Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 411 students aged 18-29 years, purposive sampled from a selected private university in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Anthropometric profiles were measured. Nutrient intakes were assessed by 3-day 24-hour diet recalls.
Results: Respondents on average had adequate macronutrient intakes, however, total consumption of dietary fiber and micronutrients were fell short of recommended levels. Significant negative associations were found between body mass index (BMI) and all the macronutrients, calcium, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Body fat percentage was significantly associated with all the macronutrients, calcium, zinc, thiamine and niacin. Significant inverse associations were also found between waist circumference and carbohydrate, fiber, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Visceral fat showed significant inverse associations with carbohydrate, fat, fiber, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Further, after adjusting for sex, gender and race, BMI was associated with niacin (β=-0.161, p=0.027). Body fat percentage was also found significantly associated with niacin (β=-0.180, p=0.002) and riboflavin (β=-0.132, p=0.014).
Conclusion: Micronutrients, especially B vitamins, are important in weight management among the young adults.
METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, SCOPUS and Embase from inception until June 2019. All clinical trials investigating the effects of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin and adiponectin in adults were included.
RESULTS: Twelve studies containing 17 arms and a total of 495 individuals (intervention = 249, control = 246) reported changes in serum leptin concentrations, and 10 studies containing 12 arms with a total of 438 individuals (intervention = 222, control = 216) reported changes in serum adiponectin concentrations. The combined effect sizes suggested a significant effect of fasting and energy-restricted diets on leptin concentrations (WMD: -3.690 ng/ml, 95% CI: -5.190, -2.190, p ≤ 0.001; I2 = 84.9%). However, no significant effect of fasting and energy-restricted diets on adiponectin concentrations was found (WMD: -159.520 ng/ml, 95% CI: -689.491, 370.451, p = 0.555; I2 = 74.2%). Stratified analyses showed that energy-restricted regimens significantly increased adiponectin (WMD: 554.129 ng/ml, 95% CI: 150.295, 957.964; I2 = 0.0%). In addition, subsequent subgroup analyses revealed that energy restriction, to ≤50% normal required daily energy intake, resulted in significantly reduced concentrations of leptin (WMD: -4.199 ng/ml, 95% CI: -7.279, -1.118; I2 = 83.9%) and significantly increased concentrations of adiponectin (WMD: 524.04 ng/ml, 95% CI: 115.618, 932.469: I2 = 0.0%).
CONCLUSION: Fasting and energy-restricted diets elicit significant reductions in serum leptin concentrations. Increases in adiponectin may also be observed when energy intake is ≤50% of normal requirements, although limited data preclude definitive conclusions on this point.
METHODS: A total of 392 children participated in the FFQ development and 112 children aged 9-12 years participated in the validation phase; with a subsample of 50 children participating in the reproducibility phase. Three-day diet record (3DR) as the reference method in validation phase. Spearman correlations, mean difference, Bland-Altman plot and cross-classification analyses were used to assess validity. The reproducibility was tested through a repeat administration of the FFQ, with 1 month time interval. Reproducibility analyses involved intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and cross-classification analyses.
RESULTS: The FFQ consisted of 156 whole grain food items from six food groups. Mean intake of whole grain in FFQ1 and 3DR were correlated well (r = 0.732), demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Bland Altman plots showed relatively good agreement for both the dietary methods. Cross-classification of whole grain intake between the two methods showed that
METHODS: MyCoSS was a cross-sectional household survey involving 1440 adults age 18 years and above. This study utilized stratified cluster sampling to obtain a nationally representative sample. Data was collected between October 2017 and March 2018. Socio-demographic information, dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and away from home meal consumption were assessed through a face-to-face interview by trained health personnel. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were applied to identify the association of socioeconomic status and away from home meal consumption with dietary sodium intake.
RESULTS: A total of 1032 participants completed the FFQ, with a mean age of 48.8 + 15.6 years. Based on the FFQ, slightly over half of the participants (52.1%) had high sodium intake. Results showed that 43.6% of participants consumed at least one to two away from home meals per day, while 20.8% of them had their three main meals away from home. Participants aged less than 30 years old were the strongest predictor to consume more sodium (adjusted OR: 3.83; 95%CI: 2.23, 6.58) while those of Indian ethnicity had significantly lower sodium intake. Surprisingly, having three away from home meals per day was not associated with high dietary sodium intake, although a significant association (crude OR; 1.67, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.35) was found in the simple logistic regression. Obese participants were less likely to have high dietary sodium intake compared with the normal BMI participants in the final model.
CONCLUSION: Over half of the participants consumed sodium more than the recommended daily intake, especially those who consumed three away from home meals. However, there was no significant association between high sodium intake and having three away from home meals per day. The promotion of healthy cooking methods among the public must continue to be emphasized to reduce the dietary sodium intake among Malaysian adults.
DESIGN: Scoping review.
SETTING: Systematic search using PubMed and Web of Science.
RESULTS: We identified twelve tools from seventy-four eligible publications. They were developed for Koreans (n 4), Bangladeshis (n 2), Iranians (n 1), Indians/Malays/Chinese (n 1), Japanese (n 3) and Chinese Americans (n 1). Most tools (10/12) were composed of a dish-based FFQ. Although the development process of a dish list varied among the tools, six studies classified mixed dishes based on the similarity of their characteristics such as food ingredients and cooking methods. Tools were validated against self-reported dietary information (n 9) and concentration biomarkers (n 1). In the eight studies assessing the differences between the tool and a reference, the mean (or median) intake of energy significantly differed in five studies, and 26-83 % of nutrients significantly differed in eight studies. Correlation coefficients for energy ranged from 0·15 to 0·87 across the thirteen studies, and the median correlation coefficients for nutrients ranged from 0·12 to 0·77. Dish-based dietary assessment tools were used in fifty-nine studies mainly to assess diet-disease relationships in target populations.
CONCLUSIONS: Dish-based dietary assessment tools have exclusively been developed and used for Asian-origin populations. Further validation studies, particularly biomarker-based studies, are needed to assess the applicability of tools.
METHODS: Scoping review methodology was used to select relevant studies, as well as extract and collate the data. Four databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) were searched from the earliest available time up to December 2020. Observational studies, experimental studies and reviews that were conducted among children aged 5-12 years old and published from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved. Studies extracted involved children in hands-on healthy meal preparation activities and explored the associated nutrition outcomes.
RESULTS: In total, 28 studies (5 observational studies, 21 experimental studies, 2 reviews) were included in the final review. Studies conducted demonstrated improvement in children's psychosocial outcomes and actual nutrition behaviour/food consumption after participating in hands-on meal preparation activities, despite differences in methodology, programme content and settings (countries/cultural origins). Limited studies assessed children's nutrients intake and weight status.
CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that hands-on meal preparation comprises approach for instilling positive perceptions towards nutrition/healthy foods, potentially improving children's diet. Future studies should include the assessment of nutrient intake and weight status. The long-term sustainability of these nutrition outcomes should be explored.