The urban transit network design problem (UTNDP) involves the development of a transit route set and associated schedules for an urban public transit system. The design of efficient public transit systems is widely considered as a viable option for the economic, social, and physical structure of an urban setting. This paper reviews four well-known population-based metaheuristics that have been employed and deemed potentially viable for tackling the UTNDP. The aim is to give a thorough review of the algorithms and identify the gaps for future research directions.
The main aim of this paper was to validate the relative price monetary model (RPMM) of exchange rate determination for the Malaysian exchange rate (RM/USD) using monthly data set from 1986-2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration test and vector error correction model were employed. Because the time period under consideration includes the South
East Asian financial crisis, the analysis is done using two time periods; the full time period as well as the period after the crisis. Two interesting results were observed from this empirical exercise. First, there is a long-run relationship between exchange rate and the selected macro variables only for the period after the crisis. Second, the forecasting performance of monetary approach based on the error correction model outperformed the Random Walk model.
This journal renders the random walk behaviour of the Malaysian daily share return, through tests of efficient market hypothesis (EMH) based on three different financial periods, namely growth, financial crisis, and recovery period. This review also covers the behaviour of extreme return for weekly and monthly series generated from Block maxima-minima method. Autocorrelation Function test (ACF) and Ljung-Box test had been employed to measure average correlation between observations, while Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Phillips-Perron (PP), Kwiatkowski Phillips Schmidt Shin (KPSS) test had been used to scan the unit root and the stationarity. Multiple variance ratio tests had also been conducted to examine the random walk behaviour. Serial correlation test indicated that the movement of daily return during the financial crisis period was weak-form efficiency. The unit root and stationary tests suggested that each daily series was stationary, but trend stationary for extreme cases. Variance ratio tests indicated that the return during the recovery period was weak-form inefficiency due to the short lag autocorrelation in series.
The views and concerns of the employers of reservists sent on overseas deployments are largely unknown. A survey was conducted of 126 Australian employers who participated in Exercise Boss Lift sponsored by the Australian Defence Force, which involved a visit to their employees deployed on overseas service in the Solomon Islands and Malaysia during the period 2006-2010. Employers reported a substantial number of positive aspects of reservist deployment for both their enterprise and the individual reservist employee, including an increase in leadership, teamwork, skills, maturity, and confidence. There were 40% fewer reported negatives, which primarily concerned the costs associated with the absence of an important employee. The employers expressed needs for greater information regarding dates of absence of their reservist employee and assistance from the ADF to enable them to enhance the overall deployment. Importantly, employers sought confirmation of ways to effectively manage the transition of their reservist from military service back to their civilian roles. Some employers offered to act as advocates.
The pace of urbanization in Peninsular Malaysia was slower in the most recent intercensal interval, 1957 to 1970, than in the previous period, 1947 to 1957. Most of the small change in the rural-urban balance from 1957 to 1970 appears due to the growth of towns into the urban classification rather than to a redistribution of population into the previous urban settlements. A number of towns in Peninsular Malaysia do show exceptional growth from 1957 to 1970, but there seems to be no clear relationship between a city's size and its subsequent growth. The rural areas on the outskirts of the largest cities do show rapid growth, especially the periphery of the capital city. It appears that neither the classic model of urbanization based upon Western experience nor the over-urbanization thesis explain the urbanization process in Peninsular Malaysia.
This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.
The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies.
Low-cost high rise housing project is developed to provide a chance for low-income
citizen to own a house at a lower market price. Each low-cost high-rise residential
building possesses its own building management body where one of its duties is to
manage residential area after the strata title has been issued to the purchaser. The
study was carried out to evaluate the level of satisfaction among residents of one lowcost
housing area towards the maintenance activities administered by the building
management body. This research employed mixed-method approach; quantitative and
qualitative, as it able to capture accurate data from both residents and the building
management body. This study concluded that the residents of Rumah Selangorku
Damai Utama are mostly leaning towards dissatisfaction with the building and facilities
maintenance services provided by the building management body.
This paper reports the effect of microbending losses in single mode optical fiber
for pressure sensing system application. Several types of periodical corrugated
plates were fabricated, namely cylindrical-structured surface (Plate A) and
rectangular-structured surface (Plate B) with thicknesses of corrugated parts
were varied at 0.1 cm, 0.2 cm and 0.3 cm. Laser sources with excitation
wavelengths of 1= 1310 nm and 2= 1550 nm were launched at the first end
of the fiber. The values of losses were recorded by using an optical power
meter. It was clearly seen that the microbending losses were polynomially
increased with the increment of applied pressure and the thicknesses of
corrugated parts of Plate A and Plate B. The maximum microbending losses of
1.5185 dBm/kPa was resulted as SMF was coupled with corrugated plates B
with thicknesses of 0.3cm by using excitation wavelength of 1550nm. These
values reduced to 0.7628 dBm/kPa and 0.4014 dBm/kPa as the thicknesses
were decreased to 0.2cm and 0.1cm respectively. In comparison with a plain
plate which acted as a reference indicator, the maximum percentage of
microbending losses was obtained as 74.29 % for Plate A and 95.02 % for Plate
B. In conclusions, we successfully proved the ability of SMF as a pressure sensor
by manipulating the microbending losses experienced by the fiber. The
employment of 1550nm of laser wavelength results better sensitivity sensor
where the system able to detect large losses as the pressure applied on the
Crowdsourcing is an initiative implemented by the Malaysian government to support its National Key Result Area (NKRA) agenda to improve the lives of citizens with low household income in the B40 group. Crowdsourcing activities are done on mobile crowdsourcing platforms that enable workers to perform micro tasks at any time for a fixed payment. However, without active and constant participation from the crowd, this initiative might not be successful. This paper describes a preliminary study in identifying motivation factors for participating in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. This study identified intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors that can attract crowds to participate in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. Technology efficacy factors that interlink with motivation factors were also identified in this study. The preliminary study employed the qualitative method where in-depth interviews were conducted among 30 crowdsourcing participants in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of this study are the basis for a motivation model that can attract crowdworkers from among the B40 group of household-income earners to participate in crowdsourcing to procure and perform available micro-tasks. The findings will also help improvise mobile platforms for crowdsourcing.
This paper provides a qualitative overview of different Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS),
which play important role in the field of sensors due to their excellent
characteristics, spontaneous response and easy handling system. The current
state of the art of optical fiber technology is reviewed, namely based on its main
characteristics and sensing advantages. In addition, the working principle of OFS
and their applications are discussed, particularly for sensor employment.
Multirotor drones have been one of the most important technological advances of the last decade. Their mechanics are simple compared to other types of drones and their possibilities in flight are greater. For example, they can take-off vertically. Their capabilities have therefore brought progress to many professional activities. Moreover, advances in computing and telecommunications have also broadened the range of activities in which drones may be used. Currently, artificial intelligence and information analysis are the main areas of research in the field of computing. The case study presented in this article employed artificial intelligence techniques in the analysis of information captured by drones. More specifically, the camera installed in the drone took images which were later analyzed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to identify the objects captured in the images. In this research, a CNN was trained to detect cattle, however the same training process could be followed to develop a CNN for the detection of any other object. This article describes the design of the platform for real-time analysis of information and its performance in the detection of cattle.
Technological innovations are significant in human and professional life. A new online correction and
prevention system called eTPP to replace old traditional system has introduced new major changes in
the reporting process. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the level of user's acceptance
towards eTPP and to investigate the factors that influence user's behavioural intentions to use eTPP in
UiTM Cawangan Johor, Kampus Segamat. A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was employed
as a conceptual framework to investigate the factors that influence users' acceptance to use eTPP. To
test the model, data were collected from 44 respondents from various departments in UiTM
Cawangan Johor, Kampus Segamat. Questionnaires were distributed to collect primary data from the
respondents about their acceptability of eTPP. The results were presented through multiple regression
analysis and supported by mediating analysis (Preacher and Hayes, 2008; Baron and Kenny, 1986),
whereby it showed consistent mediating result with the regression result. The overall finding of the
study showed that the perceived ease of use was the main factor influencing eTPP acceptance among
This paper aims to analyze the distinction of premium setting rates by taking into account the risk
taken by conventional and Family Takaful. This study employed the Net Single and Annual Level
Premium formula, and the data were analyzed using a numerical simulation. We found that the
conventional and Takaful insurance systems utilize similar methods in the calculation of insurance
premium when considering pure risk faced by the participant or insured. However, both systems have
their own unique characteristics. The conventional and Family Takaful utilize historical data, such as
mortality rate, expected return rate, expected costs and expected amount of claims. The conventional
insurance is calculated to mitigate or minimize the risk of the insurance company against an amount of
claim faced in the future as long as the insurance is enforced until the contract ends. On the other
hand, the Family Takaful is intended to share fair value among participants in determining
benevolence through Tabarru premium. Every participant must pay for Tabarru premium to support
one another so that there is sufficient amount to cover unexpected claims among them and to uphold
mutual fund as evidence for the sense of mutual co-operation and brotherhood among participants.
This study examines the factors that influence organizational commitment among public employees in
residential colleges in the University of Malaya. A total of 100 employees representing 12 colleges
responded to the questionnaires that were designed to measure their motivation and level of
commitment. The data obtained were analyzed using correlation, analysis of variance and regression
analysis were used in order to achieve the objectives of the study. The findings of this study indicated
that there are significant and positive relationships between all factors (employment compensation,
training and development, career development and management support) with organization
commitment. Furthermore, the findings also showed a directional relationship between independent
and dependent variables by which the public employees at the colleges have positive commitment to
the organization when the management provides attractive training and development, career
development and good management support. In addition, the findings indicated that career
development was the most dominant factor influencing organizational commitment followed by
training development and job compensation. However, management support factor does not affect the
organizational commitment among public employees compared to the other factors.
This paper presents a mathematical approach to solve railway rescheduling problems. The approach assumes that the trains are able to resume their journey after a given time frame of disruption whereby The train that experiences disruption and trains affected by the incident are rescheduled. The approach employed mathematical model to prioritise certain types of train according the railway operator’s requirement. A pre-emptive goal programming model was adapted to find an optimal solution that satisfies the operational constraints and the company’s stated goals. Initially, the model minimises the total service delay of all trains while adhering to the minimum headway requirement and track capacity. Subsequently, it maximises the train service reliability by only considering the trains with delay time window of five minutes or less. The model uses MATLAB R2014a software which automatically generates the optimal solution of the problem based on the input matrix of constraints. An experiment with three incident scenarios on a double-track railway of local network was conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The new provisional timetable was produced in short computing time and the model was able to prioritise desired train schedule.
Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
This paper considers the problem of outlier detection in bilinear time series data with special focus on BL(1,0,1,1) and BL(1,1,1,1) models. In the previous study, the formulations of effect of innovational outlier on the observations and residuals from the process had been developed and the corresponding least squares estimator of outlier effect had been derived. Consequently, an outlier detection procedure employing bootstrap-based procedure to estimate the variance of the estimator had been proposed. In this paper, we proposed to use the mean absolute deviance and trimmed mean formula to estimate the variance to improve the performances of the procedure. Via simulation, we showed that the procedure based on the trimmed mean formula has successfully improved the performance of the procedure.
This study examines how Salat (prayer) in Islam moderates the relationship between job stress and life satisfaction among Muslim nursing staff. The researchers sampled 335 nursing staff employed at the University of Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 21 to 60 years. The findings indicate the job stress was associated negatively with life satisfaction; there is a strong positive and significant correlation, respectively, between Salat and life satisfaction and that Salat reduces stress and increases the life satisfaction of Muslim nurses. Thus, Salat has a moderating effect on job stress and life satisfaction of Muslim nurses.