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  1. M Hanif A, Bushra R, Ismail NE, Bano R, Abedin S, Alam S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2021 May;34(3(Supplementary)):1081-1087.
    PMID: 34602436
    The current investigation is based on efficient method development for the quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms, as no pharmacopoeial method for the drug is available so far. The developed analytical method was validated as per ICH guidelines. C18 column with mobile phase (pH 4.8) consisted of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution and acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) was used for drug analysis. The calibration plot showed good linear regression (r2>0.999) over the concentration of 0.025-30 μg mL-1. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.020 μg mL-1 and 0.061 μg mL-1, respectively. The percentage recovery was estimated between 98.0 to 100.13%. Accuracy and precision data were found to be less than 2%, indicating the suitability of method for routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, the drug solution was found to be stable in refrigerator and ambient room temperature with mean % accuracy of >98%. Empagliflozin contents were also tested in both the raw API and marketed tablet brands using this newly developed method. The mean assay of raw empagliflozin and tablet brands were ranged from 99.29%±1.12 to 100.95%±1.69 and 97.18%±1.59 to 98.92%±1.00 respectively. Based on these findings, the present investigated approach is suitable for quantification of empagliflozin in raw and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  2. Yuen KH
    Int J Pharm, 2010 Aug 16;395(1-2):9-16.
    PMID: 20478371 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.04.045
    The human small intestine, with its enormous absorptive surface area, is invariably the principal site of drug absorption. Hence, the residence time of a dosage form in this part of the gut can have a great influence on the absorption of the contained drug. Various methods have been employed to monitor the gastrointestinal transit of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but the use of gamma-scintigraphy has superceded all the other methods. However, careful consideration of the time interval for image acquisition and proper analysis of the scintigraphic data are important for obtaining reliable results. Most studies reported the mean small intestinal transit time of various dosage forms to be about 3-4h, being closely similar to that of food and water. The value does not appear to be influenced by their physical state nor the presence of food, but the timing of food intake following administration of the dosage forms can influence the small intestinal transit time. While the mean small intestinal transit time is quite consistent among dosage forms and studies, individual values can vary widely. There are differing opinions regarding the effect of density and size of dosage forms on their small intestinal transit properties. Some common excipients employed in pharmaceutical formulations can affect the small intestinal transit and drug absorption. There is currently a lack of studies regarding the effects of excipients, as well as the timing of food intake on the small intestinal transit of dosage forms and drug absorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms*
  3. Wong TW
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2008 Apr;5(2):77-84.
    PMID: 18393808
    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  4. Khan N, Craig DQ
    J Pharm Sci, 2004 Dec;93(12):2962-71.
    PMID: 15459945
    Gelucire 50/13 alone and solid dispersions in this material containing two model drugs (10% w/w caffeine and paracetamol) have been studied with a view to establishing the mechanism underpinning changes in drug-release characteristics as a function of storage time and temperature. The lipid systems were fabricated into tablets and stored for up to 180 days at temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C. The dispersions were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, and dissolution testing. DSC studies indicated that the Gelucire 50/13 exists in two principal melting forms (melting points 38 and 43 degrees C) that undergo transformation to the higher melting form on storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the systems exhibit "blooming," with crystal formation on the surface being apparent on storage at both temperatures. The dissolution rate increased on storage, with the effect being particularly marked at higher storage temperatures and for the paracetamol systems. However, whereas these changes corresponded well to those seen for the morphology, the correlation between the changes in dissolution and those of the DSC profiles was poor. The study has suggested a novel explanation for the storage instability of Gelucire 50/13 whereby the change in dissolution is associated not with molecular rearrangement as such but with the gross distribution of the constituent components, this in turn altering the physical integrity of the lipid bases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  5. Zaharuddin ND, Noordin MI, Kadivar A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:735891.
    PMID: 24678512 DOI: 10.1155/2014/735891
    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms*
  6. Taylor PW, Arnet I, Fischer A, Simpson IN
    Obes Facts, 2010 Aug;3(4):231-7.
    PMID: 20823686 DOI: 10.1159/000319450
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmaceutical quality of Xenical (chemically produced orlistat) with nine generic products, each produced by fermentation processes.

    METHODS: Xenical 120 mg capsules (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) were used as reference material. Generic products were from India, Malaysia, Argentina, Philippines, Uruguay, and Taiwan. Colour, melting temperature, crystalline form, particle size, capsule fill mass, active pharmaceutical ingredient content, amount of impurities, and dissolution were compared. Standard physical and chemical laboratory tests were those developed by Roche for Xenical.

    RESULTS: All nine generic products failed the Xenical specifications in four or more tests, and two generic products failed in seven tests. A failure common to all generic products was the amount of impurities present, mostly due to different by-products, including side-chain homologues not present in Xenical. Some impurities were unidentified. Two generic products tested failed the dissolution test, one product formed a capsule-shaped agglomerate on storage and resulted in poor (=15%) dissolution. Six generic products were powder formulations.

    CONCLUSIONS: All tested generic orlistat products were pharmaceutically inferior to Xenical. The high levels of impurities in generic orlistat products are a major safety and tolerability concern.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  7. Al Azzam KM, Saad B, Adnan R, Aboul-Enein HY
    Anal Chim Acta, 2010 Aug 3;674(2):249-55.
    PMID: 20678638 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.06.046
    A capillary electrophoretic method for the separation of the enantiomers of both ofloxacin and ornidazole is described. Several parameters affecting the separation were studied, including the type and concentration of chiral selector, buffer pH, voltage and temperature. Good chiral separation of the racemic mixtures was achieved in less than 16 min with resolution factors Rs=5.45 and 6.28 for ofloxacin and ornidazole enantiomers, respectively. Separation was conducted using a bare fused-silica capillary and a background electrolyte (BGE) of 50 mM H(3)PO(4)-1 M tris solution; pH 1.85; containing 30 mg mL(-1) of sulfated-beta-cyclodextrin (S-beta-CD). The separation was carried out in reversed polarity mode at 25 degrees C, 18 kV, detection wavelength at 230 nm and using hydrodynamic injection for 15 s. Acceptable validation criteria for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy were studied. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) of the enantiomers (ofloxacin enantiomer 1 (OF-E1), ofloxacin enantiomer 2 (OF-E2), ornidazole enantiomer 1 (OR-E1) and ornidazole enantiomer 2 (OR-E2)) were (0.52, 0.46, 0.54, 0.89) and (1.59, 1.40, 3.07, 2.70) microg mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of enantiomers of both ofloxacin and ornidazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The computational calculations for the enantiomeric inclusion complexes rationalized the reasons for the different migration times between the ofloxacin and ornidazole enantiomers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  8. Goh BL, Jalil R, Koh SN, Chua CT, Tan SY
    Transplant Proc, 1998 Nov;30(7):3535-6.
    PMID: 9838548
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  9. Ibrahim IR, Ibrahim MI, Al-Haddad MS
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2012 Oct;34(5):728-32.
    PMID: 22744843 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-012-9667-6
    BACKGROUND: Beyond the direct pharmacological effect of medicines, preferences and perceptions toward a particular oral solid dosage form (OSDF) play a crucial role in recovery and may reduce adherence to the prescribed treatment.

    OBJECTIVES: This study conducted to investigate the most preferred OSDF and the degree to which swallowing solid medication is an issue, to assess perceptions of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF, and to find predictors of the most preferred OSDF.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study, through convenience sample method, was conducted to survey consumers visiting community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq. Data was collected by self-administered and pre-piloted questionnaires, and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Chi-square tests were used at alpha level = 0.05.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,000 questionnaire were included in the analysis. Of all respondents, 52.9 % preferred capsule among other OSDF and this preference varied significantly with a number of socio-demographic factors. Ease of swallowing solid medication was the main issue which resulted in preferences for a particular form. A negative perception of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF was found among 89.1 % of the consumers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, ease of swallowing, and perceptions of the therapeutic benefits of the OSDF were significant predictors of capsule preferences.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the fact that consumers are the end users of medicines and their preferences may influence response to the treatment, efforts are worthwhile by the prescribers and medicines' manufactures to understand consumers' preferences of a particular dosage form in order to achieve successful therapy outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  10. Wong TW, Nurjaya S
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2008 May;69(1):176-88.
    PMID: 17980563
    The effects of microwave irradiation on the drug release property of pectinate beads loaded internally with chitosan (chitosan-pectinate beads) were investigated against the pectinate beads and beads coacervated with chitosan externally (pectinate-chitosonium beads). These beads were prepared by an extrusion method using sodium diclofenac as the model water-soluble drug. The beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 5, 10, 21 and 40 min. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug-polymer interaction and polymer-polymer interaction were determined by drug dissolution testing, drug content assay, drug adsorption study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Treatment of pectinate beads by microwave did not lead to a decrease, but an increase in the extent of drug released at 4h of dissolution owing to reduced pectin-pectin interaction via the CO moiety of polymer. In addition, the extent of drug released from the pectinate beads could not be reduced merely through the coacervation of pectinate matrix with chitosan. The reduction in the extent of drug released from the pectinate-chitosonium beads required the treatment of these beads by microwave, following an increase in drug-polymer and polymer-polymer interaction in the matrix. The extent of drug released from the pectinate beads was reduced through incorporating chitosan directly into the interior of pectinate matrix, owing to drug-chitosan adsorption. Nonetheless, the treatment of chitosan-pectinate matrix by microwave brought about an increase in the extent of drug released unlike those of pectinate-chitosonium beads. Apparently, the loading of chitosan into the interior of pectinate matrix could effectively retard the drug release without subjecting the beads to the treatment of microwave. The microwave was merely essential to reduce the release of drug from pectinate beads when the chitosan was introduced to the pectinate matrix by means of coacervation. Under the influences of microwave, the drug release property of beads made of pectin and chitosan was mainly modulated via the CH, OH and NH moieties of polymers and drug, with CH functional group purported to retard while OH and NH moieties purported to enhance the drug released from the matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  11. Anuar NK, Wui WT, Ghodgaonkar DK, Taib MN
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2007 Jan 17;43(2):549-57.
    PMID: 16978823
    The applicability of microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique in characterization of matrix property of pharmaceutical films was investigated. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and loratadine were selected as model matrix polymer and drug, respectively. Both blank and drug loaded hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method and were conditioned at the relative humidity of 25, 50 and 75% prior to physicochemical characterization using microwave NDT technique as well as ultraviolet spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The results indicated that blank hydroxypropylmethylcellulose film exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer interaction at the O-H and C-H domains of the polymer chains upon conditioned at a lower level of relative humidity. In the case of loratadine loaded films, a greater propensity of polymer-polymer and/or drug-polymer interaction via the O-H moiety was mediated in samples conditioned at the lower level of relative humidity, and via the C-H moiety when 50% relative humidity was selected as the condition for sample storage. Apparently, the absorption and transmission characteristics of both blank and drug loaded films for microwave varied with the state of polymer-polymer and/or drug-polymer interaction involving the O-H and C-H moieties. The measurement of microwave NDT test at 8GHz was sensitive to the chemical environment involving O-H moiety while it was greatly governed by the C-H moiety in test conducted at a higher frequency band of microwave. Similar observation was obtained with respect to the profiles of microwave NDT measurements against the state of polymer-polymer and/or drug-polymer interaction of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films containing chlorpheniramine maleate. The microwave NDT measurement is potentially suitable for use as an apparent indicator of the state of polymer-polymer and drug-polymer interaction of the matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  12. Peck CC, Lewis AN, Joyce BE
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1975 Jun;69(2):141-5.
    PMID: 1155986
    Serum was collected from six adults participating in a field trial of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in combination which was being administered once monthly for malaria suppression. Samples were drawn during each of two consecutive months three hours, and 7, 14 and 28 days following a dose of 1 500 mg sulfadoxine. Serum sulfadoxine concentration was measured using the method of Bratton and Marshall (1939). Initial serum concentrations averaged 19-9 plus or minus 2-4 (SD) mg/100 ml and decayed to 6-2 plus or minus 2-8 mg/100 ml at 14 days. Serum sulfadoxine concentrations were still detectable at 28 days following a dose (2-1 plus or minus 1-5 mg/100 ml). Elimination half-time averaged 195 plus or minus 44 hours. The presistent serum concentrations of sulfadoxine following monthly doses documented here during field-use of this drug are in agreement with the successful clinical results reported for such a regimen (Lewis and Ponnampalam, 1974; O'Holohan and Hugoe-Mathews, 1971; Wolfensberger, 1971).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
  13. Kumar H, Mishra G, Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):203-214.
    PMID: 28521670 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170515113936
    BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo; to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain.

    METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.

    RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.

    CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dosage Forms
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