Background: Medical schools have long been concerned with establishing a suitable process of
admission. The criteria used to select students have traditionally focussed on high academic achievement. Method: The International Medical University (IMU) accepts students from a wide range of pre-university entry qualifications for admission into the medical programme. The criteria for the various pre-university entry qualifications used by the IMU were agreed and accepted by the IMU Academic Council (AC), which consist of deans of the IMU’s partner medical schools (PMS). In this study, the various entry qualifications were first grouped into five categories based on the educational pedagogy. Then, this was aligned with the entry qualification data of all students who had been admitted into the IMU medical programme for the period of December 1993 to March 2000. During this period 1,281 students were enrolled into the IMU medical programme. The relationship between the five groups of pre-university entry qualifications and the students’ academic achievement in three end-ofsemester (EOS) examinations namely EOS 1, EOS 3, and EOS 5 were analysed. Results: Students with better grades in their preuniversity examinations showed better performance in their EOS examinations, regardless of the subjects that they took at the pre-university level. Cluster analysis revealed that students who came in with certain preuniversity qualifications generally performed poorly than the more conventional qualifications. However,
after their first year in medical school, there were no significant differences in the clustering of the students. Conclusion: Students with better grades in their preuniversity examinations showed better performance in their EOS examinations, regardless of the science subjects that they took at the pre-university level.
To examine differences in academic performance between male and female nursing students, and to identify whether professional identity and language usage were explanatory factors of academic performance.
Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient (IQ), and reading ability. Regression results were consistent with findings from the arithmetic literature showing that a literacy composite measure provided greater contribution than did executive function capacity. However, a series of path analyses showed that the overall contribution of executive function was comparable to that of literacy; the effect of executive function was mediated by that of literacy. Both the phonological loop and the visual spatial sketchpad failed to contribute directly; they contributed only indirectly by way of literacy and performance IQ, respectively.
Caring for a family member with dementia is associated with distress and several caregiver factors are known to be determinants of burden of care. Objective: To determine the relationship between the caregivers’ sociodemographic variables and their perceived burden of care. Methods: Patients diagnosed as having dementia with their caregivers were selected through a non-randomised sampling method from the psychogeriatric and memory clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Burden of care was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results: Age, gender, educational achievement, ethnicity and kinship of the 65 caregivers did not show any significant statistical difference in relation to their perceived burden. Conclusion: Burden in caring after patients with dementia was not significantly determined by the sociodemographic characteristics of their caregivers
A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.
The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors associated with discontinuing use of TCu 380A IUDs due to personal reasons among 2748 users. Overall, a total of 88 subjects discontinued using the TCu 380A IUD within 12 months postinsertion for personal reasons. The most common reasons were planned pregnancy (32%) and husband or family opinion against IUD use (26%). The gross cumulative 12-month life table discontinuation rate for all personal reasons was 4.0 per 100 women. Having no education and/or living in a rural area were the sociodemographic characteristics associated with an increased risk of discontinuation for personal reasons. Effective and regular counseling about IUD use, especially among illiterate women, may help prevent IUD discontinuations related to personal reasons.
A cross-sectional survey covering 976 households in 41 rural villages covered by the Rural Health Improvement Scheme in Sarawak was carried out to determine the type of latrines they have and their usage of pourflush latrines. The survey was carried out by inspection and interview. Fifty-six percent of the households had pourflush latrines and upon inspection 91.3% of them showed signs of recent use. Based on the interview, ninety percent of the women responded that they always use the latrine for defecation. It was also reported that 86.5% of the husbands and 47.6% of the children below five years, always used the latrine for defecation. The most common reason for not using the latrine among adults was the lack of water to flush the latrines as well as not being home when the need arises. The reason for using the latrines were to keep the compound clean, convenience and health reasons. It is recommended that building latrines continue to be a prerequisite for getting water supply under the program and that non health-related reasons be emphasized in health education which aim to motivate people to build and use the latrines.
Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education 5(2): 44-52, 2016 - The aim of this study is
to identify the differences in academic achievement between athletes involved in Karnival
Kokurikulum Sukan antara Kolej Matrikulasi (KAKOM) and non-athletes in Labuan
Matriculation College. Overall 200 respondents selected athletes are students from KAKOM
athletes (n=100) and non-athlete students (n=100) in Semester 1, 2015/2016. The survey
design and purposely sampling technique was used for data collection. The respondents are
comprised of students majoring in Accounting, One Year Program (PST) Module 1, PST
Module 2 and PST Module 3. Descriptive statistic was used to obtain frequency and
percentage for each of the variables and to determine the level of academic achievement
(CGPA) of athletes and non-athletes. Inferential statistic was used to compare the mean
scores achieved by cumulative grade point average (CGPA) between KAKOM athletes and
non-athletes based on t-test. T test was also used to identify the differences in academic
performance of athletes and non-athletes based on gender. The findings of this study showed
no significant differences in terms of academic achievement among student who are athletes
and non-athletes. Similarly, the findings of the performance of athletes and non-athletes
based on gender showed no significant differences. From the results of this study, it shows
that there are no differences in academic achievement between students who involved in
KAKOM sports and those who dont involved. The researcher suggests that students should
be active in sports and recreational activities during college because it will be beneficial for
health and indirectly develop their soft skills. The study found that sports factor is not the
cause for deterioration in academic achievement but there are other factors that affect
academic performance which needs further study focusing more on students who are failing
Medication errors could bring serious consequences to patients. Reporting medication error is a strategy to
mitigate such incidence from happening. Unfortunately, some nurses do no report the errors due to certain
factors. Determining the factors influencing unreported medication errors will ensure imperative actions
that are to be taken to curb this issue. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and perceived
causes of unreported medication errors among nurses in a public hospital in Selangor. A descriptive and
cross-sectional study was carried out in 26 wards from various disciplines and the sample involved 234
nurses. The data were gathered through self-reported questionnaires consisting of three sections. The first
section covered demographic characteristics, the second section aimed to obtain information on the
frequency of medication error incidents and the last section aimed to obtain information on nurses'
perceptions of barriers in reporting medication errors. The findings of this study indicated that there was a
significant relationship between level of education and the nurses' perceptions of barriers in reporting
medication errors. The study recommended that providing enough education, initiating a non-punitive
culture may help increase voluntary reporting of medication errors among nurses to strengthen the
reporting system and to avert medication errors in the future.
Blood donation is important for lives saving and the need is unceasing. However, the shortage of blood supply
is a common issue. While the public is the main source of blood donation, it is unknown whether they are
aware about it. This study was carried out to determine the public's knowledge, perceptions and barriers
towards blood donation. Atotal of 384 male and female respondents were conveniently selected to participate
in this study. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software
version 22.0. Most of the respondents (60.9%) had never donated blood but their knowledge towards blood
donation was high (79.9%). Some misconceptions were indicated among respondents. Afraid of the needle
prick, pain or discomfort were the top barriers among non-donors respondents (45.3%). The majority of the
respondents believed that blood donation is a practice or selfless concern for the well-being of others (98.7%).
A significant relationship was indicated between age and level of education with status of blood donation
Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals.
Simple geometric and organic shapes and their arrangement are being used in different neuropsychology tests for the assessment of cognitive function, special memory and also for the therapy purpose in different patient groups. Until now there is no electrophysiological evidence of cognitive function determination for simple geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement. Then the main objective of this study is to know the cortical processing and amplitude, latency of visual induced N170 and P300 event related potential components on different geometric, organic shapes and their arrangement and different educational influence on it, which is worthwhile to know for the early and better treatment for those patient groups. While education influenced on cognitive function by using auditory oddball task, little is known about the influence of education on cognitive function induced by visual attention task in case of the choice of geometric, organic shapes and their arrangements. Using a 128-electrode sensor net, we studied the responses of the choice of the different geometric and organic shapes randomly in experiment 1 and their arrangements in experiment 2 in the high, medium and low education groups. In both experiments, subjects push the button "1" or "2" if like or dislike, respectively. Total 45 healthy subjects (15 in each group) were recruited. ERPs were measured from 11 electrode sites and analyzed to see the evoked N170/N240 and P300 ERP components. There were no differences between like and dislike in amplitudes even in latencies in every stimulus in both experiments. We fixed geometric shapes and organic shapes stimuli only, not like and dislike. Upon the stimulus types, N170 ERP component was found instead of N240, in occipito-temporal (T5, T6, O1 and O2) locations where the amplitude is the highest at O2 location and P300 was distributed in the central (Cz and Pz) locations in both experiments in all groups. In experiment 1, significant low amplitude and non-significant larger latency of the N170 component are found out at O1 location for both stimuli in low education group comparing medium education groups, but in experiment 2, there is no significant difference between stimuli among groups in amplitude and latency. In both experiments, P300 component was found in Cz and Pz locations though the amplitudes are higher at Cz than Pz areas. In experiment 1, medium education group evoked significantly (geometric shape stimuli, P = 0.05; organic shape stimuli, P = 0.02) higher amplitude of P300 component comparing low education group at Cz location. Whereas, there is no significant difference of amplitudes among groups across stimuli in Cz and Pz locations in experiment 2. Latencies have no significant differences in both experiments among groups also, but longer latency are found in low education group at Cz location comparing medium education group, though not significant. We conclude that simple geometric shapes, organic shapes and their arrangements evoked visual N170 component at temporo-occipital areas with right lateralization and P300 ERP component at centro-parietal areas. Significant low amplitude of N170 and P300 ERP components and longer latencies during different shape stimuli in low education group prove that, low education significantly influence on visual cognitive functions in low education group.
According to goal orientation theory, achievement goals are defined as the terminal point towards which one's efforts are directed. The four academic achievement goal orientations commonly recognised are mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance. The objective of this study was to understand the goal orientation of second year undergraduate medical students and how this correlates with their academic performance.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental myths and perceived knowledge regarding oral healthcare practices and its associations with levels of education amongst low socioeconomic strata in Karachi, Pakistan.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2011. Two-staged random sampling was conducted to achieve a sample size of 576 participants from 8 union councils of Gadap Town, Karachi, Pakistan. An interview-based questionnaire was used to determine the participants' perceptions towards oral health and hygiene practices as well as the prevalence of common dental myths. The subjects were interviewed through a formulated questionnaire that was cross-translated into Urdu language.
RESULTS: Response rate from the participants was 550 (95.48%). Of the total, 270 (47%) respondents believed in the myth of tooth extraction affecting the eye vision. This was significantly associated with the socio-demography of the respondents. Besides, 421 (73%) thought that tooth extraction is not the ultimate remedy for pain relief and it was statistically significant with age and educational status of the participants. Those who considered bleeding while brushing to be normal were 144 (25%), and it was significantly associated with age and education level. Impact of oral health on general health was positively responded by 392 (68%), while 418 (72.5%) respondents did not think that the retention of baby teeth is important. Both these perceptions were significantly associated with age and level of education.
CONCLUSION: Pakistani population has considerable belief in myths and false perceptions regarding oral health issues. Various stakeholders should be involved to develop policies towards healthy attitudes and beliefs within the community towards their oral healthcare.
BACKGROUND: Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43).
CONCLUSIONS: Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.