Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 280 in total

  1. Goh KL
    JUMMEC, 2000;5:107-109.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy
  2. Chelvam P
    Family Practitioner, 1985;8:37-40.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy
  3. Wong DN
    Gastrointest Endosc, 1997 Nov;46(5):480-4.
    PMID: 9402137
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/standards; Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data*; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data
  4. Jain S, Seal A, Ojha A, Krejcar O, Bureš J, Tachecí I, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2020 12;127:104094.
    PMID: 33152668 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.104094
    One of the most recent non-invasive technologies to examine the gastrointestinal tract is wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE). As there are thousands of endoscopic images in an 8-15 h long video, an evaluator has to pay constant attention for a relatively long time (60-120 min). Therefore the possibility of the presence of pathological findings in a few images (displayed for evaluation for a few seconds only) brings a significant risk of missing the pathology with all negative consequences for the patient. Hence, manually reviewing a video to identify abnormal images is not only a tedious and time consuming task that overwhelms human attention but also is error prone. In this paper, a method is proposed for the automatic detection of abnormal WCE images. The differential box counting method is used for the extraction of fractal dimension (FD) of WCE images and the random forest based ensemble classifier is used for the identification of abnormal frames. The FD is a well-known technique for extraction of features related to texture, smoothness, and roughness. In this paper, FDs are extracted from pixel-blocks of WCE images and are fed to the classifier for identification of images with abnormalities. To determine a suitable pixel block size for FD feature extraction, various sizes of blocks are considered and are fed into six frequently used classifiers separately, and the block size of 7×7 giving the best performance is empirically determined. Further, the selection of the random forest ensemble classifier is also done using the same empirical study. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated on two datasets containing WCE frames. Results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms some of the state-of-the-art methods with AUC of 85% and 99% on Dataset-I and Dataset-II respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Capsule Endoscopy*
  5. Brand Y, Narayanan V, Prepageran N, Waran V
    World Neurosurg, 2016 Jun;90:492-495.
    PMID: 26987637 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.03.018
    OBJECTIVE: To share our experience with a new delivery system for the flowable hemostatic matrix, FloSeal, in endoscopic and microscopic skull base surgery.

    METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the use of FloSeal with a hemostatic delivery system in transnasal endoscopic and microscopic skull base procedures performed at the authors' institution from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015. In all cases the number of aliquots was noted for the entire operation, and the total number of FloSeal ampules of 5 mL was also recorded.

    RESULTS: Our device allowed controlled application of small amounts (0.5-1 mL) of FloSeal to the site of bleeding. This controlled application resulted not only in increased visibility during its application, but it also reduced the amount of FloSeal required during the procedure. We were able to use 5-10 applications per 5-mL ampule of FloSeal within an individual procedure. No procedure required more than one 5-mL ampule of FloSeal. Therefore, the use of our device results in a reduction of costs. Prior to the use of our device, we were often only able to use 1 vial of 5 ml of material for 1 or 2 applications, especially in transnasal endoscopic procedures when working along a deep corridor.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that our delivery device of FlowSeal can effectively control hemostasis by applying small amounts of FlowSeal to the site of bleeding. This results in increased visibility during hemostasis and a reduction of cost.

    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy
  6. Gendeh BS, Wormald PJ, Forer M, Goh BS, Misiran K
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57(4):503-8.
    PMID: 12733180
    Three cases of spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea were managed at the National University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Case 1 had bilateral leak secondary to empty sella syndrome and the rest two cases had unilateral leak. Four transnasal endoscopic approaches were performed on these three cases since March 1999. The role of intrathecal Sodium Fluorescein is highlighted in localising the CSF fistula. Case 3 required postoperative lumbar drain as an adjunct. No recurrent leak was noted on post operative follow up in Case 2 and 3 ranging from nine to thirty two months. A recurrent left leak at six months was noted in Case 1 which could likely be due to her sudden bout of cough attacks and patient refused further surgical intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy*
  7. Govindaraju R, Tang IP, Prepageran N
    PMID: 30507693 DOI: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000508
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sphenoid sinus lateral recess encephalocoeles (SSLRE) are rare occurrences and pose unique challenges due to limited surgical access for endoscopic endonasal repair and also the lack of consensus on optimal perioperative managements specifically in the spontaneous cases, which are also believed to be a variant of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Endoscopic endonasal approaches have largely replaced the transcranial route and the techniques are continuously being refined to reduce the neurovascular morbidity and improve outcome.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Transpetrygoid is the most utilized approach with modifications suggested to limit bone removal, exposure and preservation of the neurovascular structures as dictated by the extent of the lateral recess. As more experience is gained, extended transphenoidal techniques were also successfully used for access. Lateral transorbital is a new approach to the lateral recess investigated in cadavers. IIH treatment is still controversial in the setting of SSLRE, but it appears rationale to evaluate, monitor and treat if necessary.

    SUMMARY: SSLRE management should be tailored to the specific anatomical variances and cause. Modifications of techniques have been described giving different options to access the lateral recess. Successful repair for spontaneous SSLRE may require treatment of IIH if present, but the long-term outcome is still unclear.

    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy*
  8. Goh KL
    Dig Endosc, 2011 May;23 Suppl 1:150-3.
    PMID: 21535222 DOI: 10.1111/j.1443-1661.2011.01123.x
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy started in the early 1970s in Malaysia with the help of Japanese doctors. It has evolved over the past 30 years. The gastrointestinal endoscopy unit at the University of Malaya Medical Centre has been in the forefront in providing endoscopy services to patients as well as training doctors in endoscopy in the country. In recent years, trainees have included those from neighboring countries in South-East Asia. Among our most significant achievements is the organization of regular international therapeutic endoscopy workshops since 1993 where leading endoscopists from throughout the world have accepted our invitation as teaching faculty. In 2008, the World Organization of Digestive Endoscopy accorded the high distinction of Centre of Excellence to the endoscopy unit of the University of Malaya Medical Centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/history*; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/trends
  9. Narayanan V, Jayapalan RR, Singh Sidhu A, Koh KMR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 2 27;30(3):841-842.
    PMID: 30807473 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005185
    Exophytic lesions involving the face present with an undesirable esthetic deformity and usually necessitate surgical excision. Conventional open excision techniques may lead to scar formation or pigmentation issues postoperatively. Minimally invasive endoscope-assisted surgery will be able to overcome these problems. However, this technique is not widely used because of the limited optical cavity working space, which hinders good visualization. We describe a technique to improve the optical cavity workspace to enable adequate endoscope-assisted surgical excision of forehead lesions in 2 cases. Foley's catheter and ribbon gauze were used in both cases to gain optical cavity workspace. The surgical technique is described in detail. One case had a frontal osteoma, whereas other was a nodular fasciitis of the forehead, confirmed by histology. Postoperative follow-up showed good outcomes at 1 year with no recurrences. Both patients were satisfied with the surgical and cosmetic outcomes. Endoscopic excision of a forehead lesion using the described technique is both safe and reliable. It is an excellent method for excising benign growths over the forehead while being cosmetically acceptable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/instrumentation*; Endoscopy/methods*
  10. Wong EHC, Chong AW
    Am J Otolaryngol, 2019 12 05;41(2):102367.
    PMID: 31831185 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.102367
    BACKGROUND: Many studies have looked at the effect of functional endoscopic sinus surgeries (FESS) on nasalance, nasal consonant and nasalized vowels. Only two studies investigated the effect of FESS on vocal sound quality and have not found statistically significant changes before and after operations. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term and long-term objective and subjective changes in the vocal quality of patients after FESS, comparing patients with and without nasal polyps.

    METHODS: Sixteen patients were recruited for voice analysis during pre-operative, within two weeks and at least three months post-operatively. Subjective questionnaire was used to assess perception of voice changes.

    RESULTS: There were no statistically significant changes in the acoustic parameters of patients with nasal polyposis. In patients with CRS without polyps, there was a statistically significant increase in fundamental frequency (F0) in nasal sound during early follow up. The changes in soft phonation index (SPI) values between the two groups were statistically significant during early follow-ups. Only patients with nasal polyposis perceived a subjective change in their voice post-operatively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should inform all patients, especially voice professionals about the possible effects of endoscopic sinus surgeries on their voice quality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/adverse effects*; Endoscopy/methods*
  11. Ho SH, Uedo N, Aso A, Shimizu S, Saito Y, Yao K, et al.
    J Clin Gastroenterol, 2018 04;52(4):295-306.
    PMID: 29210900 DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000960
    Endoscopy imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has evolved tremendously over the last few decades. Key milestones in the development of endoscopy imaging include the use of various dyes for chromoendoscopy, the application of optical magnification in endoscopy, the introduction of high-definition image capturing and display technology and the application of altered illuminating light to achieve vascular and surface enhancement. Aims of this review paper are to summarize the development and evolution of modern endoscopy imaging and in particular, imaged-enhanced endoscopy (IEE), to promote appropriate usage, and to guide future development of good endoscopy practice. A search of PubMed database was performed to identify articles related to IEE of the GI tract. Where appropriate, landmark trials and high-quality meta-analyses and systematic reviews were used in the discussion. In this review, the developments and evolutions in endoscopy imaging and in particular, IEE, were summarized into discernible eras and the literature evidence with regard to the strengths and weaknesses in term of their detection and characterization capability in each of these eras were discussed. It is in the authors' opinion that IEE is capable of fairly good detection and accurate characterization of various GI lesions but such benefits may not be readily reaped by those who are new in the field of luminal endoscopy. Exposure and training in making confident diagnoses using these endoscopy imaging technologies are required in tandem with these new developments in order to fully embrace and adopt the benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/history*; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/instrumentation
  12. Jong YH, Gendeh BS
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):81-3.
    PMID: 18935747 MyJurnal
    Adenoidectomy is a common ENT procedure performed in hospitals in Malaysia. Adenoidectomy is indicated in patients with recurrent adenoiditis, nasal obstruction or sleep apnoea secondary to adenoid hypertrophy when conservative management has failed. Over the years, there are advances in the techniques of adenoidectomy, from the conventional transoral to endoscopic transnasal/transoral adenoidectomy. The purpose of this article is to describe the technique and emphasize the advantages of this procedure to that of the conventional technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/methods
  13. Tang IP, Brand Y, Prepageran N
    PMID: 26575516 DOI: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000218
    To review cause, clinical evaluation, medical and surgical management of isolated sphenoid sinus diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/methods*
  14. Mahamooth Z
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Sep;42(3):191-5.
    PMID: 3506643
    Retrograde ureteroscopy, using the 12.5 French Storsz Perez-Castro Ellendt operating ureteroscope provides excellent visual access to the whole of the ureteric lumen in most instances. A total of 41 ureteroscopies were performed on a similar number of patients over a period of 12 months since April 1986. Majority of them were for ureteric calculi. Success rate for patients with ureteric calculi below the pelvic brim was 77.4%. A lower success was noted for calculi above the pelvic brim (50%). Retrograde ureteroscopy will eventually make blind basketing of lower ureteric stones an unnecessarily risky procedure and perhaps even obsolete. Ureterolithotomy nevertheless will still have a place in the management of stones that cannot be extracted either due to acute bullous oedema of the ureteric mucosa or in previously explored rigid non-yielding ureters not suitable for ureteroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy*
  15. Chiu PWY, Uedo N, Singh R, Gotoda T, Ng EKW, Yao K, et al.
    Gut, 2019 02;68(2):186-197.
    PMID: 30420400 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317111
    BACKGROUND: This is a consensus developed by a group of expert endoscopists aiming to standardise the preparation, process and endoscopic procedural steps for diagnosis of early upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers.

    METHOD: The Delphi method was used to develop consensus statements through identification of clinical questions on diagnostic endoscopy. Three consensus meetings were conducted to consolidate the statements and voting. We conducted a systematic literature search on evidence for each statement. The statements were presented in the second consensus meeting and revised according to comments. The final voting was conducted at the third consensus meeting on the level of evidence and agreement.

    RESULTS: Risk stratification should be conducted before endoscopy and high risk endoscopic findings should raise an index of suspicion. The presence of premalignant mucosal changes should be documented and use of sedation is recommended to enhance detection of superficial upper GI neoplasms. The use of antispasmodics and mucolytics enhanced visualisation of the upper GI tract, and systematic endoscopic mapping should be conducted to improve detection. Sufficient examination time and structured training on diagnosis improves detection. Image enhanced endoscopy in addition to white light imaging improves detection of superficial upper GI cancer. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is recommended for characterisation of upper GI superficial neoplasms. Endoscopic characterisation can avoid unnecessary biopsy.

    CONCLUSION: This consensus provides guidance for the performance of endoscopic diagnosis and characterisation for early gastric and oesophageal neoplasia based on the evidence. This will enhance the quality of endoscopic diagnosis and improve detection of early upper GI cancers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/standards*
  16. Jain S, Seal A, Ojha A, Yazidi A, Bures J, Tacheci I, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2021 10;137:104789.
    PMID: 34455302 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104789
    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is one of the most efficient methods for the examination of gastrointestinal tracts. Computer-aided intelligent diagnostic tools alleviate the challenges faced during manual inspection of long WCE videos. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature for the automatic detection and localization of anomalies in WCE images. Some of them focus on specific anomalies such as bleeding, polyp, lesion, etc. However, relatively fewer generic methods have been proposed to detect all those common anomalies simultaneously. In this paper, a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based model 'WCENet' is proposed for anomaly detection and localization in WCE images. The model works in two phases. In the first phase, a simple and efficient attention-based CNN classifies an image into one of the four categories: polyp, vascular, inflammatory, or normal. If the image is classified in one of the abnormal categories, it is processed in the second phase for the anomaly localization. Fusion of Grad-CAM++ and a custom SegNet is used for anomalous region segmentation in the abnormal image. WCENet classifier attains accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic of 98% and 99%. The WCENet segmentation model obtains a frequency weighted intersection over union of 81%, and an average dice score of 56% on the KID dataset. WCENet outperforms nine different state-of-the-art conventional machine learning and deep learning models on the KID dataset. The proposed model demonstrates potential for clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Capsule Endoscopy*
  17. Raman K, Govindaraju R, James K, Abu Bakar MZ, Patil N, Shah MN
    J Laryngol Otol, 2023 Feb;137(2):169-173.
    PMID: 34924062 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215121004175
    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of anatomical variations of the frontal recess and frontal sinus and recognition of endoscopic landmarks are vital for safe and effective endoscopic sinus surgery. This study revisited an anatomical landmark in the frontal recess that could serve as a guide to the frontal sinus.

    METHOD: Prevalence of the anterior ethmoid genu, its morphology and its relationship with the frontal sinus drainage pathway was assessed. Computed tomography scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to study non-diseased sinonasal complexes.

    RESULTS: The anterior ethmoidal genu was present in all 102 anatomical sides studied, independent of age, gender and race. Its position was within the frontal sinus drainage pathway, and the drainage pathway was medial to it in 98 of 102 cases. The anterior ethmoidal genu sometimes extended laterally and formed a recess bounded by the lamina papyracea laterally, by the uncinate process anteriorly and by the bulla ethmoidalis posteriorly. Distance of the anterior ethmoidal genu to frontal ostia can be determined by the height of the posterior wall of the agger nasi cell rather than its volume or other dimensions.

    CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that the anterior ethmoidal genu is a constant anatomical structure positioned within frontal sinus drainage pathway. The description of anterior ethmoidal genu found in this study explained the anatomical connection between the agger nasi cell, uncinate process and bulla ethmoidalis and its structural organisation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy/methods
  18. Kong SS, Taib NA, Mahadeva S
    BMJ Case Rep, 2009;2009.
    PMID: 21686715 DOI: 10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0628
    Intussusception due to small intestinal polyps in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome represents a significant clinical challenge. Neither pure surgical nor endoscopic approaches alone are effective in the long-term management of this problem. We describe a combined approach using both surgery and small bowel endoscopy in the management of this condition, which resulted in both immediate and long-term success. Although not new, we believe this approach remains relevant despite recent technological advancements in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
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