Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Eamsobhana P, Lim PE, Yong HS
    J. Helminthol., 2015 May;89(3):317-25.
    PMID: 24622302 DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X14000108
    The Angiostrongylus lungworms are of public health and veterinary concern in many countries. At the family level, the Angiostrongylus lungworms have been included in the family Angiostrongylidae or the family Metastrongylidae. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness and suitability of the nuclear 18S (small subunit, SSU) rDNA sequences for differentiating various taxa of the genus Angiostrongylus, as well as to determine the systematics and phylogenetic relationship of Angiostrongylus species and other metastrongyloid taxa. This study revealed six 18S (SSU) haplotypes in A. cantonensis, indicating considerable genetic diversity. The uncorrected pairwise 'p' distances among A. cantonensis ranged from 0 to 0.86%. The 18S (SSU) rDNA sequences unequivocally distinguished the five Angiostrongylus species, confirmed the close relationship of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis and that of A. costaricensis and A. dujardini, and were consistent with the family status of Angiostrongylidae and Metastrongylidae. In all cases, the congeneric metastrongyloid species clustered together. There was no supporting evidence to include the genus Skrjabingylus as a member of Metastrongylidae. The genera Aelurostrongylus and Didelphostrongylus were not recovered with Angiostrongylus, indicating polyphyly of the Angiostrongylidae. Of the currently recognized families of Metastrongyloidea, only Crenosomatidae appeared to be monophyletic. In view of the unsettled questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships of various taxa of the metastrongyloid worms, further analyses using more markers and more taxa are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  2. Lim HK, Syed MA, Shukor MY
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2012 Jun;52(3):296-305.
    PMID: 22052341 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201100121
    A novel molybdate-reducing bacterium, tentatively identified as Klebsiella sp. strain hkeem and based on partial 16s rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, has been isolated. Strain hkeem produced 3 times more molybdenum blue than Serratia sp. strain Dr.Y8; the most potent Mo-reducing bacterium isolated to date. Molybdate was optimally reduced to molybdenum blue using 4.5 mM phosphate, 80 mM molybdate and using 1% (w/v) fructose as a carbon source. Molybdate reduction was optimum at 30 °C and at pH 7.3. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibited absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of electron transport system such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide, and potassium cyanide did not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme. Mercury, silver, and copper at 1 ppm inhibited molybdenum blue formation in whole cells of strain hkeem.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  3. Shukor MY, Hassan NA, Jusoh AZ, Perumal N, Shamaan NA, MacCormack WP, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2009 Jan;30(1):1-6.
    PMID: 20112855
    A diesel-degrading bacterium from Antarctica has been isolated. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRYJ3 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Growth on diesel was supported optimally by ammonium sulphate, nitrate and nitrite. The bacterium grew optimally in between 10 and 15 degrees C, pH 7.0 and 3.5% (v/v) diesel. The biodegradation of diesel oil by the strain increased in efficiency from the second to the sixth day of incubation from 1.4 to 18.8% before levelling off on the eighth day n-alkane oxidizing and aldehyde reductase activities were detected in the crude enzyme preparation suggesting the existence of terminal n-alkane oxidizing activity in this bacterium.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  4. Takeuchi Y, Chaffron S, Salcher MM, Shimizu-Inatsugi R, Kobayashi MJ, Diway B, et al.
    Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2015 Jul;38(5):330-9.
    PMID: 26138047 DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2015.05.006
    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  5. Dai X, Mak YL, Lu CK, Mei HH, Wu JJ, Lee WH, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2017 07;67:107-118.
    PMID: 28755713 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.07.002
    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of Gambierdiscus species flagged several new species and genotypes, thus leading to revitalizing its systematics. The inter-relationships of clades revealed by the primary sequence information of nuclear ribosomal genes (rDNA), however, can sometimes be equivocal, and therefore, in this study, the taxonomic status of a ribotype, Gambierdiscus sp. type 6, was evaluated using specimens collected from the original locality, Marakei Island, Republic of Kiribati; and specimens found in Rawa Island, Peninsular Malaysia, were further used for comparison. Morphologically, the ribotype cells resembled G. scabrosus, G. belizeanus, G. balechii, G. cheloniae and G. lapillus in thecal ornamentation, where the thecal surfaces are reticulate-foveated, but differed from G. scabrosus by its hatchet-shaped Plate 2', and G. belizeanus by the asymmetrical Plate 3'. To identify the phylogenetic relationship of this ribotype, a large dataset of the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) rDNAs were compiled, and performed comprehensive analyses, using Bayesian-inference, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood, for the latter two incorporating the sequence-structure information of the SSU rDNA. Both the LSU and SSU rDNA phylogenetic trees displayed an identical topology and supported the hypothesis that the relationship between Gambierdiscus sp. type 6 and G. balechii was monophyletic. As a result, the taxonomic status of Gambierdiscus sp. type 6 was revised, and assigned as Gambierdiscus balechii. Toxicity analysis using neuroblastoma N2A assay confirmed that the Central Pacific strains were toxic, ranging from 1.1 to 19.9 fg P-CTX-1 eq cell-1, but no toxicity was detected in a Western Pacific strain. This suggested that the species might be one of the species contributing to the high incidence rate of ciguatera fish poisoning in Marakei Island.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  6. Tan CK, Natrah I, Suyub IB, Edward MJ, Kaman N, Samsudin AA
    Microbiologyopen, 2019 05;8(5):e00734.
    PMID: 30353678 DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.734
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the gut microbial community of wild and captive Tor tambroides through 16S rDNA metagenetic sequencing followed by functions prediction.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The library of 16S rDNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions of gut microbiota was amplified and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. The sequencing data were analyzed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). The most abundant bacterial phyla in both wild and captive T. tambroides were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Cetobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcaceae family, Bacteroides spp., Phosphate solubilizing bacteria PSB-M-3, and Vibrio spp. were five most abundant OTU in wild T. tambroides as compared to Cetobacterium spp., Citrobacter spp., Aeromonadaceae family, Peptostreptococcaceae family and Turicibacter spp. in captive T. tambroides.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, the specimens of the wild T. tambroides contain more diverse gut microbiota than of the captive ones. The results suggested that Cetobacterium spp. is one of the core microbiota in guts of T. tambroides. Besides, high abundant Bacteroides spp., Citrobacter spp., Turicibacter spp., and Bacillus spp. may provide important functions in T. tambroides guts.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results of this study provide significant information of T. tambroides gut microbiota for further understanding of their physiological functions including growth and disease resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  7. Chew AL, Tan YS, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V
    Mycologia, 2014 Sep-Oct;106(5):976-88.
    PMID: 24891424 DOI: 10.3852/13-274
    Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  8. Freeman MA, Anshary H, Ogawa K
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6(1):336.
    PMID: 24286135 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-336
    The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  9. Tajabadi N, Mardan M, Saari N, Mustafa S, Bahreini R, Manap MY
    Braz J Microbiol, 2013;44(3):717-22.
    PMID: 24516438
    This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically "Melaleuca in Terengganu".
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  10. Lee-Cruz L, Edwards DP, Tripathi BM, Adams JM
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2013 Dec;79(23):7290-7.
    PMID: 24056463 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02541-13
    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  11. Chew AL, Tan YS, Desjardin DE, Musa MY, Sabaratnam V
    Mycologia, 2013 Sep-Oct;105(5):1325-35.
    PMID: 23709573 DOI: 10.3852/13-009
    Mycena illuminans Henn. is described and re-evaluated based on recently collected material from peninsular Malaysia, providing comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and photographs. In addition to morphological data, axenic monokaryon and dikaryon cultures were established to provide data on culture morphology and the mating system of the species. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear large subunit (LSU) gene also are presented, confirming that M. illuminans is not a synonym of Mycena chlorophos.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  12. Ngui R, Lim YA, Chua KH
    PLoS One, 2012;7(7):e41996.
    PMID: 22844538 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041996
    Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  13. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A, Otsuka Y, Choochote W
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):381-90.
    PMID: 23018501
    Simulium (Nevermannia) chomthongense sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Doi Inthanon National Park and Doi Phahompok National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This new species, first reported as S. (Eusimulium) sp. A, and later regarded as S. (N.) caudisclerum Takaoka & Davies, described from peninsular Malaysia, is distinguished from S. (N.) caudisclerum in the male by the number of enlarged upper-eye facets and the relative size of the hind basitarsus against the hind tibia and femur, and in the pupa by the relative length of the stalks of paired filaments against the common basal stalk and the color of the dorsal surface of abdominal segments 1- 3 (or 4). Taxonomic and molecular notes are provided to separate this new species from four other known species of the vernum species-group, which share an accessory sclerite on the larval abdomen, a rare characteristic in this species-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  14. Naumov GI, Lee CF, Naumova ES
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2013 Jan;103(1):217-28.
    PMID: 22941248 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-012-9803-2
    Genetic hybridization, sequence and karyotypic analyses of natural Saccharomyces yeasts isolated in different regions of Taiwan revealed three biological species: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Intraspecies variability of the D1/D2 and ITS1 rDNA sequences was detected among S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii isolates. According to molecular and genetic analyses, the cosmopolitan species S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii contain local divergent populations in Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. Six of the seven known Saccharomyces species are documented in East Asia: S. arboricola, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  15. Lim SL, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):438-43.
    PMID: 22041766
    The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  16. Tan HW, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):175-80.
    PMID: 21602784
    This study describes the killer phenotypes of tropical environmental yeasts and the inhibition effects of the culture filtrates on the biofilm of Candida albicans. A total of 26 (10.5%) of 258 yeast isolates obtained from an environmental sampling study demonstrated killer activity to Candida species. The killer yeasts were identified as species belonging to the genus Aureobasidium, Pseudozyma, Ustilago and Candida based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the yeasts. Pseudozyma showed the broadest killing effects against sensitive strains of Candida. New species of Ustilago and Pseudozyma demonstrating killer phenotypes were identified in this study. Interestingly, more than 50% reduction in the metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilm was noted after exposure to the culture filtrates of the nine killer yeasts. Purification and characterization of toxin and metabolites are essential for understanding the yeast killing effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  17. Slack AT, Khairani-Bejo S, Symonds ML, Dohnt MF, Galloway RL, Steigerwalt AG, et al.
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 2009 Apr;59(Pt 4):705-8.
    PMID: 19329592 DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.002766-0
    A single Leptospira strain (designated Bejo-Iso9(T)) was isolated from a soil sample taken in Johor, Malaysia. The isolate showed motility and morphology typical of the genus Leptospira under dark-field microscopy. Cells were found to be 10-13 microm in length and 0.2 microm in diameter, with a wavelength of 0.5 microm and an amplitude of approximately 0.2 microm. Phenotypically, strain Bejo-Iso9(T) grew in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium at 13, 30 and 37 degrees C, and also in the presence of 8-azaguanine. Serologically, strain Bejo-Iso9(T) produced titres towards several members of the Tarassovi serogroup, but was found to be serologically unique by cross-agglutinin absorption test and thus represented a novel serovar. The proposed name for this serovar is Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed this novel strain within the radiation of the genus Leptospira, with sequence similarities within the range 90.4-99.5% with respect to recognized Leptospira species. DNA-DNA hybridization against the three most closely related Leptospira species was used to confirm the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The G+C content of the genome of strain Bejo-Iso9(T) was 36.2 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, serological and phylogenetic data, strain Bejo-Iso9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Leptospira, for which the name Leptospira kmetyi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Bejo-Iso9(T) (=WHO LT1101(T)=KIT Bejo-Iso9(T)).
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  18. Chao LL, Wu WJ, Shih CM
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2009 Aug;48(4):329-44.
    PMID: 19184580 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-009-9244-4
    The genetic identity of Ixodes granulatus ticks was determined for the first time in Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 19 strains of ticks representing seven species of Ixodes and two outgroup species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis inermis). Four major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequences (92.2-99.3% similarity), and can be discriminated from other Ixodes species and other genera of ticks with a sequence divergence ranging from 11.7 to 30.8%. Moreover, intraspecific analysis revealed that two distinct lineages are evident between the same species of I. granulatus ticks collected from Taiwan and Malaysia. Our results demonstrate that all these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan represent a unique lineage distinct from the common vector ticks (I. ricinus complex) for Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  19. Jeyaprakasam NK, Razak MF, Ahmad NA, Santhanam J
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Jun;181(5-6):397-403.
    PMID: 26847667 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-9984-8
    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
  20. Zahler M, Rinder H, Zweygarth E, Fukata T, Maede Y, Schein E, et al.
    Parasitology, 2000 Apr;120 ( Pt 4):365-9.
    PMID: 10811277
    18S rDNA sequences from 4 isolates of Babesia gibsoni originating from Japan, Malaysia and Sri Lanka were compared with a previously published, 0.5 kb portion of the 18S rDNA from a B. gibsoni isolate from California, USA, and with the corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of other Babesia spp. Distance, parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses showed almost identical genotypes among the small canine Babesia from Asia, but an unexpectedly distant genetic relationship to that from the USA. While the American isolate segregated together with B. equi, the Asian isolates showed a close relationship to B. divergens and B. odocoilei. These results indicate that small Babesia of dogs originating from North America and Asia belong to different, genetically distantly related species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry
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