16.5-folds from the initial starting conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media/metabolism; Culture Media/chemistry; Batch Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation; Batch Cell Culture Techniques/methods*
  13. Yap P, Mahadeva S, Goh KL
    Dig Dis, 2014;32(3):217-21.
    PMID: 24732186 DOI: 10.1159/000357853
    Dyspepsia is a common gastroenterological problem with an estimated global prevalence between 7 and 40%. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a major economic burden to patients and healthcare systems and significantly affects patient quality of life. The ROME III definition of FD divides it into two subgroups, epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome, the former being more associated with reflux disease and the latter with gastric dysmotility. The global incidence and prevalence of FD continues to rise, but the reason for this is not clear. Rising global obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease rates may be contributing to the rise in FD. Socioeconomic and cultural demographic changes such as changing dietary habits and rapid urbanization, particularly in the developing countries, are likely to be influencing the course of FD and the way it presents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture*
  14. Lohr V, Genzel Y, Behrendt I, Scharfenberg K, Reichl U
    Vaccine, 2010 Aug 31;28(38):6256-64.
    PMID: 20638458 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.004
    An adherently growing MDCK cell line was adapted in a two-step process in a fully defined medium and in suspension. The resulting MDCK.SUS2 cells were subsequently evaluated for their potential as host cells for influenza vaccine production in two lab-scale bioreactors (wave and stirred-tank). Cell concentrations up to 2.3 x 10(6)cells/mL were obtained after 96 h, which is slightly higher than cell concentrations obtained with adherent MDCK cells cultivated on microcarriers (2g/L). Infections with influenza A/PR/8/34 and B/Malaysia resulted in high virus titers (2.90 and 2.75 log HA units/100 microL, respectively). The monitoring of extracellular metabolites, including amino acids, revealed a change in some of the metabolite consumption or release profiles, which indicates changes in metabolism during the adaptation process. Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media*
  15. Rowley SD
    Aust Health Rev, 2006 May;30(2):232-40.
    PMID: 16646772
    This paper describes how an acute tertiary referral hospital moved away from a "culture of blame", using change management principles aligned with the concept of the learning organisation. I outline the process of change, and describe its outcomes. The result is summarised as an improvement in desired attributes of the organisation's culture, as evidenced by consistent improvement in the results of a proprietary staff survey. I conclude that the concept of the learning organisation is a useful one for hospitals that seek to improve the organisational culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organizational Culture*
  16. Dashti MG, Abdeshahian P
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):172-80.
    PMID: 26980997 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.02.006
    This research was performed based on a comparative study on fungal lipid production by a locally isolated strain Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in batch culture and repeated-batch culture using a nitrogen-limited medium. Lipid production in the batch culture was conducted to study the effect of different agitation rates on the simultaneous consumption of ammonium tartrate and glucose sources. Lipid production in the repeated-batch culture was studied by considering the effect of harvesting time and harvesting volume of the culture broth on the lipid accumulation. The batch cultivation was carried out in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 200 ml of the fresh nitrogen-limited medium. Microbial culture was incubated at 30 °C under different agitation rates of 120, 180 and 250 rpm for 120 h. The repeated-batch culture was performed at three harvesting times of 12, 24 and 48 h using four harvesting cultures of 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%. Experimental results revealed that nitrogen source (ammonium tartrate) was fully utilized by C. bainieri 2A1 within 24 h in all agitation rates tested. It was also observed that a high amount of glucose in culture medium was consumed by C. bainieri 2A1 at 250 rpm agitation speed during the batch fermentation. Similar results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 2.96 g/L was obtained at an agitation rate of 250 rpm at 120 h cultivation time with the maximum lipid productivity of 7.0 × 10(-2) mg/ml/h. On the other hand, experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration produced in the repeated-batch culture was 3.30 g/L at the first cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 70% harvesting volume, while 0.23 g/L gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was produced at the last cycle of 48 h harvesting time using 80% harvesting volume.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media; Batch Cell Culture Techniques
  17. Husain AR, Hadad Y, Zainal Alam MN
    J Lab Autom, 2016 Oct;21(5):660-70.
    PMID: 26185253 DOI: 10.1177/2211068215594770
    This article presents the development of a low-cost microcontroller-based interface for a microbioreactor operation. An Arduino MEGA 2560 board with 54 digital input/outputs, including 15 pulse-width-modulation outputs, has been chosen to perform the acquisition and control of the microbioreactor. The microbioreactor (volume = 800 µL) was made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methylmethacrylate) polymers. The reactor was built to be equipped with sensors and actuators for the control of reactor temperature and the mixing speed. The article discusses the circuit of the microcontroller-based platform, describes the signal conditioning steps, and evaluates the capacity of the proposed low-cost microcontroller-based interface in terms of control accuracy and system responses. It is demonstrated that the proposed microcontroller-based platform is able to operate parallel microbioreactor operation with satisfactory performances. Control accuracy at a deviation less than 5% of the set-point values and responses in the range of few seconds have been recorded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culture Media/chemistry
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