OBJECTIVE: Use dietary diversity data to explore consumption patterns of fish and high-quality food items within the household and examine factors associated with delayed introduction of fish to infants and young children.
METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 496 households with children <36 months participating in the Aquaculture for Income and Nutrition project in Bangladesh. Data collected included household characteristics, women's dietary diversity score, and minimum dietary diversity score along with data on Infant and Young Child Feeding practices.
RESULTS: Most children (63.4%) met the threshold for minimum dietary diversity. Despite having received extensive nutrition education related to including fish in complementary foods, only half of the caretakers introduced fish at 6 months and the mean age of introduction of small fish was 8.7 months. Meat and fish were not common in infant diets but increased with child age. Concerns about bones were a major barrier to incorporating fish into infant diets.
CONCLUSION: Given its nutrient profile and widespread availability in certain contexts, fish could be an underutilized opportunity to improve nutrition and health outcomes of infants and young children. Further research, including utilizing food processing technologies, is needed to develop appropriate responses to overcome these barriers.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.
SETTING: The Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHeART) study.
PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen-year-old secondary school children who have given consent and who participated in the MyHeART study in 2014.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Muscle strength was measured in relation to dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) and physical activity by using a hand grip dynamometer.
RESULTS: Among the 1012 participants (395 male; 617 female), the hand grip strength of the males was higher than that of the females (27.08 kg vs 18.63 kg; p<0.001). Also, males were more active (2.43vs2.12; p<0.001) and consumed a higher amount of energy (2047 kcal vs 1738 kcal; p<0.001), carbohydrate (280.71 g vs 229.31 g; p<0.001) and protein (1.46 g/kg body weight (BW) vs 1.35 g/kg BW; p<0.168). After controlling for ethnicity, place of residency and body mass index, there was a positive relationship between hand grip strength and the intake of energy (r=0.14; p=0.006), carbohydrate (r=0.153; p=0.002) and fat (r=0.124; p=0.014) and the physical activity score (r=0.170; p=0.001) and a negative relationship between hand grip strength and the intake of protein (r=-0.134; p=0.008), for males. However, this was not observed among females.
CONCLUSIONS: Energy, carbohydrate and fat intakes and physical activity score were positively correlated with hand grip strength while protein intake was negatively correlated with hand grip strength in males but not in females.
DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial.
SETTING: Diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 participants with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-70 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either probiotics (n = 68) or placebo (n = 68) for 12 weeks.
OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were glycemic control-related parameters, and secondary outcomes were anthropomorphic variables, lipid profile, blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium quantities were measured before and after intervention as an indicator of successful passage of the supplement through gastrointestinal tract.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed on all participants, while per-protocol (PP) analysis was performed on those participants who had successfully completed the trial with good compliance rate.
RESULTS: With respect to primary outcomes, glycated hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 % in the probiotics and increased by 0.02 % in the placebo group in PP analysis (p
METHODS: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders.
RESULTS: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (-22 g/year; 95 % CI -33 to -10) and women (-18 g/year; 95 % CI -26 to -11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.