OBJECTIVE: To create a comprehensive conceptual model of behavioural change related to T2D medication compliance.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study will be conducted at a regional primary care clinic using a mixed-method technique. First, a Grounded Theory qualitative inquiry will be used to investigate predictors of medication adherence in T2D patients. Consequently, the elements derived from the interview will be incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework to generate an integrated behavioural model. This model will then be used to quantify the factors related to compliance with medication amongst T2D patients.
DISCUSSION: The framework developed here could help in the design of policies to optimize T2D control by identifying lapses in patients' intake of diabetic medications. This can be done by exploring the patients' fundamental and unarticulated belief system via a naturalistic approach adopted in this study. The properties of the framework can be replicated in other settings to serve as a benchmark for quality improvement in T2D patient care.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
SEARCH METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).
MAIN RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.
METHODS: As a quasi-experimental design with a control group and pre-tests., we examined 1,598 medical records of T2DM subjects in six healthcare facilities in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. In all study sites, there was a pre and post-intervention assessment of the percentage of appropriate statin therapy prescribing that complied with the clinical guidelines with no potential safety issues. The intervention was an academic detailing program offered to the health care providers in three study sites, while the other three sites served as the control group. A comparison of the overall percentage of appropriate statin therapy prescribing before and after the academic detailing was performed in all intervention and control sites.
RESULTS: Overall, 797 medical records were examined in the pre-intervention phase, and 801 records were evaluated in the post-intervention phase. The academic detailing program was associated with a statistically significant difference in the proportion of appropriate statin therapy prescribing between the post-intervention phase compared to the pre-intervention phase (n = 246, 61.7% versus n = 188, 47.1%), p = 0.001. Whereas, the appropriate statin therapy prescribing in the control study sites experienced a modest change from 53.8% (214/398) to 56.7% (228/402), p = 0.220. The academic detailing showed significant increases in the proportions of appropriate statin therapy prescribing in both hospital and primary care settings.
CONCLUSIONS: The academic detailing program was found to be significantly associated with a positive impact on the overall statin therapy prescribing among patients with T2DM in Malaysian hospital and primary care settings.