Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 311 in total

  1. Vijayasingham L, Jogulu U, Allotey P
    Soc Sci Med, 2021 01;269:113608.
    PMID: 33360218 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113608
    For people with chronic illnesses in low-and-middle-income countries, access to enabling resources that contribute to health, economic and social resilience such as continued employment, often fall outside the health sector's remit or delivery of national structural protection. In the absence of sufficient laws and policies that mitigate discrimination and enhance reasonable work modifications, private employers have a high degree of agency and discretion in how they hire, manage, or terminate employees with chronic illnesses (ECI). There is a scarcity of research on how employers make decisions under these conditions. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we interviewed and analysed data from 30 human resource (HR) professionals and decision-makers within private organisations in Klang Valley, Malaysia (June 2015-September 2016). In this paper, we use 'ethics of care' as an analytic, and moral lens to present HR's decision-making rationales in caring for and managing ECI. Respondents described the positive influence of international practices, including through parent company policies, as a reference for best practice. While overt bias and discriminatory perceptions were predictably described, participants also discussed care as relational organisational culture, and strategy, albeit selectively. Apart from illness factors such as duration and severity, descriptions of 'selective caregiving' included considerations of an employee's duration in organisations, the perceived value of the employee to employers, organisation size, ethos, resources and capabilities, and how organisations managed the uncertainty of illness futures as a potential risk to organisation outcomes. Selective caregiving can contribute to social, economic and health inequalities in populations with chronic illness. Nevertheless, global health actors can use the problems identified by participants, as entry points to engage more closely with employers and the broader private and commercial sectors in LMICs, to facilitate more inclusive care, and care-based intersectoral work to address the social and economic determinants of health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment*
  2. Tang PM, Koopman J, Mai KM, De Cremer D, Zhang JH, Reynders P, et al.
    J Appl Psychol, 2023 Nov;108(11):1766-1789.
    PMID: 37307359 DOI: 10.1037/apl0001103
    The artificial intelligence (AI) revolution has arrived, as AI systems are increasingly being integrated across organizational functions into the work lives of employees. This coupling of employees and machines fundamentally alters the work-related interactions to which employees are accustomed, as employees find themselves increasingly interacting with, and relying on, AI systems instead of human coworkers. This increased coupling of employees and AI portends a shift toward more of an "asocial system," wherein people may feel socially disconnected at work. Drawing upon the social affiliation model, we develop a model delineating both adaptive and maladaptive consequences of this situation. Specifically, we theorize that the more employees interact with AI in the pursuit of work goals, the more they experience a need for social affiliation (adaptive)-which may contribute to more helping behavior toward coworkers at work-as well as a feeling of loneliness (maladaptive), which then further impair employee well-being after work (i.e., more insomnia and alcohol consumption). In addition, we submit that these effects should be especially pronounced among employees with higher levels of attachment anxiety. Results across four studies (N = 794) with mixed methodologies (i.e., survey study, field experiment, and simulation study; Studies 1-4) with employees from four different regions (i.e., Taiwan, Indonesia, United States, and Malaysia) generally support our hypotheses. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment*
  3. Muhammad Fadhil Marsani, Ani Shabri
    MATEMATIKA, 2019;35(3):297-308.
    This journal renders the random walk behaviour of the Malaysian daily share return, through tests of efficient market hypothesis (EMH) based on three different financial periods, namely growth, financial crisis, and recovery period. This review also covers the behaviour of extreme return for weekly and monthly series generated from Block maxima-minima method. Autocorrelation Function test (ACF) and Ljung-Box test had been employed to measure average correlation between observations, while Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP), Kwiatkowski Phillips Schmidt Shin (KPSS) test had been used to scan the unit root and the stationarity. Multiple variance ratio tests had also been conducted to examine the random walk behaviour. Serial correlation test indicated that the movement of daily return during the financial crisis period was weak-form efficiency. The unit root and stationary tests suggested that each daily series was stationary, but trend stationary for extreme cases. Variance ratio tests indicated that the return during the recovery period was weak-form inefficiency due to the short lag autocorrelation in series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  4. Ahmed Tarajo Buba, Lee, Lai Soon
    The urban transit network design problem (UTNDP) involves the development of a transit route set and associated schedules for an urban public transit system. The design of efficient public transit systems is widely considered as a viable option for the economic, social, and physical structure of an urban setting. This paper reviews four well-known population-based metaheuristics that have been employed and deemed potentially viable for tackling the UTNDP. The aim is to give a thorough review of the algorithms and identify the gaps for future research directions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  5. Gharleghi B, Abu Hassan Shaari Md Nor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1163-1169.
    The main aim of this paper was to validate the relative price monetary model (RPMM) of exchange rate determination for the Malaysian exchange rate (RM/USD) using monthly data set from 1986-2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration test and vector error correction model were employed. Because the time period under consideration includes the South
    East Asian financial crisis, the analysis is done using two time periods; the full time period as well as the period after the crisis. Two interesting results were observed from this empirical exercise. First, there is a long-run relationship between exchange rate and the selected macro variables only for the period after the crisis. Second, the forecasting performance of monetary approach based on the error correction model outperformed the Random Walk model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  6. Wu X, Yong CC, Lee ST
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Nov 25;19(23).
    PMID: 36497744 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192315669
    In 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) left around 81% of the global workforce, nearly 2.7 billion workers, affected. Employment in China was the first to be hit by COVID-19. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is expected to bring dynamism to China's employment market in an era of long COVID-19. This study aims to examine the number of sectoral jobs that the RCEP will create in China, with the number of skilled or unskilled labour employed in each sector. The exogenous shocks to the RCEP can be reflected in the number of jobs created through multipliers based on a social accounting matrix compiled from China's input-output tables in 2017, combined with the employment satellite accounts compiled. The results show that the RCEP is expected to create over 17 million potential jobs in China, with unskilled labour accounting for 10.44 million and skilled labour for 6.77 million. It is even expected that there will be job losses in the metalworking machinery sector. The contribution of this paper can serve as a reference for policies to protect vulnerable sectors, further open up trade markets and strengthen cooperation among RCEP members as important measures to address the employment impact of long COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  7. Appannan JS, Maheswaran L, Raimee N, Lim WL, Amran FH
    Work, 2022;73(4):1135-1145.
    PMID: 36057808 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-211467
    BACKGROUND: Millions of employees were laid off during the COVID-19 pandemic. The hospitality industry has been gravely hit by this crisis.

    OBJECTIVE: Drawing from the theory of conservation of resources (COR), our study aims to examine possible factors that influence turnover intention among hotel employees.

    METHODS: The hypotheses were tested on 141 hotel employees from Klang Valley, Malaysia. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, purposive sampling was employed, and PLS-SEM was used in performing the data analyses.

    RESULTS: Job insecurity and psychological distress were found to be the potent antecedent of turnover intention. In contrast, the role of perceived supervisor support did not significantly moderate the effects of both job insecurity and psychological distress on the quitting intention.

    CONCLUSION: Re-looking at existing policies and leadership styles may be fruitful in ensuring the sustainability path of an organization. This is pivotal in growing back the entire hospitality industry that has gravely affected by COVID-19.

    Matched MeSH terms: Employment/psychology
  8. Khalid K, Jamaluddin R, Ismail MS
    BMJ Open Qual, 2023 Jun;12(2).
    PMID: 37277216 DOI: 10.1136/bmjoq-2022-002139
    BACKGROUND: Poor employment rate among psychiatric patients is poorly discussed.

    PURPOSE: To share our strategies in boosting employment rate among stable psychiatric patients and discuss the lessons learnt.

    PARTICULAR FOCUS: Multifaceted strategies were remodelled to ensure a three-dimensional optimisation: (1) strengthening clinical service to ensure stable disease and appropriate patient selection through battery of assessments, (2) provision of psychosocial support to boost self-esteem and foster discipline among patients through encouragement, guidance and regular monitoring by the multidisciplinary community mental health team and (3) encourage willingness and confidence among stakeholders and local market to host job opportunities to stable mental health patients.

    OVERVIEW: The yearly employment rate among our stable psychiatric patients under supported employment programme from 2020 to 2021 was 28.6% (2/7) and 30.0% (3/10), respectively. A qualitative survey found the main hindrance to recruitment were employers' scepticism on work performance, while poor work retention was due to patients' lack of specific skill set and discipline to adhere to routine. We restructured our supported employment programme by adding the role of community mental health facility to foster discipline and routine for 6 months prior to referral to a job coach. Until June 2022, two out of five patients managed to secure job positions (40.0%). Despite our efforts to improve employment with the instituted remedial strategy, we still fail to reach the minimum standard set by ministry. Future plan will focus on tailoring individual interests to a specific set of skills that match industrial expectation prior to seeking employment. Additionally, enhancing public education using social media may foster better inclusion of psychiatric patients and social acceptance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Employment, Supported*
  9. Assiry AA, Alnemari A, Adil AH, Karobari MI, Sayed FR, Marya A, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2022;2022:4968489.
    PMID: 35036434 DOI: 10.1155/2022/4968489
    Background: Working conditions, job satisfaction, and their overall impact on a dentist's job satisfaction are critical for future employment and retaining of dentists.

    Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the factors influencing the job satisfaction level among dentists. It is also aimed at evaluating how personal (age, gender) and professional (type, type of qualification, and year of practice) characteristics influence overall job satisfaction.

    Methods: For data collection, a structured self-administered questionnaire was used, in which one part collected information on personal characteristics. At the same time, the other contained a questionnaire related to job satisfaction. The German validated version of the questionnaire had a 10-point Warr-Cook-Wall (WCW) scale developed by Warr et al. in 1979. Each item was rated on a 5-point Likert scale, with 5 representing excessive satisfaction and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction.

    Results: The results revealed that dentists in Saudi Arabia have a higher satisfaction level with "colleagues and fellow workers" (26.5%). The relation between the years of practice was highly significant. However, they were dissatisfied with their "income" (22.6%), and when compared with concerning age, gender, profession, and their practice years, this finding was highly significant.

    Conclusion: A higher percentage of satisfaction was seen with the "fellow and colleague's workers" dimension. At the same time, "income" was the aspect with which the dentists showed extreme dissatisfaction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Employment*
  10. Orme GJ, Kehoe J
    Mil Med, 2012 Aug;177(8):894-900.
    PMID: 22934366
    The views and concerns of the employers of reservists sent on overseas deployments are largely unknown. A survey was conducted of 126 Australian employers who participated in Exercise Boss Lift sponsored by the Australian Defence Force, which involved a visit to their employees deployed on overseas service in the Solomon Islands and Malaysia during the period 2006-2010. Employers reported a substantial number of positive aspects of reservist deployment for both their enterprise and the individual reservist employee, including an increase in leadership, teamwork, skills, maturity, and confidence. There were 40% fewer reported negatives, which primarily concerned the costs associated with the absence of an important employee. The employers expressed needs for greater information regarding dates of absence of their reservist employee and assistance from the ADF to enable them to enhance the overall deployment. Importantly, employers sought confirmation of ways to effectively manage the transition of their reservist from military service back to their civilian roles. Some employers offered to act as advocates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment*
  11. Mohamad NR, Marzuki NH, Buang NA, Huyop F, Wahab RA
    Biotechnology, biotechnological equipment, 2015 Mar 04;29(2):205-220.
    PMID: 26019635
    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  12. Hirschman C
    Demography, 1976 Nov;13(4):445-61.
    PMID: 992169
    The pace of urbanization in Peninsular Malaysia was slower in the most recent intercensal interval, 1957 to 1970, than in the previous period, 1947 to 1957. Most of the small change in the rural-urban balance from 1957 to 1970 appears due to the growth of towns into the urban classification rather than to a redistribution of population into the previous urban settlements. A number of towns in Peninsular Malaysia do show exceptional growth from 1957 to 1970, but there seems to be no clear relationship between a city's size and its subsequent growth. The rural areas on the outskirts of the largest cities do show rapid growth, especially the periphery of the capital city. It appears that neither the classic model of urbanization based upon Western experience nor the over-urbanization thesis explain the urbanization process in Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  13. Amirul Afif Muhamat, Siti Zubaidah Ahmad, Azreen Roslan, Norzitah Abdul Karim, Norfaridah Ali Azizan
    This paper aims to explore the readi n ess of takaful operators to integrate waqf as part of their product feature by assessing on the components of as proposed in the New Product Development Model: marketing supports; formalized development process and top management supports. Questionnaire w a s employed in this survey and takaful operators’ employees who involved in product development were selected such as actuaries, business development managers and their executives. Unexpectedly, several takaful operators withdrew from participating in the s urvey (it was last minute) which is limitation in this study. Accordingly, it caused the use of non parametric tests in this study since the data is not normally distributed. Spearman rank correlation shows that formalized development process is the sig n ificant factor that influenced the readiness of the takaful operators to integrate waqf in their products. However, the other two independent variables which are marketing supports and top management supports depicted insignificant result. Nevertheless, t h e findings were still able to provide insights on the integration of waqf by takaful operators as their latest products’ feature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  14. Lim WM, Yap SF, Makkar M
    J Bus Res, 2021 Jan;122:534-566.
    PMID: 33012896 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.08.051
    The proliferation of home sharing in the extant marketing and tourism literature has only been accelerated in recent times due to the emergence of the sharing economy. This paper contends that it is now an opportune time to pursue a stock take of existing knowledge in order to guide future marketing and tourism research on home sharing. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review and propose an agenda for home sharing from a marketing and tourism perspective. Through a framework-based systematic review, this paper offers an organized, retrospective view of the antecedents, decisions, and outcomes (ADO) of home sharing in marketing and tourism. The paper also provides a snapshot on the theories, contexts, and methods (TCM) employed to gain this understanding before concluding with a discussion on the extant knowledge gaps and the ways in which these gaps could be addressed through pertinent ideas for future marketing and tourism research on home sharing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  15. Nurul Najwa Abd Malek, Ali H. Jawad, Emad Yousif
    Science Letters, 2020;14(1):83-95.
    Cross-linked chitosan-epichlorohydrin was prepared for the adsorption of Reactive Red 4 (RR4).
    Response surface methodology (RSM) with 3–level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to
    optimize the RR4 dye removal efficiency from aqueous solution. The adsorption key parameters that were selected such as adsorbent dose (A: 0.5 – 1.5 g), pH (B: 4 – 10) and time (30 – 80 min). The F-value of BBD model for RR4 removal efficiency was 185.36 (corresponding p-value < 0.0001). The results illustrated that the highest RR4 removal efficiency (70.53%) was obtained at the following conditions: adsorbent dose (1.0 g), pH 4 and time of 80 min.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  16. Jumadil Saputra, Suhal Kusairi, Nur Azura Sanusi, Yusuf Abdullah
    This paper aims to analyze the distinction of premium setting rates by taking into account the risk
    taken by conventional and Family Takaful. This study employed the Net Single and Annual Level
    Premium formula, and the data were analyzed using a numerical simulation. We found that the
    conventional and Takaful insurance systems utilize similar methods in the calculation of insurance
    premium when considering pure risk faced by the participant or insured. However, both systems have
    their own unique characteristics. The conventional and Family Takaful utilize historical data, such as
    mortality rate, expected return rate, expected costs and expected amount of claims. The conventional
    insurance is calculated to mitigate or minimize the risk of the insurance company against an amount of
    claim faced in the future as long as the insurance is enforced until the contract ends. On the other
    hand, the Family Takaful is intended to share fair value among participants in determining
    benevolence through Tabarru premium. Every participant must pay for Tabarru premium to support
    one another so that there is sufficient amount to cover unexpected claims among them and to uphold
    mutual fund as evidence for the sense of mutual co-operation and brotherhood among participants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  17. Udenni Gunathilake TMS, Ching YC, Ching KY, Chuah CH, Abdullah LC
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Apr 29;9(5).
    PMID: 30970839 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050160
    Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
  18. Nur Aizzah Hanan Kamarul Zaman, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin
    Previous work employed digital image analysis using a fully-automated computer software to quantify changes in MG, which is meibomian gland loss. However, semi-automated software is more favorable for clinical applications as it allows clinicians to manually delete undesired noise or artifacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
    Technology is a tool that influences today’s lifestyle especially in the employment sector. The use of technology in employment may help in increasing the worker’s appraisal. The efficiency can be measured based on the increase of the productivity and the acceptance in using this system to help in upgrading the quality of the product output. It also assists in communication, increasing the worker’s integrity, productivity and the spread of information.
    Matched MeSH terms: Employment
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