METHODS: Xenical 120 mg capsules (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) were used as reference material. Generic products were from India, Malaysia, Argentina, Philippines, Uruguay, and Taiwan. Colour, melting temperature, crystalline form, particle size, capsule fill mass, active pharmaceutical ingredient content, amount of impurities, and dissolution were compared. Standard physical and chemical laboratory tests were those developed by Roche for Xenical.
RESULTS: All nine generic products failed the Xenical specifications in four or more tests, and two generic products failed in seven tests. A failure common to all generic products was the amount of impurities present, mostly due to different by-products, including side-chain homologues not present in Xenical. Some impurities were unidentified. Two generic products tested failed the dissolution test, one product formed a capsule-shaped agglomerate on storage and resulted in poor (=15%) dissolution. Six generic products were powder formulations.
CONCLUSIONS: All tested generic orlistat products were pharmaceutically inferior to Xenical. The high levels of impurities in generic orlistat products are a major safety and tolerability concern.
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted to investigate the most preferred OSDF and the degree to which swallowing solid medication is an issue, to assess perceptions of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF, and to find predictors of the most preferred OSDF.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study, through convenience sample method, was conducted to survey consumers visiting community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq. Data was collected by self-administered and pre-piloted questionnaires, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Chi-square tests were used at alpha level = 0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 1,000 questionnaire were included in the analysis. Of all respondents, 52.9 % preferred capsule among other OSDF and this preference varied significantly with a number of socio-demographic factors. Ease of swallowing solid medication was the main issue which resulted in preferences for a particular form. A negative perception of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF was found among 89.1 % of the consumers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, ease of swallowing, and perceptions of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF were significant predictors of capsule preferences.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the fact that consumers are the end users of medicines and their preferences may influence response to the treatment, efforts are worthwhile by the prescribers and medicines' manufactures to understand consumers' preferences of a particular dosage form in order to achieve successful therapy outcomes.
METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.
RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.
CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.