Komposit epoksi berpengisi hibrid OMMT (organ-monmorilonit) dan getah asli terepoksida (ENR) telah dihasilkan dengan menggunakan kaedah penyemperitan berskru kembar pusingan searah. Ujian regangan ke atas sistem epoksi yang dihasilkan menunjukkan modulus Young bagi komposit hibrid epoksi adalah lebih tinggi daripada resin tanpa pengisi dan nilai modulus didapati meningkat dengan peningkatan komposisi OMMT dalam matriks (setinggi 40% peningkatan). Hal ini dipercayai adalah disebabkan oleh sifat tegar lapisan MMT. Sementara itu, peningkatan luas permukaan kawasan antara fasa ekoran kehadiran fasa penambah didapati telah mengurangkan tegasan alah dan terikan akhir komposit hibrid yang dihasilkan. Pemeriksaan mikrostruktur komposit hibrid epoksi melalui TEM dan xRD mendedahkan taburan OMMT dalam matriks epoksi dengan susunan interkalasi dan pengelupasan. Analisis DSC ke atas sampel yang termatang menunjukkan bahawa T g sistem komposit hibrid adalah rendah berbanding dengan sistem perduaan (ESB dan ESLE). Pengurangan ketumpatan taut silang disyaki merupakan punca penyusutan T g ini.
This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG) systems in the form of (GeO(2))(60)-(PbO)(40-) (x)-(½Bi(2)O(3))(x) where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi(2)O(3) concentration were determined using Archimedes' method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B(2)O(3))(20)-(PbO)(80-) (x)-(Bi(2)O(3))(x). The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi(2)O(3) content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young's also increase linearly with addition of Bi(2)O(3) but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson's ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi(2)O(3) concentration.
The aim of the study was to evaluate post-polymerization of resin composite by measuring NanoHardness (H), Young’s Modulus (E) and Degree of Conversion (DC) using nanoindentation and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. For this purpose a computer-controlled NanoIndenter™ and a Renishaw 1000 Raman Spectrometer fitted with an Olympus microscope attachment, operated at 638 nm, were used. A light-activated resin composite was used in this study, (Z250, 3MESPE). Sub-groups (n=3) of specimens were irradiated for 20, 30, 40 s. All samples for nanoindentation were polished metallographically and typically 50 nanoindentations were performed per specimen. After curing and polishing, half of the samples were tested immediately (Group 1); the others after being stored dry at 37 °C for 7 days (Group 2) to allow scope for postpolymerization. H values ranged from 1.08 to 1.40 GPa for Group 1, and from 1.64 to1.71 GPa for Group 2. E values in Group 1 ranged from 19.60 to 19.94 GPa and for Group 2, from 21.42 to 22.05 GPa. DC values ranged from 55 to 66.39%, and 60.90 to 66.47% for Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. All values obtained shown significant different between Groups 1 and 2 (p
Surface free energies have been evaluated from Young’s moduli and lattice parameter data of five aluminium alloys with varying amounts of stanum to determine the inter-correlation with anode capacity of the alloys. The composition containing ~1.47%Sn exhibits a minimum in the surface free energy which accounts for the decrease in the tendency of the alloy to undergo passivation thus resulting in a higher anode capacity of 2478Ah/kg at ≈ 0.08mA/cm 2 , current density. The results showed that aluminium alloy containing certain amount of stanum has lowered surface free energy, leading to reduction in passive film thickness and reduces metal/oxide bond strength. These factors in turn result in a better cathodic protection property of aluminium alloy containing stanum.
The nanomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix nanocomposites (Al-CNTs) have been characterized using nanoindentation. Bulk nanocomposite specimens containing 2 wt % multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a combination of ball milling and powder metallurgy route. It has been tried to understand the correlation between microstructural evolution particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersion during milling and mechanical properties of Al-2 wt % nanocomposites. Maximum enhancement of +23% and +44% has been found in Young's modulus and hardness respectively, owing to well homogenous dispersion of CNTs within the aluminum matrix at longer milling time.
The present study focuses on the microstructural and bioactive properties evolution in selective laser melting (SLM) β titanium alloys. We have applied cross-scan strategy for improving mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus of SLMed Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys which has been shown to be altering the microstructure and refining the grain size. The cross-scan strategy can refine the microstructure and induce various deformation textures in contrast to the conventional scan strategy. The microstructures of Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys indicate that the cross-scan strategy will yield the best mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus. The corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys was studied during immersion in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37±0.50 °C for 28 days. Both the mechanical and bioactive properties showed that the novel Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys should be ideal for bone implants.
This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
This paper presents a study on the effect of Arenga Pinnata fibre volume fraction on the tensile and compressive properties of Arenga Pinnata fibre reinforced epoxy composite (APREC). The composites were produced using four different Arenga Pinnata fibre volume contents, which were 10vol%, 15vol%, 20vol%, and 25vol%, in unidirectional (UD) fibre alignment. Tensile and compression tests were performed on all APREC specimens in order to investigate the effect of fibre volume fraction on modulus of elasticity, strength and strain to failure. The morphological structure of fractured specimens was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to evaluate the fracture mechanisms involved when the specimens were subjected to tensile or compressive loading. The results indicated that the higher the amount of Arenga Pinnata fibres, the higher the stiffness of the composites. This is shown by the increment of tensile and compressive modulus of the specimens when the fibre volume content was increased. Tensile modulus increased up to 180% when 25vol% Arenga Pinnata fibre was used in APREC compared to Pure Epoxy specimen. It can also be observed that the tensile strength of the specimens increased 28% from 53.820 MPa (for Pure Epoxy) to 68.692 MPa (for Epoxy with 25vol% APREC addition). Meanwhile, compressive modulus and strength increased up to 3.24% and 9.17%, respectively. These results suggest that the addition of Arenga Pinnata fibres significantly improved the tensile and compressive properties of APREC.
A study has been presented on the effects of intrinsic mechanical parameters, such as surface stress, surface elastic modulus, surface porosity, permeability and grain size on the corrosion failure of nanocomposite coatings. A set of mechano-electrochemical equations was developed by combining the popular Butler-Volmer and Duhem expressions to analyze the direct influence of mechanical parameters on the electrochemical reactions in nanocomposite coatings. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni with Al₂O₃, SiC, ZrO₂ and Graphene nanoparticles were studied as examples. The predictions showed that the corrosion rate of the nanocoatings increased with increasing grain size due to increase in surface stress, surface porosity and permeability of nanocoatings. A detailed experimental study was performed in which the nanocomposite coatings were subjected to an accelerated corrosion testing. The experimental results helped to develop and validate the equations by qualitative comparison between the experimental and predicted results showing good agreement between the two.
This study has been undertaken to investigate the evaluation of Fiber-reinforced Foamed Concrete (FRFC) performance by the use of toughness and non-destructive tests. These tests cover the workability, density, static modulus of elasticity, toughness, ultrasonic pulse velocity and absorption tests. Different FRFC mixes using carbon fibers in the order of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% carbon fibers were used. Also, the combinations of carbon fibers (C) and polypropylene fibers (PP) as 1% C+ 0.5% PP, and 0.5% C+1% PP were prepared. Lastly, the inclusion of polypropylene fibers with the order of 1.5% PP was used to strengthen the foamed concrete mix. The results showed that the use of 1.5% of C has affected the modulus of elasticity and flexural toughness of foamed concrete. On the other hand, a strong relationship is found between compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity for FRFC.
Oil-palm-boiler clinker (OPBC) is an agricultural solid waste sourced from the palm oil industry in tropical regions. This study investigates the use of OPBC as coarse aggregate instead of conventional coarse aggregates to produce a greener concrete, which will help in implementing sustainable construction practices by reducing the usage of raw materials. For this purpose, normal weight coarse aggregates was substituted with dry OPBC aggregates up to 75% (by volume) in a high strength normal weight concrete. The effectiveness of this substitution on the properties of the concrete such as workability, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity was studied. The slump test results showed that using OPBC in dry condition reduced the workability of the concrete and therefore can be used up to 50% of the total volume of coarse aggregate. Concrete containing 50% OPBC can be considered as semi-lightweight concrete with high strength. Using OPBC in concrete reduced the splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, however, the reduction was not significant.
The study of Representative Volume Element (RVE) on Composite Material has been performed in the aim to obtain the relation and effect of fiber volume fraction on its tensile properties which is one of the important mechanical properties for composite designers in automotive and aerospace community.The properties such as fibre content, orientation, dimension of constituent fibres (diameter), level of intermixing of fibres, interface bonding between fibre and matrix, and arrangement of fibres between different types of fibres, influences the mechanical properties of hybrid composite.Representative Volume Element (RVE) for each constituent Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) assumed isotropic behavior for carbon fibre, glass fibre and epoxy resin matrix and assumed to be perfectly bonded interface between fibre and matrix region i.e. strain compatibility at the interface. The scope of study on the micro mechanical modelling via representative volume element (RVE) is limited only to unidirectional composites.The result of parametric study performed deduces that incremental volume fraction of carbon and glass respectively will increase the E11 (Modulus of Elasticity in Tensile Direction) and enhance the tensile properties of both CFRP and GFRP.
This study aims at investigating the distortion of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) nanostructures in a soft lithography demolding process using molecular dynamics simulation. Experimental results show that after peeling, PDMS nanopillars became 10-60% longer in height than the mold size. Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to plot the stress-strain curve of the nanopillars when subjected to uniaxial stress. Three force fields (COMPASS, CVFF, and PCFF) were used for modeling. The demolding process in soft lithography and nanoimprint lithography causes significant deformation in replication. The experimental results show clear signs of elongation after demolding. Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the stress-strain relationship of the PDMS nanopillars. The results from the simulation show that a PDMS nanopillar at temperature T = 300 K under tensile stress shows characteristics of flexible plastic under tensile stress and has a lower Young's modulus, ultimate tensile stress, and Poisson's ratio.
The transient response of magnetorheological (MR) materials, in general, is very important for design consideration in MR-based devices. Better response to magnetic fields is beneficial for a better response rate to the electrical current applied in the electromagnetic coil. As a result, MR-based devices would have a high response to external stimuli. In this work, the principal characteristics of magnetorheological greases (MRGs) which have two different particle shapes are experimentally investigated. One type of particle distributed in the grease medium is conventional spherical-shaped carbonyl iron (CI) particles, while the other is plate-like CI particles made using a high-energy rotary ball mill from spherical CI particles. A set of bidisperse MRG samples are firstly prepared by adjusting the weight percentage of the plate-like CI particles and mixing with the spherical CI particles. Subsequently, three important properties of MRGs in terms of their practical application are measured and compared between the two different particle shapes. The field-dependent apparent viscoelastic properties of the prepared MRG samples are measured, followed by the field-dependent storage and loss moduli using an oscillatory shear rheometer. In addition, the transient response time, which indicates the speed in the actuating period of MRGs, is measured by changing the strain amplitude. Then, a comparative assessment on the three properties are undertaken between two different particle shapes by presenting the corresponding results in the same plot. It is shown that the bidisperse MRG with plate-like CI particles exhibits an increase in the initial apparent viscosity as well as stiffness property compared to the MRG with spherical particles only.
(Kenaf fibre is a good reinforcement in fibre polymer composites due to its high strength
and elastic modulus, high stiffness, low density, low cost and eco-efficient, less health
hazards, renewability, good mechanical and thermal properties, and biodegradability. It is
traditionally used for rope, twine, fish net and sacking materials. Recently, it was observed
that kenaf fibre had huge potentials to replacing synthetic fibre in composites due to the
rising environmental and ecological issues, thus this awareness has motivated efforts for
the advancement of new innovative bio-based composites incorporating kenaf fibre for
various end-use structural applications. This paper presents an overview of the development
made so far in the area of kenaf fibre and its composites in terms of chemical and microstructural
properties, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, thermal stability, product
development and application. Some fundamental issues and suggestions for further research
in this area are also discussed.
The mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are largely dependent on the fracture structure under the coupling of freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Based on the traditional macroscopic continuum theory, the thermal and mechanical model and the corresponding theories ignore the material internal structure characteristics, which add difficulty in describing the mesoscopic thermal and mechanical behavior of the fractured rock mass among different phases. In order to uncover the inherent relationship and laws among the internal crack development, structural change and the physical and mechanical properties of rock under strong cold and frost weathering in cold area, typical granite and sandstone in cold region were analyzed in laboratory tests. The SEM scanning technology was introduced to record the microstructural change of rock samples subject to freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Association rules between the microstructure and the physical mechanical properties of rock mass were analyzed. The results indicated that, with the increase of the cyclic number, the macroscopic physical and mechanical indexes and the microscopic fracture index of granite and sandstone continuously and gradually deteriorate. The width of original micro crack continues to expand and extend and new local micro cracks are generated and continue to expand. The fracture area and width of the rock increase and the strength of the rock is continuously damaged. In particular, the strength and elastic modulus of granite decrease by 20.2% and 33.36%, respectively; the strength and elastic modulus of sandstone decrease by 33.4% and 36.43%, respectively.
Engineered cementitious composite (ECC) was discovered as a new substitute of conventional concrete as it provides better results in terms of tensile strain, reaching beyond 3%. From then, more studies were done to partially replace crumb rubber with sand to achieve a more sustainable and eco-friendlier composite from the original ECC. However, the elastic modulus of ECC was noticeably degraded. This could bring potential unseen dangerous consequences as the fatigue might happen at any time without any sign. The replacement of crumb rubber was then found to not only bring a more sustainable and eco-friendlier result but also increase the ductility and the durability of the composite, with lighter specific gravity compared to conventional concrete. This study investigated the effects of crumb rubber (CR) and graphene oxide (GO) toward the deformable properties of rubberized ECC, including the compressive strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and drying shrinkage. Central composite design (CCD) was utilized to provide 13 reasonable trial mixtures with the ranging level of CR replacement from 0-30% and that of GO from 0.01-0.08%. The results show that GO increased the strength of the developed GO-RECC. It was also found that the addition of CR and GO to ECC brought a notable improvement in mechanical and deformable properties. The predicted model that was developed using response surface methodology (RSM) shows that the variables (compression strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and drying shrinkage) rely on the independent (CR and GO) variables and are highly correlated.
Present research aims to develop a finite element computational model to examine delamination-fretting wear behaviour that can suitably mimic actual loading conditions at HAp-Ti-6Al-4V interface of uncemented hip implant femoral stem component. A simple finite element contact configuration model based on fretting fatigue experimental arrangement subjected to different mechanical and tribological properties consist of contact pad (bone), HAp coating and Ti-6Al-4V substrate are developed using adaptive wear modelling approach adopting modified Archard wear equation to be examined under static simulation. The developed finite element model is validated and verified with reported literatures. The findings revealed that significant delamination-fretting wear is recorded at contact edge (leading edge) as a result of substantial contact pressure and contact slip driven by stress singularity effect. The delamination-fretting wear behaviour is promoted under higher delamination length, lower normal loading with higher fatigue loading, increased porous (cancellous) and cortical bone elastic modulus with higher cycle number due to significant relative slip amplitude as the result of reduced interface rigidity. Tensile-compressive condition (R=-1) experiences most significant delamination-fretting wear behaviour (8 times higher) compared to stress ratio R=0.1 and R=10.
In this study, Single-Walled and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in their perfect forms were investigated by the Finite Element Method. Details on the modeling of the structure are provided in this paper, including the appropriate elements, the element properties that should be defined based on the atomic structure of Carbon Nanotubes and the corresponding chemical bonds. Non-covalent van der Waals interactions between two neighbor atoms as well as the required approximations for the modeling of the structures with this kind of interaction are also presented. Specific attention was dedicated to the necessity of using some time- and energy-consuming steps in the simulation process. First, the effect of simulating only a single ring of the whole structure is studied to find out if it would represent the same mechanical behavior as the long structure. Results show that by applying an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the stiffness of the shortened structure is practically equal to the long perfect structure. Furthermore, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube structures with and without defining the van der Waals force are studied. Based on the observations, applying the van der Waals force does not significantly influence the obtained Young's modulus of the structure in the case of a uniaxial tensile test.
The aim of this work is to study the behavior of biodegradable sugar palm starch (SPS) based thermoplastic containing agar in the range of 10-40wt%. The thermoplastics were melt-mixed and then hot pressed at 140°C for 10min. SEM investigation showed good miscibility between SPS and agar. FT-IR analysis confirmed that SPS and agar were compatible and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds existed between them. Incorporation of agar increased the thermoplastic starch tensile properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength). The thermal stability and moisture uptake increased with increasing agar content. The present work shows that starch-based thermoplastics with 30wt% agar content have the highest tensile strength. Higher content of agar (40wt%) resulted to more rough cleavage fracture and slight decrease in the tensile strength. In conclusion, the addition of agar improved the thermal and tensile properties of thermoplastic SPS which widened the potential application of this eco-friendly material. The most promising applications for this eco-friendly material are short-life products such as packaging, container, tray, etc.