Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 162 in total

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  1. Sharifuddin Y, Chin YX, Lim PE, Phang SM
    Mar Drugs, 2015 Aug;13(8):5447-91.
    PMID: 26308010 DOI: 10.3390/md13085447
    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes' activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  2. Menon V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Jun;67(3):353-4; quiz 355.
    PMID: 23082439 MyJurnal
    Target blood sugar levels in diabetes are achieved through manipulation of diet, exercise and medication. A change in any one of these three things can skew blood sugar levels and create complications associated with hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious activity that devout Muslims practice whether they are diabetic or not. Since such fasting involves abstinence from food and water for twelve hours or more during the day from dawn to dusk, it is evident that advice regarding exercise and medication will have to be modified during this period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  3. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 20166099 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub2
    Momordica charantia is not only a nutritious vegetable, but is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  4. Ang SH, Thevarajah M, Alias Y, Khor SM
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2015 Jan 15;439:202-11.
    PMID: 25451954 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.019
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  5. Chigurupati S, Dhanaraj SA, Balakumar P
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2015 May 15;755:50-7.
    PMID: 25748601 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.02.043
    Described since long as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate the gene expression of proteins involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARs indeed regulate several physiologic processes, including lipid homeostasis, adipogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. PPARs bind natural or synthetic PPAR ligands can function as cellular sensors to regulate the gene transcription. Dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance are treated using agonists of PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. The PPARγ is a key regulator of insulin sensitization and glucose metabolism, and therefore is considered as an imperative pharmacological target to combat diabetic metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Of note, currently available PPARγ full agonists like rosiglitazone display serious adverse effects such as fluid retention/oedema, weight gain, and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, PPARγ partial agonists are being suggested to devoid or having less incidence of these undesirable events, and are under developmental stages. Current research is on the way for the development of novel PPARγ partial agonists with enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. This review sheds lights on the current status of development of PPARγ partial agonists, for the management of T2DM, having comparatively less or no adverse effects to that of PPARγ full agonists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  6. Al-Qazaz HK, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Syed Sulaiman SA, Sundram S
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2011 Jun;7(2):180-91.
    PMID: 21272545 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2010.04.005
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients' experience and knowledge about their medication play an important role in determining the success of long-term adherence in their disease management.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore diabetic patients' experience and knowledge about diabetes and its medication and to understand the factors contributing to medication adherence in Malaysian population.
    METHODS: A qualitative research approach was adopted to gain a better understanding of the current perceptions and knowledge held by diabetic patients. Twelve patients were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Saturation point of the interview was reached after the 10th interview, and no more new themes emerged from the subsequent 2 interviews. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by means of a standard content analysis framework.
    RESULTS: A total of 4 themes were identified from the interview analysis: knowledge about diabetes and its medication, experiences of adverse effects of medication, issues related to adherence, and the impact of medical and family relationships on well-being. Most of the patients were aware of the disease known as diabetes but unaware which type of diabetes they were suffering from. None of the participants knew the adverse effects of their medication, and most of them considered it to be safe. Financial barriers, forgetfulness, self-medication, and quality of relationships with doctor and family members seem to be the factors that challenge adherence in our sample of diabetic patients.
    CONCLUSION: This study identified a number of key themes that might be useful in enhancing the awareness of experiences, knowledge, adherence, and attitudes of Malaysian patients with diabetes. More efforts should be taken to estimate how diabetic patients take their medication, and a well-planned educational program is also required to educate and encourage patients to practice a healthy lifestyle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  7. Ashur ST, Shamsuddin K, Shah SA, Bosseri S, Morisky DE
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2015 Dec 13;21(10):722-8.
    PMID: 26750162
    No validation study has previously been made for the Arabic version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8(©)) as a measure for medication adherence in diabetes. This study in 2013 tested the reliability and validity of the Arabic MMAS-8 for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending a referral centre in Tripoli, Libya. A convenience sample of 103 patients self-completed the questionnaire. Reliability was tested using Cronbach alpha, average inter-item correlation and Spearman-Brown coefficient. Known-group validity was tested by comparing MMAS-8 scores of patients grouped by glycaemic control. The Arabic version showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.70) and moderate split-half reliability (r = 0.65). Known-group validity was supported as a significant association was found between medication adherence and glycaemic control, with a moderate effect size (ϕc = 0.34). The Arabic version displayed good psychometric properties and could support diabetes research and practice in Arab countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  8. Jeevanandam J, Danquah MK, Debnath S, Meka VS, Chan YS
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2015;16(10):853-70.
    PMID: 26212563
    Diabetes mellitus has been a threat to humans for many years. Amongst the different diabetes types, type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common, and this is due to drastic changes in human lifestyle such as lack of exercise, stressful life and so on. There are a large number of conventional treatment methods available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most of these methods are curative and are only applicable when the patient is highly symptomatic. Effective treatment strategies should be geared towards interfering with cellular and bio molecular mechanisms associated with the development and sustenance of the disease. In recent years, research into the medical potential of nanoparticles has been a major endeavor within the pharmaceutical industries. Nanoparticles display unique and tuneable biophysical characteristics which are determined by their shape and size. Nanoparticles have been used to manifest the properties of drugs, and as carriers for drug and vaccine delivery. Notwithstanding, there are further opportunities for nanoparticles to augment the treatment of a wide range of life threatening diseases that are yet to be explored. This review article seeks to highlight the application of potential nano-formulations in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the activity of nanomedicine supplements in reversing insulin resistance is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  9. Gillani SW
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2016;22(42):6469-6476.
    PMID: 27526787 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160813235704
    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of chronic diseases are on the rise with majority occurring in developing countries where the projected death caused by chronic diseases will reach 50 million by the year 2020.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of wireless mobile device (Telemonitoring) with Pharmacist intervention and usual care on glycemic control and clinical outcomes.
    METHOD: This study is a six-month parallel groups interventional longitudinal multi-center study with a control arm. The study participants consist of patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and attending the outpatient department (OPD) for diabetic treatment. The study protocol is approved from ministry of health Malaysia and clinical research committee (CRC). Data analysis was made using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 22 (Armok, NY).
    RESULTS: A total of 150 participants were selected to enroll in this study. Initial baseline comparison showed 'No significant difference' between the two intervention arms and control group. Findings showed that baseline dataset have no significant change among all three-arms. However last week of study showed significant (p<0.001) improvement among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm. Glycemic control seems well tolerated and managed among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm (p<0.001). The study findings also showed reduction of mean 2.72 % (HbA1c) as compare to baseline in six months. The proportion of participants experiencing hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events was significantly lower in the pharmacist intervention group compared to telemonitoring and control arm (odds ratio: 2.1381; 95% CI: 3.0267-1.6059, p<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The Pharmacist educational focus-home care program improves the patient knowledge, self-care practices and also significantly reduce the adverse events over study duration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  10. Ganesan P, Arulselvan P, Choi DK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:1097-1111.
    PMID: 28223801 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S124601
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells. However, the poor solubility and lower permeability of these phyto products results in a loss of bioactivity during processing and oral delivery, leading to a significant reduction in the bioavailability of phytobioactive compounds to treat T2DM. Recently, nanotechnological systems have been developed for use as various types of carrier systems to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds and thus obtain a greater bioavailability. Furthermore, carrier systems in most nanodelivery systems are highly biocompatible, with nonimmunologic behavior, a high degree of biodegradability, and greater mucoadhesive strength. Therefore, this review focuses on the various types of nanodelivery systems that can be used for phytobioactive compounds in treating T2DM with greater antidiabetic effects. There is also additional focus on improving the effects of various phytobioactive compounds through nanotechnological delivery to ensure a highly efficient treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  11. Jannoo Z, Mamode Khan N
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2019 May;18:30-35.
    PMID: 30419448 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2018.06.003
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing at an alarming rate in developing countries. The accompanying complications of T2DM can be reduced by maintaining a good adherence to medication and self-care activities.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate medication adherence and self-care behaviors among patients with T2DM.

    METHODS: A total of 497 subjects with T2DM were recruited from three hospitals and a government clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Previously validated scales were used to measure medication adherence (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) and diabetes self-care activities (Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities). Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the risk factors and medication adherence. Pearson χ2 test of association was used to test significant association.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 55.5 years. The mean Morisky Medication Adherence Scale score was 5.65 ± 1.97, indicating a moderate adherence level to medication. Among the subjects who had low adherence level, 50.9% were Malays, followed by 34.2% Indians. The Pearson χ2 test of association indicated a significant association (P = 0.000) between ethnicity and medication adherence. The subjects had better self-care behaviors in their general diet (mean 5.04 ± 1.88) and poor self-care behaviors in blood sugar testing (mean 2.13 ± 2.34).

    CONCLUSIONS: The Malaysians had a moderate medication adherence level, whereas they were nonadherent to blood glucose testing. Emphasis on self-care activities and medication adherence is relevant to improve outcomes in the management of T2DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  12. Swarna Nantha Y, Haque S, Swarna Nantha H
    Fam Pract, 2019 10 08;36(5):581-586.
    PMID: 30534941 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmy119
    BACKGROUND: There has been a shift in worldwide disease burden from infections to non-communicable diseases, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). Behavioural change and self-management are key to optimal T2D control. Several universal models of diabetic care have been proposed to help explain the dimensions of T2D self-care such as medication adherence, physical activity, diet and patient-doctor interaction. These models do not allow an objective and quantifiable measurement of the problems faced by patients in terms of medication compliance.

    OBJECTIVE: To create a comprehensive conceptual model of behavioural change related to T2D medication compliance.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study will be conducted at a regional primary care clinic using a mixed-method technique. First, a Grounded Theory qualitative inquiry will be used to investigate predictors of medication adherence in T2D patients. Consequently, the elements derived from the interview will be incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework to generate an integrated behavioural model. This model will then be used to quantify the factors related to compliance with medication amongst T2D patients.

    DISCUSSION: The framework developed here could help in the design of policies to optimize T2D control by identifying lapses in patients' intake of diabetic medications. This can be done by exploring the patients' fundamental and unarticulated belief system via a naturalistic approach adopted in this study. The properties of the framework can be replicated in other settings to serve as a benchmark for quality improvement in T2D patient care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  13. Abdullah NF, Khuan L, Theng CA, Sowtali SN, Juni MH
    Contemp Nurse, 2019 Feb;55(1):27-37.
    PMID: 30764733 DOI: 10.1080/10376178.2019.1583067
    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is steadily increasing worldwide, with a significant DM population in Asian countries. Adherence to medications is important to achieve good glycaemic control among patients with DM. Thus, patients' adherence to their medication regimen should be determined to optimise DM management. Aims: To determine medication adherence and the relationship between patient profile and medication adherence among patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: This study was conducted in a public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia, from December 2016 to June 2017. Data was obtained through administration of the Medication Compliance Questionnaire and an electronic medical records database. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of medication adherence. Results: A total of 232 (95.9% response rate) patients participated in this study. The overall percentage of medication adherence among patients with DM was 55.2%. The majority of participants were female (53.4%), Malay (47.0%), aged 41-64 years (55.2%; mean age, 56.69 years), married (84.5%), unemployed (60.8%) and attended secondary school (53.9%). The factors independently associated with adherence were ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.99) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (OR, 2.71; 95% CI: 1.56-4.72). Conclusions: The medication adherence among patients with DM in a public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia was low. A health intervention emphasising patient-centred care is warranted to improve DM patients' adherence to prescribed medication. Considering that Malaysia has a multi-ethnic population, the patients' ethnicity and their HbA1c levels need to be considered in the implementation of any intervention to improve medication adherence. Impact statement: Medication adherence is influenced by individual patients' characteristics. To improve adherence to the medication regimen, nurses should consider patients' profiles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  14. Al-Fakih AM, Algamal ZY, Lee MH, Aziz M, Ali HTM
    SAR QSAR Environ Res, 2019 Jun;30(6):403-416.
    PMID: 31122062 DOI: 10.1080/1062936X.2019.1607899
    Time-varying binary gravitational search algorithm (TVBGSA) is proposed for predicting antidiabetic activity of 134 dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors. To improve the performance of the binary gravitational search algorithm (BGSA) method, we propose a dynamic time-varying transfer function. A new control parameter,
    μ
    , is added in the original transfer function as a time-varying variable. The TVBGSA-based model was internally and externally validated based on

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    , Y-randomization test, and applicability domain evaluation. The validation results indicate that the proposed TVBGSA model is robust and not due to chance correlation. The descriptor selection and prediction performance of TVBGSA outperform BGSA method. TVBGSA shows higher

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    compared to obtained results by BGSA, indicating the best prediction performance of the proposed TVBGSA model. The results clearly reveal that the proposed TVBGSA method is useful for constructing reliable and robust QSARs for predicting antidiabetic activity of DPP-IV inhibitors prior to designing and experimental synthesizing of new DPP-IV inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  15. Syed A, Mohd Don Z, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Khoo EM, Lee PY, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 05 09;7(5):e014260.
    PMID: 28490553 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014260
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of apatient decision aid (PDA) for insulin initiation fulfils its purpose of facilitating patient-centred decision-making through identifying how doctors and patients interact when using the PDA during primary care consultations.
    DESIGN: Conversation analysis of seven single cases of audio-recorded/video-recorded consultations between doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes, using a PDA on starting insulin.
    SETTING: Primary care in three healthcare settings: (1) one private clinic; (2) two public community clinics and (3) one primary care clinic in a public university hospital, in Negeri Sembilan and the Klang Valley in Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Clinicians and seven patients with type 2 diabetes to whom insulin had been recommended. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample high in variance across healthcare settings, participant demographics and perspectives on insulin.
    PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Interaction between doctors and patients in a clinical consultation involving the use of a PDA about starting insulin.
    RESULTS: Doctors brought the PDA into the conversation mainly by asking information-focused 'yes/no' questions, and used the PDA for information exchange only if patients said they had not read it. While their contributions were limited by doctors' questions, some patients disclosed issues or concerns. Although doctors' PDA-related questions acted as a presequence to deliberation on starting insulin, their interactional practices raised questions on whether patients were informed and their preferences prioritised.
    CONCLUSIONS: Interactional practices can hinder effective PDA implementation, with habits from ordinary conversation potentially influencing doctors' practices and complicating their implementation of patient-centred decision-making. Effective interaction should therefore be emphasised in the design and delivery of PDAs and in training clinicians to use them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  16. Colagiuri S, Matthews D, Leiter LA, Chan SP, Sesti G, Marre M
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2018 Sep;143:1-14.
    PMID: 29802958 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.028
    The sulfonylureas are effective oral glucose-lowering agents with a long history of clinical use. While all have the same general mechanism of action, their pharmacokinetic properties are influenced by factors such as dosage, rate of absorption, duration of action, route of elimination, tissue specificity, and binding affinity for pancreatic β-cell receptor. The result is a class of agents with similar HbA1c-lowering efficacy, but well-documented differences in terms of effects on hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular and renal safety. This review examines the differences between currently available sulfonylureas with a focus on how gliclazide modified release (MR) differs from other members of this class and from newer oral antihyperglycemic agents in the form of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) and sodium- glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The first part focuses on major outcome trials that have been conducted with the sulfonylureas and new oral agents. Consideration is then given to factors important for day-to-day prescribing including efficacy and durability, weight changes, hypoglycemia, renal effects and cost. Based on current evidence, third-generation sulfonylureas such as gliclazide MR possess many of the properties desired of a type 2 diabetes drug including high glucose-lowering efficacy, once-daily oral administration, few side effects other than mild hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  17. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 22895968 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    SEARCH METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    MAIN RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  18. H S N, Paudel YN, K L K
    Life Sci., 2019 Sep 15;233:116686.
    PMID: 31348946 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116686
    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate and aggravate epileptic seizures affecting around 1% of global population making it a serious health concern. Despite the recent advances in epilepsy research, no disease-modifying treatment able to terminate epileptogenesis have been reported yet reflecting the complexity in understanding the disease pathogenesis. To overcome the current treatment gap against epilepsy, one effective approach is to explore anti-epileptic effects from a drug that are approved to treat non-epileptic diseases. In this regard, Metformin emerged as an ideal candidate which is a first line treatment option for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has conferred neuroprotection in several in vivo neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Stroke, Huntington's diseases (HD) including epilepsy. In addition, Metformin has ameliorated cognitive alteration, learning and memory induced by epilepsy as well as in animal model of AD. Herein, we review the promising findings demonstrated upon Metformin treatment against animal model of epilepsy however, the precise underlying mechanism of anti-epileptic potential of Metformin is not well understood. However, there is a growing understanding that Metformin demonstrates its anti-epileptic effect mainly via ameliorating brain oxidative damage, activation of AMPK, inhibition of mTOR pathway, downregulation of α-synuclein, reducing apoptosis, downregulation of BDNF and TrkB level. These reflects that Metformin being non-anti-epileptic drug (AED) has a potential to ameliorate the cellular pathways that were impaired in epilepsy reflecting its therapeutical potential against epileptic seizure that might plausibly overcome the limitations of today epilepsy treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*
  19. Elnaem MH, Nik Mohamed MH, Huri HZ
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(9):e0220458.
    PMID: 31536502 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220458
    OBJECTIVE: Previous reports have highlighted the suboptimal utilization and prescription of statin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Malaysian clinical practice. This study aims to test the impact of a pharmacist-led academic detailing program on improving the overall statin therapy prescribing in Malaysian hospital and primary care settings.

    METHODS: As a quasi-experimental design with a control group and pre-tests., we examined 1,598 medical records of T2DM subjects in six healthcare facilities in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. In all study sites, there was a pre and post-intervention assessment of the percentage of appropriate statin therapy prescribing that complied with the clinical guidelines with no potential safety issues. The intervention was an academic detailing program offered to the health care providers in three study sites, while the other three sites served as the control group. A comparison of the overall percentage of appropriate statin therapy prescribing before and after the academic detailing was performed in all intervention and control sites.

    RESULTS: Overall, 797 medical records were examined in the pre-intervention phase, and 801 records were evaluated in the post-intervention phase. The academic detailing program was associated with a statistically significant difference in the proportion of appropriate statin therapy prescribing between the post-intervention phase compared to the pre-intervention phase (n = 246, 61.7% versus n = 188, 47.1%), p = 0.001. Whereas, the appropriate statin therapy prescribing in the control study sites experienced a modest change from 53.8% (214/398) to 56.7% (228/402), p = 0.220. The academic detailing showed significant increases in the proportions of appropriate statin therapy prescribing in both hospital and primary care settings.

    CONCLUSIONS: The academic detailing program was found to be significantly associated with a positive impact on the overall statin therapy prescribing among patients with T2DM in Malaysian hospital and primary care settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  20. Mohamed EA, Siddiqui MJ, Ang LF, Sadikun A, Chan SH, Tan SC, et al.
    PMID: 23039079 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-176
    In the present study, we tested a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plants and its isolated bioactive compound with respect to their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
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