AIM: To investigate the stability of ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injections in PPH kits under simulated clinical storage conditions and to determine the potency of ampoules quarantined from PPH kits on our obstetric unit.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were stored exposed to and protected from light at 4°C and room temperature (25°C) for up to three months, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was based on the time for the ergometrine or oxytocin concentration to fall to 90% of the original concentration (t90 ). The potency of quarantined discoloured ampoules also was determined.
RESULTS: Ergometrine was stable at both temperatures for >6 months, when stored protected from light in simulated clinical conditions. When exposed to light, ergometrine was stable for approximately 4 days at 25°C and 10 days at 4°C. Discoloured ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin injection ampoules were found to be <90% of the nominal concentration.
CONCLUSION: Stability of ergometrine in PPH kits is largely unaffected by temperature fluctuations (at 4°C and 25°C) over 6 months when protected from light. Ergometrine and ergometrine-oxytocin ampoules should be inspected prior to use and any discoloured ampoules discarded.
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the pattern of antibiotic use and practices in a Malaysian community and identifies the variables associated with a likelihood of non-compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.
SETTING: The study was conducted in Cheras, a community located to the south-east of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia.
METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 250 individuals, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of antibiotic use, sources of antibiotics, use of antibiotics without prescription, discontinuation of antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance awareness, handling of unused antibiotics, and association between respondents characteristics and compliance with a course of antibiotic treatment.
RESULTS: Approximately 36 % of the participants (n = 91) had taken antibiotics in the year of the study. The majority (66.8 %) obtained antibiotics from clinics. Almost 80 % of the participants had never obtained antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Nearly 55 % discontinued the course of antibiotics once symptoms disappeared. The most common method of disposing leftover antibiotics was throwing them into the household rubbish bin (78.8 %). Only 6.4 % of participants returned leftover antibiotics to the pharmacist or doctor. Univariate analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04), lack of knowledge of antibiotic functions (p < 0.0001), and lack of awareness of antibiotic resistance (p < 0.0001) were all significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment.
CONCLUSION: Most individuals in the Malaysian community obtained antibiotics through prescription. Non-completion of a course of antibiotic treatment and improper disposal of unused antibiotics need to be addressed to prevent AMR. Male gender, lack of knowledge and awareness of antibiotics and resistance were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of non-compliance with a full course of prescribed antibiotic treatment. Therefore, patient education and counselling about antibiotics and antibacterial resistance is very important to enhance compliance to antibiotic therapy.
PURPOSE: The phytochemical profile of O. aristatus was investigated at different storage durations for quality comparison.
METHODS: The phytochemicals were extracted from the leaves and stems of O. aristatus using a reflux reactor. The extracts were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as their antioxidant capacities, in terms of radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power. The phytochemical profiles were also analyzed by unsupervised principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, in relation to the factor of storage at 4 °C for 5 weeks.
RESULTS: The leaf extract was likely to have more phytochemicals than stem extract, particularly caffeic acid derivatives including glycosylated and alkylated caffeic acids. This explains higher ratio of total phenolic content to total flavonoid content with higher antioxidant capacities for the leaf extracts. Rosmarinic acid dimer and salvianolic acid B appeared to be the major constituents, possibly contributing to the previously reported pharmacological properties. However, the phytochemical profiles were found changing, even though the extracts were stored in the refrigerator (4 °C). The change was significantly observed at the fifth week based on the statistical pattern recognition technique.
CONCLUSION: O. aristatus could be a promising source of rosmarinic acid and its dimer, as well as salvianolic acid B with remarkably antioxidant properties. The phytochemical profile was at least stable for a month stored at 4 °C. It is likely to be a good choice of herbal tea with comparable radical scavenging activity, but lower caffeine content than other tea samples.