Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Khan N, Craig DQ
    J Pharm Sci, 2004 Dec;93(12):2962-71.
    PMID: 15459945
    Gelucire 50/13 alone and solid dispersions in this material containing two model drugs (10% w/w caffeine and paracetamol) have been studied with a view to establishing the mechanism underpinning changes in drug-release characteristics as a function of storage time and temperature. The lipid systems were fabricated into tablets and stored for up to 180 days at temperatures of 20 and 37 degrees C. The dispersions were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy, and dissolution testing. DSC studies indicated that the Gelucire 50/13 exists in two principal melting forms (melting points 38 and 43 degrees C) that undergo transformation to the higher melting form on storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the systems exhibit "blooming," with crystal formation on the surface being apparent on storage at both temperatures. The dissolution rate increased on storage, with the effect being particularly marked at higher storage temperatures and for the paracetamol systems. However, whereas these changes corresponded well to those seen for the morphology, the correlation between the changes in dissolution and those of the DSC profiles was poor. The study has suggested a novel explanation for the storage instability of Gelucire 50/13 whereby the change in dissolution is associated not with molecular rearrangement as such but with the gross distribution of the constituent components, this in turn altering the physical integrity of the lipid bases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage/methods; Drug Storage/standards*
  2. Hanjeet K, Lye MS, Sinniah M, Schnur A
    Bull World Health Organ, 1996;74(4):391-7.
    PMID: 8823961
    An analysis was carried out on a total of 883 cold chain monitor (CCM) cards, which had been attached to batches of poliomyelitis, measles, DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and hepatitis B vaccines, during their transport and storage from the central store in Kuala Lumpur to Kelantan, a state in north-eastern Malaysia; 234 freeze watches attached to hepatitis B vaccines were also analysed. The monitor cards and freeze watches were observed at six levels between the central store and the periphery during distribution of the vaccines, and a colour change in any of the four windows (A, B, C, D) on the CCM cards or the freeze watches was recorded. In addition, 33 unopened vials of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), collected from refrigerators in 29 health facilities in Kelantan, were tested for potency using the tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) method; 14 of them (42%) did not meet the WHO criteria for potent vaccines. The results showed that at the final destination 13.4% of all cards remained white while a colour change to blue was observed in 65% in window A, 16.6% in window B, and 4.4% in window C; none had turned blue in window D indicating that the vaccine had not been subjected to temperatures > or = 34 degrees C for 2 hours. All but 2 of the 234 freeze watches had turned purple, which indicates exposure of the hepatitis B vaccines to temperatures below 0 degree C. These results will assist health planners to correct the weaknesses identified in the cold chain system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage/methods
  3. Morokuma K, Matsumura T, Yamamoto A, Sakai A, Hifumi T, Ato M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):111-118.
    PMID: 34172698 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.042
    In 2000, an equine Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) antivenom (Lot 0001) was testmanufactured as an unapproved drug for treatment of Yamakagashi bites. It was stocked on the premise of super-legal use from the viewpoint of emergency health crisis management. The antivenom showed a strong neutralizing ability against the hemorrhagic and coagulation activity of the Yamakagashi venom in its potency test. One vial of the antivenom can effectively neutralize at least about 4 mg of Yamakagashi venom. Its efficacy has also been confirmed in patients with severe cases of R. tigrinus bite that has been used in emergency. In 2020, this antivenom (Lot 0001) has reached 20 years after its production. To evaluate the integrity and potency of the antivenom, quality control, safety and potency tests had been conducted almost every year since 2012. Physical and chemical tests (property test, moisture content test, insoluble foreign matter test, osmotic pressure ratio test, pH test, protein content test, endotoxin test, sterility test) of the antivenom, showed no significant changes throughout the years, when compared to the results immediately after its production in 2000. All the parameters measured were also within the standard values. In animal safety tests (test for absence of toxicity and pyrogen), there was no change in the test results during the storage period and no abnormalities were observed. The potency test (anti-coagulant activity) after 20 years of the product, showed the same potency as those recorded immediately after production. Therefore, in all of the stability monitoring tests conducted so far, the product did not show any significant change compared to the results immediately after production. This confirms the stability of the product during the stockpiling period to the present, that is, 20 years after production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  4. Shamekhi F, Shuhaimi M, Ariff A, Manap YA
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 2013 Mar;58(2):91-101.
    PMID: 22843029 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-012-0183-9
    The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage/methods
  5. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI, Baber ZU
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2012 Jun;20(3):183-90.
    PMID: 22554161 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00178.x
    The study evaluated the compliance of community pharmacies with legal requirements as laid down by the drug regulatory framework in Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  6. Donnan F, Senarathna SMDKG, Ware B, Rawlins MDM, Dontham C, Chuang VTG, et al.
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 2020 06;60(3):344-349.
    PMID: 31512230 DOI: 10.1111/ajo.13046
    BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) kits containing uterotonics are used on obstetric units for the timely management of PPH. Visible discolouration of ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injections was observed in PPH kits stored in medical refrigerators on the obstetric unit at our hospital.

    AIM: To investigate the stability of ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injections in PPH kits under simulated clinical storage conditions and to determine the potency of ampoules quarantined from PPH kits on our obstetric unit.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were stored exposed to and protected from light at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) for up to three months, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was based on the time for the ergometrine or oxytocin concentration to fall to 90% of the original concentration (t90 ). The potency of quarantined discoloured ampoules also was determined.

    RESULTS: Ergometrine was stable at both temperatures for >6 months, when stored protected from light in simulated clinical conditions. When exposed to light, ergometrine was stable for approximately 4 days at 25°C and 10 days at 4°C. Discoloured ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were found to be <90% of the nominal concentration.

    CONCLUSION: Stability of ergometrine in PPH kits is largely unaffected by temperature fluctuations (at 4°C and 25°C) over 6 months when protected from light. Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin ampoules should be inspected prior to use and any discoloured ampoules discarded.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  7. Ishaka A, Umar Imam M, Mahamud R, Zuki AB, Maznah I
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:2261-9.
    PMID: 24872689 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S56999
    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  8. Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk A
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 May;26(3):525-35.
    PMID: 23625426
    The medicinal Malaysian leeches have been used in traditional medicine to treat many different ailments. In this study, leech saliva extract (LSE) was collected from the medicinal Malaysian leech Hirudinaria manillensis. Gel electrophoresis of LSE was carried out to estimate the peptide and protein molecular weights of its content. Results showed that LSE contains more than 60 peptides and proteins with molecular masses ranging from 1.9-250kDa. Thrombin time assay in vitro was employed to assess the collected LSE antithrombin activity. First, to study its stability, LSE was lyophilized under the following different conditions: pre-freezing temperature, type of container and lyophilization cycle. Pre-freezed LSE sample at -20°C and lyophilized for 24 hours retained about 100-95% of its original biological activities. Second, the LSE antithrombin activity was monitored for a period of six months. Storage temperature, type of the container and photosensitivity effects on antithrombin activity of the lyophilized (solid state) and non-lyophilized (liquid state) were investigated. Results showed that storage temperature drastically affected the biological activity of LSE with -20 °C as the optimum temperature. Samples stored at ambient temperature and +4 °C were light photosensitive and adversely affected when stored in polypropylene tubes. Lyophilized samples were more stable than non-lyophilized ones over the period of study. To sum up, in order to have a biologically active stock of LSE, it has to be lyophilized for no more than 24 hours following freezing at -20°C and has to be stored at -20°C in glass tubes protected from light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  9. Zhang Q, Noryati I, Cheng LH
    J Food Sci, 2008 Mar;73(2):E82-7.
    PMID: 18298729 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00627.x
    Chicken breast muscle powder (CBMP) and modified waxy cornstarch (MWCS) blends were prepared at different pH conditions (pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). The blends were characterized by light microscopy, frequency sweep, flow analysis, and freeze-thaw stability analysis. Light microscopy showed that the blend structure was coarse at pH conditions close to the isoelectric point of protein and became finer with increasing pH. Frequency sweep demonstrated that the blend was more liquid-like with relatively lower storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli as the pH was increased from pH 4 to pH 9. Flow analysis revealed that thixotropy behavior was evident in samples treated at pHs 4 and 5, whereas antithixotropy was shown by those adjusted to pHs 6, 7, 8, and 9. The CBMP-MWCS blends were found to show better freeze-thaw stability at pH 8 that could be attributed to the formation of a highly interactive network structure of CBMP and MWCS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  10. Fareez IM, Lim SM, Zulkefli NAA, Mishra RK, Ramasamy K
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2018 09;10(3):543-557.
    PMID: 28493103 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-017-9284-8
    The susceptibility of probiotics to low pH and high temperature has limited their use as nutraceuticals. In this study, enhanced protection of probiotics via microencapsulation was achieved. Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 were immobilised within polymeric matrix comprised of alginate (Alg) with supplementation of cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)). L. plantarum LAB12 encapsulated in Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) elicited improved survivability (91%) in simulated gastric conditions and facilitated maximal release (∼100%) in simulated intestinal condition. Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) significantly reduced (P 7 log CFU g-1. Alg-MC and Alg-HPMC improved the survival of LAB12 against simulated gastric condition (9.24 and 9.55 log CFU g-1, respectively), temperature up to 90 °C (9.54 and 9.86 log CFU g-1, respectively) and 4-week of storage at 4 °C (8.61 and 9.23 log CFU g-1, respectively) with sustained release of probiotic in intestinal condition (>9 log CFU g-1). These findings strongly suggest the potential of cellulose derivatives supplemented Alg bead as protective micro-transport for probiotic strains. They can be safely incorporated into new functional food or nutraceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  11. Wong TW, Deepak KG, Taib MN, Anuar NK
    Int J Pharm, 2007 Oct 1;343(1-2):122-30.
    PMID: 17597317
    The capacity of microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to characterize the matrix property of binary polymeric films for use as transdermal drug delivery system was investigated. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 were the choice of polymeric matrix and plasticizer, respectively with loratadine as the model drug. Both blank and drug loaded HPMC-PEG 3000 films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method. These films were conditioned at the relative humidity of 25, 50 and 75% prior to physicochemical characterization using the established methods of ultra-violet spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods, as well as, novel microwave NDT technique. Blank films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer interaction at the O-H domain upon storage at a lower level of relative humidity, whereas drug loaded films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer and/or drug-polymer interaction via the O-H, C-H and/or aromatic C=C functional groups when they were stored at a lower or moderate level of relative humidity. The absorption and transmission characteristics of both blank and drug loaded films for microwave varied with the state of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer, and/or drug-polymer interaction of the matrix. The measurements of microwave NDT test at 8 and 12 GHz were sensitive to the polar fraction of film involving functional group such as O-H moiety and the less polar environment of matrix consisting of functional groups such as C-H and aromatic C=C moieties. The state of interaction between polymer, plasticizer and/or drug of a binary polymeric film can be elucidated through its absorption and transmission profiles of microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  12. Hussain MA, Shah A, Jantan I, Shah MR, Tahir MN, Ahmad R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2015;10:2079-88.
    PMID: 25844038 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S75874
    Polysaccharides are attracting the vigil eye of researchers in order to design the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of diverse size, shape, and application. We report an environmentally friendly method to synthesize Ag NPs where no physical reaction conditions were employed. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) was used as a template nanoreactor, stabilizer, and capping agent to obtain Ag NPs. Different concentrations of AgNO3 solutions (50 mmol, 75 mmol, and 100 mmol) were mixed with a concentrated aqueous solution of HPC and the progress of the reaction was monitored by noting color changes of the reaction mixture at different reaction times for up to 24 hours. Characteristic ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis) absorption bands of Ag NPs were observed in the range of 388-452 nm. The morphology of the Ag NPs was studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The TEM images confirmed that the size of the Ag NPs was in the range of 25-55 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystal phase of the Ag NPs was face-centered cubic. The as-prepared Ag NPs were found to be stable, and no changes in size and morphology were observed after storage in HPC thin films over 1 year, as indicated by UV/Vis spectra. So, the present work furnishes a green and economical strategy for the synthesis and storage of stable Ag NPs. As-synthesized Ag NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against different bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Actinomycetes and Aspergillus niger).
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage/methods
  13. Fatokun O
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2014 Jun;36(3):564-9.
    PMID: 24700341 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-014-9937-6
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, antibacterial agents are among the most utilized drugs. There has been an increase in their use in recent years, contributing to an increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

    OBJECTIVES: This study explores the pattern of antibiotic use and practices in a Malaysian community and identifies the variables associated with a likelihood of non-compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    SETTING: The study was conducted in Cheras, a community located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 250 individuals, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of antibiotic use, sources of antibiotics, use of antibiotics without prescription, discontinuation of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance awareness, handling of unused antibiotics, and association between respondents characteristics and compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.

    RESULTS: Approximately 36 % of the participants (n = 91) had taken antibiotics in the year of the study. The majority (66.8 %) obtained antibiotics from clinics. Almost 80 % of the participants had never obtained antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Nearly 55 % discontinued the course of antibiotics once symptoms disappeared. The most common method of disposing leftover antibiotics was throwing them into the household rubbish bin (78.8 %). Only 6.4 % of participants returned leftover antibiotics to the pharmacist or doctor. Univariate analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04), lack of knowledge of antibiotic functions (p < 0.0001), and lack of awareness of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Most individuals in the Malaysian community obtained antibiotics through prescription. Non-completion of a course of antibiotic treatment and improper disposal of unused antibiotics need to be addressed to prevent AMR. Male gender, lack of knowledge and awareness of antibiotics and resistance were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment. Therefore, patient education and counselling about antibiotics and antibacterial resistance is very important to enhance compliance to antibiotic therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  14. Wong TW, Chan LW, Kho SB, Heng PW
    J Control Release, 2005 Jun 2;104(3):461-75.
    PMID: 15911046
    The influence of microwave irradiation on the drug release properties of freshly prepared and aged alginate, alginate-chitosan and chitosan beads was investigated. The beads were prepared by extrusion method with sulphathiazole as a model drug. The dried beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 10 min, 20 min or three consecutive cycles of 10 and 20 min, respectively. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug stability, drug polymorphism, drug-polymer interaction, polymer crosslinkage and complexation were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The chemical stability of drug embedded in beads was unaffected by microwave conditions and length of storage time. The release property of drug was mainly governed by the extent of polymer interaction in beads. The aged alginate beads required intermittent cycles of microwave irradiation to induce drug release retarding effect in contrast to their freshly prepared samples. Unlike the alginate beads, the level of polymer interaction was higher in aged alginate-chitosan beads than the corresponding fresh beads. The drug release retarding property of aged alginate-chitosan beads could be significantly enhanced through subjecting the beads to microwave irradiation for 10 min. No further change in drug release from these beads was observed beyond 30 min of microwave irradiation. Unlike beads containing alginate, the rate and extent of drug released from the aged chitosan beads were higher upon treatment by microwave in spite of the higher degree of polymer interaction shown by the latter on prolonged storage. The observation suggested that the response of polymer matrix to microwave irradiation in induction of drug release retarding property was largely affected by the molecular arrangement of the polymer chains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  15. Dianawati D, Mishra V, Shah NP
    J Food Sci, 2016 Jun;81(6):M1472-9.
    PMID: 27145163 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13313
    Production of probiotic food supplements that are shelf-stable at room temperature has been developed for consumer's convenience, but information on the stability in acid and bile environment is still scarce. Viability and acid and bile tolerance of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplements were evaluated. Bifidobacterium and L. acidophilus were encapsulated with casein-based emulsion using spray drying. Water activity (aw ) of the microspheres containing Bifidobacterium or L. acidophilus (SD GM product) was adjusted to 0.07 followed by storage at 25 °C for 10 wk. Encapsulated Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and 4 commercial probiotic supplement products (AL, GH, RE, and BM) were tested. Since commercial probiotic products contained mixed bacteria, selective media MRS-LP (containing L-cysteine and Na-propionate) and MRS-clindamycin agar were used to grow Bifidobacterium spp. or L. acidophilus, respectively, and to inhibit the growth of other strains. The results showed that aw had a strong negative correlation with the viability of dehydrated probiotics of the 6 products. Viable counts of Bifidobacterium spp. and L. acidophilus of SD GM, AL, and GH were between 8.3 and 9.2 log CFU/g, whereas that of BM and RE were between 6.7 and 7.3 log CFU/g. Bifidobacterium in SD GM, in AL, and in GH products and L. acidophilus in SD GM, in AL, and in BM products demonstrated high tolerance to acid. Most of dehydrated probiotic bacteria were able to survive in bile environment except L. acidophilus in RE product. Exposure to gastric juice influenced bacterial survivability in subsequent bile environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  16. Ooi CP, Rohani A, Zamree I, Lee HL
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):73-6.
    PMID: 16880757
    The rapid detection of dengue infection in mosquito vectors is important for early warning to forestall an outbreak. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) provides a rapid method for dengue detection in man and mosquitoes. An RT-PCR kit developed by the Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research to detect dengue infection in mosquitoes, was tested for its shelf life at 3 storage temperatures: room temperature, refrigerator and freezer. Test kits were tested once every 3 days for kits stored at room temperature, and once every week for those stored at refrigerator and freezer temperatures. The results showed that the test kit could only be stored above its recommended storage temperature of -20 degrees C for not more than 3 days. DNA 100 bp markers in the kits appeared to be stable at the tested temperatures and were usable up to the 20th day when stored at 2 degrees C and below.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  17. Choy YW, Khan N, Yuen KH
    Int J Pharm, 2005 Aug 11;299(1-2):55-64.
    PMID: 15955645
    A polyglycolised glyceride carrier, Gelucire 50/13, was incorporated with paracetamol as a model drug, filled into hard gelatin capsules and stored at three different temperatures for various lengths of time. The resultant solidified matrix within the capsule was subjected to thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to ascertain its supramolecular structure. Polymorphic transformations towards more stable gelucire forms were observed upon aging the matrices, with samples stored at a temperature near the melting range of the lower temperature gelucire melting fraction showing the most profound changes. The increase in the rate of drug release from aged samples could be correlated to the alterations to the supramolecular structure of the gelucire. Accelerated drug release from aged samples could also be seen from in vivo studies using healthy human volunteers, although the extent of absorption was not affected. Therefore, even though the sustainability of release may be compromised by aging the gelucire matrices, the bioavailability of the incorporated drug is unlikely to be affected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  18. Rehman K, Tan CM, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2014 Mar;64(3):159-65.
    PMID: 24026957 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1355351
    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, ANOVA) and it was concluded that the beeswax-fish oil combination in oleogel can prove to be beneficial in terms of permeation across the skin and stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  19. Liew KB, Tan YT, Peh KK
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2014 Jan;40(1):110-9.
    PMID: 23311593 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2012.749889
    Difficulty in swallowing tablets or capsules has been identified as one of the contributing factors to non-compliance of geriatric patients. Although orally disintegrating tablet was designed for fast disintegration in mouth, the fear of taking solid tablets and the risk of choking for certain patient populations still exist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
  20. Chua LS, Lau CH, Chew CY, Ismail NIM, Soontorngun N
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Jan 15;39:49-55.
    PMID: 29433683 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.015
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. is a medicinal herb which is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and kidney diseases in South East Asia. Previous studies reported higher concentration of antioxidative phytochemicals, especially rosmarinic acid (ester of caffeic acid) and other caffeic acid derivatives in this plant extract than the other herbs such as rosemary and sage which are usually used as raw materials to produce rosmarinic acid supplement in the market.

    PURPOSE: The phytochemical profile of O. aristatus was investigated at different storage durations for quality comparison.

    METHODS: The phytochemicals were extracted from the leaves and stems of O. aristatus using a reflux reactor. The extracts were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as their antioxidant capacities, in terms of radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power. The phytochemical profiles were also analyzed by unsupervised principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, in relation to the factor of storage at 4 °C for 5 weeks.

    RESULTS: The leaf extract was likely to have more phytochemicals than stem extract, particularly caffeic acid derivatives including glycosylated and alkylated caffeic acids. This explains higher ratio of total phenolic content to total flavonoid content with higher antioxidant capacities for the leaf extracts. Rosmarinic acid dimer and salvianolic acid B appeared to be the major constituents, possibly contributing to the previously reported pharmacological properties. However, the phytochemical profiles were found changing, even though the extracts were stored in the refrigerator (4 °C). The change was significantly observed at the fifth week based on the statistical pattern recognition technique.

    CONCLUSION: O. aristatus could be a promising source of rosmarinic acid and its dimer, as well as salvianolic acid B with remarkably antioxidant properties. The phytochemical profile was at least stable for a month stored at 4 °C. It is likely to be a good choice of herbal tea with comparable radical scavenging activity, but lower caffeine content than other tea samples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Storage
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