Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 110 in total

  1. Jaradi H, Tay KH, Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Jun;44(2):143-6.
    PMID: 2626122
    The 'Priming principle' applied to non-depolarizing muscle relaxant atracurium was studied in 60 patients. This was a double blind study. The conditions observed for intubation were graded and the efficacy of priming dose of atracurium for shortening the onset time of intubation was studied. The patients were of ASA classification I and II and received standard premedication. The purpose of the study was to use the priming dose of atracurium to shorten the onset time of intubating dose of atracurium. This would be desirable in conditions requiring rapid intubation and in situations when the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium is contra-indicated. The results were statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  2. Salman S, Bendel D, Lee TC, Templeton D, Davis TM
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2015;59(6):3197-207.
    PMID: 25801553 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.05013-14
    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two open-label studies. In study 1, 16 healthy males were randomized to each of four single-dose treatments administered in random order: (i) 15.0 mg of sublingual artemether (5 × 3.0 actuations), (ii) 30.0 mg of sublingual artemether (10 × 3.0 mg), (iii) 30.0 mg of sublingual artemether (5 × 6.0 mg), and (iv) 30.0 mg of artemether in tablet form. In study 2, 16 healthy males were randomized to eight 30.0-mg doses of sublingual artemether given over 5 days as either 10 3.0-mg or 5 6.0-mg actuations. Frequent blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population compartmental pharmacokinetic models were developed. In study 1, sublingual artemether absorption was biphasic, with both rate constants being greater than that of the artemether tablets (1.46 and 1.66 versus 0.43/h, respectively). Relative to the tablets, sublingual artemether had greater bioavailability (≥1.24), with the greatest relative bioavailability occurring in the 30.0-mg dose groups (≥1.58). In study 2, there was evidence that the first absorption phase accounted for between 32% and 69% of the total dose and avoided first-pass (FP) metabolism, with an increase in FP metabolism occurring in later versus earlier doses but with no difference in bioavailability between the dose actuations. Sublingual artemether is more rapidly and completely absorbed than are equivalent doses of artemether tablets in healthy adults. Its disposition appears to be complex, with two absorption phases, the first representing pregastrointestinal absorption, as well as dose-dependent bioavailability and autoinduction of metabolism with multiple dosing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  3. Jamaludin A, Mohamad M, Navaratnam V, Yeoh PY, Wernsdorfer WH
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1990 Sep;41(3):268-72.
    PMID: 2255843
    A pharmacokinetic study with 12-hourly doses of 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride over 15 days has been conducted in six adult male Malaysian volunteers. Steady state for proguanil was established after the fourth dose on Day 2, for the active metabolite cycloguanil as from Day 3 inclusive. The steady state mean peak concentration of proguanil was 1201.6 +/- 132.4 nmol/l, the mean trough concentration 650.0 +/- 58.1 nmol/l. The corresponding values for cycloguanil were 317.0 +/- 44.4 nmol/l (mean peak) and 230.8 +/- 35.1 nmol/l (mean trough). The profiles and peak/trough ratios of proguanil and cycloguanil with 12-hourly dosing offer better prospects for protection against malaria than those obtained with 24-hourly doses of 200 mg proguanil hydrochloride, the current routine in malaria chemoprophylaxis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  4. Ab Rahman AF, Md Sahak N, Ali AM
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2017 Feb;25(1):75-80.
    PMID: 28097717 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12336
    OBJECTIVES: Published nomograms to monitor extended-interval dosing (EID) gentamicin therapy were based on a fixed dose of 5 or 7 mg/kg. However, the average dose used for EID gentamicin regimen in our setting was about 3 mg/kg per day. We developed a new method of monitoring based on the duration of drug-free period (DFP) in a 24-h dosing interval.

    METHODS: Hospitalised adult patients on EID gentamicin were selected. We considered a DFP of between 2 and 8 h as appropriate. Data from two blood samples (2 and 6 h postdose) from each patient were used to estimate the duration of DFP (i.e. DFP method 1). DFP was also calculated for the same patient using an empirically estimated elimination rate constant (Ke ) and the same 6 h postdose concentration value (DFP method 2). Correlation between the two methods was made. An alternative graphical method to estimate DFP was attempted.

    KEY FINDINGS: Correlation between Ke and age was favourable (r = -0.453; P = 0.001). Ke derived from this empirical relationship was used to estimate DFP method 2. DFP method 1 correlated well with DFP method 2 (r = 0.742; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule*
  5. Zaman Huri H, Permalu V, Vethakkan SR
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e106505.
    PMID: 25181406 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106505
    Sliding-scale and basal-bolus insulin regimens are two options available for the treatment of severe or acute hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Although its use is not recommended, sliding-scale insulin therapy is still being used widely. The aims of the study were to compare the glycemic control achieved by using sliding-scale or basal-bolus regimens for the management of severe or acute hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and to analyze factors associated with the types of insulin therapy used in the management of severe or acute hyperglycemia. This retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of patients with acute or severe hyperglycemia admitted to a hospital in Malaysia from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 202 patients and 247 admissions were included. Patients treated with the basal-bolus insulin regimen attained lower fasting blood glucose (10.8 ± 2.3 versus 11.6 ± 3.5 mmol/L; p = 0.028) and mean glucose levels throughout severe/acute hyperglycemia (12.3 ± 1.9 versus 12.8 ± 2.2; p = 0.021) compared with sliding-scale insulin regimens. Diabetic ketoacidosis (p = 0.043), cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.005), acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (p = 0.010), and the use of corticosteroids (p = 0.037) and loop diuretics (p = 0.016) were significantly associated with the type of insulin regimen used. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes patients with severe and acute hyperglycemia achieved better glycemic control with the basal-bolus regimen than with sliding-scale insulin, and factors associated with the insulin regimen used could be identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  6. Abdul Rasool Hassan B, Yusoff ZB, Bin Othman S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(6):1425-8.
    PMID: 22126475
    INTRODUCTION: Neutropenia, defined as a decrease in the absolute neutrophil count lower than the normal that is < 1500 cell/ ?l, has a detrimental effect on cancer patients' quality of life, also possibly resulting in a reduction in the chemotherapy dose which could lead to an increment in the size of a cancer. There are so many causative factors for neutropenia like hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and infection, drugs reactions and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. So the main aim of this study is to find the association between chemotherapy drug or regimens, schedule of administration used for treatment of solid cancer diseases with neutropenia onset and severity.

    METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study carried out in a general hospital on 117 solid tumor patients who admitted between January 2003 to December 2006. The main statistical tests used were Chi- square test and Fisher' s Exact test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.

    RESULTS: The highest chemotherapeutic regimen was (5-FU+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide) (47, 40.2%) followed by (gemcitabine+cisplatin) (6, 5.1%) and many others. Majority of the patients receive their chemotherapy schedule of administration was one day schedule (90, 76.9%) followed by more than one day schedule (27, 23.1%).

    CONCLUSION: The doses of these drugs were not high enough to produce a sufficient pharmacological effect to cause bone marrow suppression and lead to neutropenia. Besides the schedule of administration for each drug was long enough to overcome neutropenia also the high uses of granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) which will play a major role in reducing the time and severity of neutropenia. All these factors play an important role in giving non- significant association between neutropenia onset and severity with chemotherapeutics drugs and their schedule of administration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  7. Vagenas P, Azar MM, Copenhaver MM, Springer SA, Molina PE, Altice FL
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2015 Dec;12(4):421-36.
    PMID: 26412084 DOI: 10.1007/s11904-015-0285-5
    Alcohol use is highly prevalent globally with numerous negative consequences to human health, including HIV progression, in people living with HIV (PLH). The HIV continuum of care, or treatment cascade, represents a sequence of targets for intervention that can result in viral suppression, which ultimately benefits individuals and society. The extent to which alcohol impacts each step in the cascade, however, has not been systematically examined. International targets for HIV treatment as prevention aim for 90 % of PLH to be diagnosed, 90 % of them to be prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90 % to achieve viral suppression; currently, only 20 % of PLH are virally suppressed. This systematic review, from 2010 through May 2015, found 53 clinical research papers examining the impact of alcohol use on each step of the HIV treatment cascade. These studies were mostly cross-sectional or cohort studies and from all income settings. Most (77 %) found a negative association between alcohol consumption on one or more stages of the treatment cascade. Lack of consistency in measurement, however, reduced the ability to draw consistent conclusions. Nonetheless, the strong negative correlations suggest that problematic alcohol consumption should be targeted, preferably using evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological interventions, to indirectly increase the proportion of PLH achieving viral suppression, to achieve treatment as prevention mandates, and to reduce HIV transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  8. Martineau AR, Hanifa Y, Witt KD, Barnes NC, Hooper RL, Patel M, et al.
    Thorax, 2015 Oct;70(10):953-60.
    PMID: 26063508 DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-206996
    RATIONALE: Low-dose vitamin D supplementation is already recommended in older adults for prevention of fractures and falls, but clinical trials investigating whether higher doses could provide additional protection against acute respiratory infection (ARI) are lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a clinical trial of high-dose versus low-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for ARI prevention in residents of sheltered-accommodation housing blocks ('schemes') and their carers in London, UK.

    MEASUREMENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four schemes (137 individual participants) were allocated to the active intervention (vitamin D3 2.4 mg once every 2 months +10 μg daily for residents, 3 mg once every 2 months for carers), and 54 schemes with 103 participants were allocated to control (placebo once every 2 months +vitamin D3 10 μg daily for residents, placebo once every 2 months for carers) for 1 year. Primary outcome was time to first ARI; secondary outcomes included time to first upper/lower respiratory infection (URI/LRI, analysed separately), and symptom duration.

    MAIN RESULTS: Inadequate vitamin D status was common at baseline: 220/240 (92%) participants had serum 25(OH)D concentration <75 nmol/L. The active intervention did not influence time to first ARI (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.18, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.74, p=0.42). When URI and LRI were analysed separately, allocation to the active intervention was associated with increased risk of URI (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.16, p=0.039) and increased duration of URI symptoms (median 7.0 vs 5.0 days for active vs control, adjusted ratio of geometric means 1.34, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.65, p=0.005), but not with altered risk or duration of LRI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Addition of intermittent bolus-dose vitamin D3 supplementation to a daily low-dose regimen did not influence risk of ARI in older adults and their carers, but was associated with increased risk and duration of URI.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01069874.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  9. Lim TA, Inbasegaran K
    Br J Anaesth, 2001 Mar;86(3):422-4.
    PMID: 11573534
    We derived the predicted effect compartment concentration of thiopental, at loss of the eyelash reflex, following three different injection regimens. Sixty patients were given thiopental for induction of anaesthesia. Twenty patients received multiple small boluses, 20 patients received a single bolus and 20 patients received an infusion. Computer simulation was then used to derive the effect compartment concentration. The median concentration was not significantly different between the three groups. EC50, derived after combining all three groups was 11.3 microg ml(-1). The EC05-EC95 range was 6.9-18.3 microg ml(-1), suggesting wide inter-individual variation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  10. Mak JW, Ngah Z, Choong MF, Navaratnam V
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1995 Mar;46(1):6-8.
    PMID: 7631131
    CGI 18041, an adduct of benzothiazol isothiocyanate N-methyl piperazine, was evaluated for its antifilarial properties in subperiodic Brugia malayi infected Presbytis cristata. Animals experimentally infected with 200-400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae, were matched according to microfilaria density, infective dose, and duration of infection. They were then randomly assigned to various treatment and control groups. The compound was suspended in 1% Tween 20 in distilled water, sonicated, and then fed to monkeys using a stomach tube. Control animals received an equivalent volume of drug diluent. CGI 18041 at a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg had complete adulticidal and microfilaricidal activities against subperiodic B. malayi in P. cristata. It was also extremely effective at a single dose of 25 mg/kg, the final geometric mean microfilaria count being 1.6% of initial level, and only 1.0% of the infective dose was recovered as live adult worms at autopsy 6 weeks post-treatment. In control animals, these were 226.9% and 5.56% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  11. Chow KW, Ting HC, Yap YP, Yee KC, Purushotaman A, Subramanian S, et al.
    Int J Dermatol, 1998 Jun;37(6):446-8.
    PMID: 9646134
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  12. Mafauzy M, Wan Mohamad WB, Zahary MK, Mustafa BE
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Mar;48(1):71-5.
    PMID: 8341175
    Carbimazole, in 3 divided daily doses, is commonly prescribed for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis. However, based on its long intra-thyroid half-life, the drug may be effective when used as a single or twice daily dose. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of once, twice or thrice daily doses of carbimazole on thyroid function in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Seventy previously untreated thyrotoxic patients were randomly allocated to receive carbimazole 30 mg once (group 1), 15 mg twice (group 2) and 10 mg thrice (group 3) daily. All patients were also prescribed propranolol 20 mg thrice daily for the first 4 weeks. Blood was taken for total T3, T4, TSH, blood counts and liver enzymes determinations at the beginning and at 6 weeks of treatment. Only 48 (68.6%) patients were included in the analysis, as the rest defaulted follow-up (20.0%) or blood samples were not available at review (11.4%). Of the 48 patients, 17 were in group 1, 16 in group 2 and 15 in group 3. Following 6 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the mean serum levels of total T3 and T4 between the 3 groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the mean serum levels of total T3 and T4 as compared to the start of the treatment. Four patients (23.5%) in group 1, 4 patients (25%) in group 2 and 3 patients (20%) in group 3 were still thyrotoxic at 6 weeks of treatment, whilst 10 patients (58.8%) in group 1, 6 patients (37.5%) in group 2 and 3 (20%) in group 3 were biochemically hypothyroid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  13. Jackson N, Shukri A, Ali K
    Br. J. Haematol., 1993 Sep;85(1):203-4.
    PMID: 8251394
    A patient being treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia with hydroxyurea became pregnant. Despite an increase in the dose of hydroxyurea (to 3 g per day) during the pregnancy, her white blood cell count could only be controlled at about 150 x 10(9)/l. A healthy baby girl was born at 37 weeks with normal blood counts and no evidence of congenital abnormality. There are now five reports of the use of hydroxyurea in pregnancy, and where leukapheresis is not available it may be the treatment of choice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  14. Goh KL, Boonyapisit S, Lai KH, Chang R, Kang JY, Lam SK
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1995 1 1;10(1):92-7.
    PMID: 7620115
    We report the first double-blind, placebo-controlled study that assesses the efficacy and safety of omeprazole 20 mg daily in the maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer. For the healing phase, 128 patients with endoscopically proven active duodenal ulcer and a history of three or more relapses during the 2 years prior to the study were treated until healing with omeprazole 40 mg daily for 2 and up to 8 weeks. One hundred and twenty-three patients whose ulcers were healed were randomized to receive omeprazole 20 mg daily (n = 60) or placebo (n = 63) for 12 months as maintenance treatment. Patients were interviewed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, and endoscopy was performed at 3, 6 and 12 months and whenever symptoms recurred. The healing rates of the 124 patients completing the healing phase were 84, 98 and 100% at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. During the maintenance phase, eight and four patients discontinued treatment from the omeprazole and placebo groups, respectively. The proportion of patients in remission in the omeprazole group and placebo group after 12 months were 94 and 9% respectively (life table estimates, P < 0.0001). No significant clinical or laboratory changes were observed in patients on therapy with omeprazole. Patients with a history of frequent relapses thus continued to have a very high relapse rate without prophylactic treatment. Omeprazole 20 mg daily was effective and safe in maintaining such patients in remission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  15. Tay HH, Yap I, Guan R, Koh PS, LaBrooy SJ, Kang JY
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):181-5.
    PMID: 3070309
    Thirty-one patients with endoscopically proven chronic gastric ulcer completed a randomised double-blind trial comparing the effects of cimetidine and placebo on ulcer healing. Seventeen patients received cimetidine 400 mg bid and 14 patients received placebo. Repeat endoscopy at six weeks showed that the ulcer had healed in 12 patients (71%) receiving cimetidine and in four patients (29%) receiving placebo (p=O.032). Non-smokers healed their ulcers better than smokers (83% vs 35%, p=O.023). The use of cimetidine was not associated with any adverse effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  16. Ponnampalam JT
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1981;75(3):372-7.
    PMID: 7034311
    Doxycycline in a single dose was found to be a valuable drug in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. It was less effective in a single daily dose of 4 mg/kg body-weight for four days, when it cured only five out of nine patients, while a dosage of 4 mg/kg body-weight for seven days cured 23 out of 26 patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  17. Karim SM, Lim SM, Ilancheran A, Ratnam SS, Ang LT, Ng KH, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1982 Oct;11(4):503-7.
    PMID: 7165271
    Prostaglandin E2 administered orally and combined with amniotomy was used for induction of labour at or near term in 1533 patients. The study was carried out as a collaborative project between the University Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Singapore, Medan (Indonesia) and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). The overall success rates for Medan, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore were 95.6%, 88.1% and 84.7% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  18. Wang F, Looi LM, Chua CT
    Q. J. Med., 1982;51(203):312-28.
    PMID: 7146313
    One hundred and forty-eight patients over the age of 12 years seen from July 1972 through December 1980 were accepted for this review of minimal change glomerular disease (MCGD). The diagnosis was based on a typical clinical presentation, and renal biopsy findings. MCGD forms 43.5 per cent of our patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. The patients were predominantly young adults (82 per cent) and the onset of nephrotic syndrome (NS) occurred below the age of 30 years. Most patients had severe oedema and hypoalbuminaemia. Few patients recovered spontaneously. One hundred and thirty patients were given long-term alternate-day steroid (LASt) therapy. Four had cyclophosphamide alone, 21 patients had cyclophosphamide after a trial of LASt. Eighty-four patients (62.7 per cent) were initial responders: 17 of these after cyclophosphamide, 26 (19.4 per cent) were initial non-responders: five cyclophosphamide, 19 were late responders. Nine patients were partial responders, six were non-responders and one went into renal failure. Forty-one patients defaulted, emigrated or were seen only locally at the time of study. Ninety-nine patients were followed for three to 102 months (mean 23 . 3 months). Thirty-seven patients were followed for 36 to 102 months. Relapses were infrequent but occurred as late as 60 months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
  19. Haq SM, Buhrich N
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Jun;34(4):358-62.
    PMID: 7219263
    Merital is a recently introduced antidepressant agent which is structurally unrelated to the traditional antidepressant agents and which is reported to have minimal side effects. This study aimed to establish the olerance of a single compared to a spaced dose .schedule of Merital. It was found that a single morrung dose of Merital 100 mgs compared to a similar dose of the drug given in two divided doses did not appreciably increase the frequency or severity of side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Administration Schedule
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