Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 82 in total

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  1. Hafzan, Y., Saw, J.W., Fadzilah, I.
    MyJurnal
    Previous studies proved the antioxidant properties of dates. However, studies on date byproducts especially date vinegar are still lacking. Hence, it is the aim of the present study to compare the physicochemical properties, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity between homemade and commercial date vinegar. Physicochemical properties such as total sugar content, pH, and total titratable acidity of homemade and commercial date vinegar were studied. Both homemade and commercial date vinegar showed significant difference in physicochemical properties including pH, sugar content and total titratable acidity (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  2. Drewnowski A, Tappy L, Forde CG, McCrickerd K, Tee ES, Chan P, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2019;28(3):645-663.
    PMID: 31464412 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.201909_28(3).0025
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rising obesity in Southeast Asia, one consequence of economic growth, has been linked to a rising consumption of energy from added sugars. This symposium, organized by ILSI Southeast Asia, explored regional issues related to dietary sugars and health and identified ways in which these issues could be addressed by regional regulatory agencies, food producers, and the consumer.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Papers on the following topics were presented: 1) current scientific evidence on the effects of sugars and non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, health, and eating behaviors; 2) innovations by food producers to reduce sugar consumption in the region; 3) regional dietary surveillance of sugar consumption and suggestions for consumer guidance. A panel discussion explored effective approaches to promote healthy eating in the region.

    RESULTS: Excessive consumption of energy in the form of added sugars can have adverse consequences on diet quality, lipid profiles, and health. There is a need for better surveillance of total and added sugars intakes in selected Southeast Asian countries. Among feasible alternatives to corn sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and cane sugar are indigenous sweeteners with low glycemic index (e.g., coconut sap sugar). Their health benefits should be examined and regional sugar consumption tracked in detail. Product reformulation to develop palatable lower calorie alternatives that are accepted by consumers continues to be a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Public-private collaborations to develop healthy products and effective communication strategies can facilitate consumer acceptance and adoption of healthier foods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates*
  3. Ooi CP, Loke SC, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 21491398 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007220.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal cognition and dementia in which daily function is largely intact. This condition may present an opportunity for research into the prevention of dementia. Carbohydrate is an essential and easily accessible macronutrient which influences cognitive performance. A better understanding of carbohydrate-driven cognitive changes in normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment may suggest ways to prevent or reduce cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of carbohydrates in improving cognitive function in older adults.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register on 22 June 2010 using the terms: carbohydrates OR carbohydrate OR monosaccharides OR disaccharides OR oligosaccharides OR polysaccharides OR CARBS. ALOIS contains records from all major healthcare databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCT) that have examined the efficacy of any form of carbohydrates in normal cognition and MCI.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author selected and retrieved relevant articles for further assessment. The remaining authors independently assessed whether any of the retrieved trials should be included. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. 

    MAIN RESULTS: There is no suitable RCT of any form of carbohydrates involving independent-living older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no suitable RCTs on which to base any recommendations about the use of any form of carbohydrate for enhancing cognitive performance in older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. More studies of many different carbohydrates are needed to tease out complex nutritional issues and further evaluate memory improvement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/therapeutic use*
  4. Nurul Adilah Z, Mohd Redzwan S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Jun;97(8):2277-2281.
    PMID: 28111762 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8234
    Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, long-term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini-review discusses the effects of carbohydrate, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis. Additionally, diets with low protein content worsened the symptoms related to HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a study reported that a high-protein diet favored detoxification of aflatoxin in vivo. There were also conflicting results on the influence of dietary fat, as high ingestion of fat enhanced aflatoxicosis development as compared with a low-fat diet. Moreover, the type of fat also plays a significant role in influencing aflatoxin toxicity. In regard to food safety, understanding the influence of macronutrients toward the progression of aflatoxicosis can improve preventive measures against human and animal exposure to aflatoxin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism
  5. Loke PY, Lee CY
    J Econ Entomol, 2006 Feb;99(1):129-33.
    PMID: 16573333
    Monomorium orientale Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a common structure- and food-infesting ant in Asia. There is only limited information on the biology and habits of this species, especially on the preferred foods and distribution of nutrients in colonies. We conducted a laboratory study on the distribution of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, which were represented by respective food sources, in M. orientale colonies. Three colony conditions were applied: normal, with a balanced ratio of castes, queenless (only workers and brood), and broodless (only queens and workers). Food sources were stained to track the flow of the respective food in the colonies. Results revealed that carbohydrates had rapid distribution, with > 60% of the colony indicated in 24 h, in all colony conditions. Queens in all colonies did not feed on protein. Protein showed a more delayed distribution in the brood in all colony conditions; < 10% of the colony fed on protein by 24 h. Only queens in broodless colonies showed signs of feeding on lipid, with < 10% indicated in 24 h. Workers in all colonies fed on lipid as soon as it was delivered, whereas the brood only began to reveal feeding response after 24 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism
  6. Shyam S, Wai TN, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):201-8.
    PMID: 22507605
    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects; Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis*; Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism
  7. Koh, P.C., Leong, C.M., Noranizan, M.A.
    MyJurnal
    Pectin is a heterogeneous branched polysaccharide with complex structure. Microwave-assisted
    extraction (MAE) is more efficient in extracting pectin compared to conventional method. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of microwave-assisted pectin extraction against conventional extraction method. This study was also to investigate the effect of power level on yield and quality of extracted pectin from jackfruit rinds. Water-based extraction method was performed with the extraction duration for conventional extraction and MAE were 1 h and 10 min, respectively. The temperature of conventional extraction was set at 90°C and the power levels of MAE were 450 W, 600 W and 800 W. High yield of pectin was obtained from conventional extraction (14.59%) and MAE (16.72-17.63%). All quality characteristics determined were found to be insignificant different for pectin extracted from both conventional extraction and MAE except moisture and ash content. Increase in microwave power did not affect yield and quality characteristics of pectin from jackfruit rinds significantly. In conclusion, MAE requires shorter time than conventional extraction in extracting comparable amount and quality of pectin from jackfruit rinds. Microwave-assisted extraction at 450 W was the most effective and economic extraction condition among the different power levels tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  8. Kanmani N, Romano N, Ebrahimi M, Nurul Amin SM, Kamarudin MS, Karami A, et al.
    Food Chem, 2018 Jan 15;239:1037-1046.
    PMID: 28873520 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.07.061
    A 9-week study was conducted to compare dietary corn starch (CS) or tapioca starch (TS), with or without being pre-gelatinized (PG), on the growth, feeding efficiencies, plasma and muscle biochemistry, intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and liver glycogen of triplicate groups of 20 red hybrid tilapia (Orecohromis sp.). Various pellet characteristics were evaluated, along with their surface and cross sectional microstructure. The PG diets had significantly higher water stability, bulk density, and protein solubility, along with a smoother surface. Tilapia fed the TS diet had lower growth than had all other tilapia, but were significantly improved when diet was pre-gelatinized. In the PG treatments, intestinal SCFA significantly decreased while plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver glycogen, significantly increased. Fish fed the CS diet had significantly more long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid than had those fed by other treatments. Pre-gelatinization may improve fish productivity and offer greater flexibility during aquafeed production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  9. Wu KL, Kuo CM, Yao CC, Tai WC, Chuah SK, Lim CS, et al.
    J Formos Med Assoc, 2018 Nov;117(11):973-978.
    PMID: 29339035 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfma.2017.11.001
    BACKGROUND: Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease.

    METHODS: Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded.

    RESULTS: There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet.

    CONCLUSION: More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage; Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects*
  10. Robert SD, Ismail AA, Winn T, Wolever TM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008;17(1):35-9.
    PMID: 18364324
    The objective of the present study was to measure the glycemic index of durian, papaya, pineapple and water-melon grown in Malaysia. Ten (10) healthy volunteers (5 females, 5 males; body mass index 21.18+/-1.7 kg/m2) consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate portions of glucose (reference food) and four test foods (durian, papaya, pineapple and watermelon) in random order after an overnight fast. Glucose was tested on three separate occasions, and the test foods were each tested once. Postprandial plasma glucose was measured at intervals for two hours after intake of the test foods. Incremental areas under the curve were calculated, and the glycemic index was determined by expressing the area under the curve after the test foods as a percentage of the mean area under the curve after glucose. The results showed that the area under the curve after pineapple, 232+/-24 mmolxmin/L, was significantly greater than those after papaya, 147+/-14, watermelon, 139+/-8, and durian, 124+/-13 mmolxmin/L (p<0.05). Similarly, the glycemic index of pineapple, 82+/-4, was significantly greater than those of papaya, 58+/-6, watermelon, 55+/-3, and durian, 49+/-5 (p<0.05). The differences in area under the curve and glycemic index among papaya, watermelon and durian were not statistically significant. We conclude that pineapple has a high glycemic index, whereas papaya is intermediate and watermelon and durian are low glycemic index foods. The validity of these results depends on the accuracy of the data in the food tables upon which the portion sizes tested were based.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/classification; Dietary Carbohydrates/pharmacokinetics*
  11. Ishak SD, Kamarudin MS, Ramezani-Fard E, Saad CR, Yusof YA
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):755-64.
    PMID: 28779735
    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage; Dietary Carbohydrates/pharmacology*
  12. Wong SK, Chin KY, Suhaimi FH, Ahmad F, Jamil NA, Ima-Nirwana S
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Feb;98:191-200.
    PMID: 29257979 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.12.042
    This study aimed to investigate the bone quality in rats induced with metabolic syndrome (MetS) using high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 14) were randomized into two groups. The normal group was given standard rat chow. The MetS group was given HCHF diet. Diet regimen was assigned for a period of 20 weeks. Metabolic syndrome parameters were measured monthly until MetS was established. Left tibiae were scanned using micro-computed tomography at week 0, 8, 12, 16, and 20 to analyze the trabecular and cortical bone structure. At the end of the study, rats were euthanized and their bones were harvested for analysis. Metabolic syndrome was established at week 12 in the HCHF rats. Significant deterioration of trabecular bone was observed at week 20 in the HCHF group (p  0.05). Femur length and width in the HCHF group were significantly shorter than the normal group (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage; Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects*
  13. Chandrasekharan N, Bhattathiry EP
    Am J Clin Nutr, 1968 Feb;21(2):183-4.
    PMID: 5642892
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  14. Nadzirah, K.Z., Zainal, S., Noriham, A., Normah, I., Siti Roha, A.M., Nadya, H.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study is to determine colour changes during storage and physico- chemical properties of peel, core and crown extracts of pineapple variety N36 for maturity indices of 1, 2 and 3. The L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values for peels increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) at each maturity stage during seven days storage. pH of pineapple peel, core and crown extracts were in the range of 3.24 to 3.84. The titratable acidity, percentage of pulp and Total Soluble Solid (TSS) of pineapple peel, core and crown extracts were in the range of 0.16 to 0.36%, 1.37 to 2.91% and 1.4 to 5.3˚Brix, respectively. Fructose and glucose contents were significantly highest (p ≤ 0.05) in pineapple core extract followed by pineapple peel extract and pineapple crown extract for maturity index 2. Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found in sucrose content between pineapple core and peel extracts with 8.92% and 3.87%, respectively for maturity index 3. However, sucrose was not detected in pineapple crown extract. Pineapple core extract was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) amount of total sugar content compared to pineapple peel and crown extracts for all maturity indices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  15. Ho, L.-H., Tang, J.Y.H., Mazaitul Akma, S., Mohd Aiman, H., Roslan, A.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of this research is to develop an “energy” snack bar supplying energy and
    electrolytes in one bar by utilizing local Malaysian ingredients. The local ingredients used to make
    this snack bar were banana, glutinous rice flour, and coconut milk. It is a wholesome nutritious
    food for different age groups from adolescents to elderly people. Proximate composition, total
    carbohydrate, energy value, and sensory quality of prototype were determined. The developed
    snack bar contains 13.23% of moisture, 1.13% of ash, 6.36% of crude protein, 22.39% of
    crude fat, 1.16% of crude fibre, 56.89% of total carbohydrate, and 454.51 kcal of energy. The
    “energy” snack bar was highly acceptable with desirable sensory quality by all consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  16. Jing Wen Kok, Tengku Rozaina Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina Tengku Mohamad
    MyJurnal
    Mango is one of the popular fruits in Malaysia and has been used in the jam, puree and drinks production. Production of food products using mango pulp has generated by-products such as peel and kernel. Disposal of these by-products will cause environmental pollution if not properly treated. Mango peel contains high nutritional composition and antioxidant properties and can be utilised as food ingredients. The objectives of this study are to determine the nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of the peels of two selected mango varieties, namely Golden Lily and Chokanan. Analysis of proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) were carried out in this study. Results of the proximate analysis showed that the peels of both mango varieties were a good source of fibre, which were 14.45% for Golden Lily and 14.89% for Chokanan. The crude fat, crude protein, and total carbohydrate of Chokanan peel (2.62%, 4.67% and 57.74%, respectively) were higher than the Golden Lily peel (1.13%, 2.90% and 53.16%, respectively). Contrastingly, the moisture content of the Golden Lily peel (24.67%) was higher than the Chokanan peel (16.61%). Potassium was the main mineral found in both Golden Lily and Chokanan mango peels (8802.10 mg/kg and 8443.60 mg/kg, respectively). The total phenolic compounds in the peels of both mango varieties were not significantly different. The Chokanan peel contained a higher carotenoids content (35.26 µg/g) than the Golden Lily peel (15.03 µg/g). The ABTS value for Chokanan peel was higher (1406.00 μmol TE/g) than Golden Lily peel (1314.00 μmol TE/g). This study showed that Chokanan and Golden Lily mango peels have the potential to be utilised as ingredient in food products due to their high fibre content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  17. Siner A, Sevanesan MS, Ambomai T, Abd Wahab Z, Lasem L
    BMC Res Notes, 2020 Aug 28;13(1):404.
    PMID: 32859257 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-020-05250-8
    OBJECTIVE: Glycaemic Index (GI) ranks the body's response to carbohydrate content in food such that high GI food increases postprandial blood glucose levels. One of the popular drinks at food and beverage outlets is a drink made from calamansi, a citrus that is believed not to induce an increase in blood glucose levels. In this non-randomised single-blind (participants) study, capillary blood from 10 healthy males were sampled following consumption of either glucose or the calamansi drink. The blood glucose measurements were then used to calculate the GI for the drink.

    RESULTS: The GI of the calamansi drink tested was calculated as 37, a value within the range of low GI foods. Trial registration Clinical Trials identifier NCT04462016; Retrospectively registered on July 1, 2020.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates
  18. Yary T, Soleimannejad K, Abd Rahim F, Kandiah M, Aazami S, Poor SJ, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2010;9:133.
    PMID: 21087475 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-9-133
    BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvements in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), it is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the Iranian population. Epidemiological studies have documented that risk factors including smoking and the biochemical profile are responsible for the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Psychological factors have been discussed as potential risk factors for coronary heart disease. Among emotional factors, depression correlates with coronary heart disease, particularly myocardial infarction.
    METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 120 cases (69 males and 51 females) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 120 controls, with a mean age of 62.48 ± 15.39 years. Cases and controls were matched by age, residence and sex.
    RESULTS: The results revealed that severe depression was independently associated with the risk of AMI (P = 0.025, OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.8). The analysis of variables indicated that risk factors for developing depression were unmarried, low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), total dietary fiber (TDF) and carbohydrates. The levels of these dietary factors were lowest in severely depressed patients compared to those categorised as moderate or mild cases. Furthermore, severely depressed subjects were associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and WHR. Age, income, a family history of coronary heart disease, education level, sex, employment and smoking were not associated with severe depression.
    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that severe depression symptoms are independent risk factors for AMI. Furthermore, severe depression was associated with an unhealthy diet and AMI risk factors.
    Study site: Mostafa Hospital, Ilam Province, Iran
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates*
  19. Ahmad H, Singh R, Ghosh AK
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2009 Aug;130(2):160-5.
    PMID: 19797813
    Sago (Metroxylin sagu) is one of the main sources of native starch. In Malaysia sago dishes are commonly eaten with sugar. However, other societies use sago as a staple food item instead of rice or potato. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingestion of different physical forms of sago supplementation on plasma glucose and plasma insulin responses, as compared to the white bread supplementation in man, during resting condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/metabolism*
  20. Brand-Miller J, Atkinson F, Rowan A
    Nutrients, 2013 Jan;5(1):23-31.
    PMID: 23306187 DOI: 10.3390/nu5010023
    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/administration & dosage*
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