Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 401 in total

  1. Chan BQ, Low ZW, Heng SJ, Chan SY, Owh C, Loh XJ
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 04 27;8(16):10070-87.
    PMID: 27018814 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b01295
    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart and adaptive materials able to recover their shape through an external stimulus. This functionality, combined with the good biocompatibility of polymers, has garnered much interest for biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the design considerations critical to the successful integration of SMPs for use in vivo. We also highlight recent work on three classes of SMPs: shape memory polymers and blends, shape memory polymer composites, and shape memory hydrogels. These developments open the possibility of incorporating SMPs into device design, which can lead to vast technological improvements in the biomedical field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  2. Shafiei MM, Moghavvemi M, Wan Mahadi WN
    PLoS One, 2017;12(1):e0169033.
    PMID: 28114354 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169033
    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  3. Misron N, Ying LQ, Firdaus RN, Abdullah N, Mailah NF, Wakiwaka H
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(11):10522-33.
    PMID: 22346656 DOI: 10.3390/s111110522
    This paper discusses the effect of inductive coil shape on the sensing performance of a linear displacement sensor. The linear displacement sensor consists of a thin type inductive coil with a thin pattern guide, thus being suitable for tiny space applications. The position can be detected by measuring the inductance of the inductive coil. At each position due to the change in inductive coil area facing the pattern guide the value of inductance is different. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study various inductive coil pattern shapes and to propose the pattern that can achieve good sensing performance. Various shapes of meander, triangular type meander, square and circle shape with different turn number of inductive coils are examined in this study. The inductance is measured with the sensor sensitivity and linearity as a performance evaluation parameter of the sensor. In conclusion, each inductive coil shape has its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, the circle shape inductive coil produces high sensitivity with a low linearity response. Meanwhile, the square shape inductive coil has a medium sensitivity with higher linearity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design
  4. Thomas AR, Reddy TVK, Tan JY, Qing SEJ, Qing CS, Xuan LY, et al.
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2023 Apr 01;24(4):221-227.
    PMID: 37469260 DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3471
    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the canal transportation tendencies and centering ability of the TruNatomy shaper (TN) and XP-endo shaper (XPS) rotary systems in oval-shaped canals with moderate root curvature (15°-25°), using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty single-rooted permanent human teeth were chosen after considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The teeth were divided into two groups (n = 30). The test group was instrumented with TN files and the other with XPS according to manufacturer's instructions. CBCT images were taken before and after instrumentation to record the root canal distances from mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual borders of the root at 3, 5, and 7 mm distances from the root apex using a specific formula. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software program, version 20.0. The data were analyzed using the unpaired t test.

    RESULTS: Both TN and XPS were safe for use in oval-shaped canals with moderate root curvature. However, the XPS showed higher buccolingual transportation as compared with TN at 3 mm from the apex and higher mesiodistal transportation at 3 and 5 mm levels from the apex as compared with TN.

    CONCLUSION: Canal transportation has been detected in both systems; however, the values obtained were within the safe range (<0.3 mm). Overall, no significant difference was observed between TN and XPS (p > 0.05) in their canal transportation tendencies and centering ability.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The study assesses the canal centering and transportation tendencies of the recently launched TN rotary system in extracted teeth with a combination of morphologies. The findings of the study are significant clinically as minimum transportation of the canal, minimal dentin removal, efficient disinfection, and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal are considered important factors in deciding the prognosis of endodontic therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design
  5. Rusni IM, Ismail A, Alhawari AR, Hamidon MN, Yusof NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Jul 21;14(7):13134-48.
    PMID: 25051036 DOI: 10.3390/s140713134
    This paper presents the design and development of a planar Aligned-Gap and Centered-Gap Rectangular Multiple Split Ring Resonator (SRR) for microwave sensors that operates at a resonance frequency around 5 GHz. The sensor consists of a microstrip transmission line loaded with two elements of rectangular SRR on both sides. The proposed metamaterial sensors were designed and fabricated on Rogers RT5880 substrate having dielectric constant of 2.2 and thickness of 0.787 mm. The final dimension of the proposed sensor was measured at 35 × 14 mm2. Measured results show good agreement with simulated ones as well as exhibiting high Q-factor for use in sensing application. A remarkably shift of resonance frequency is observed upon introduction of several sample with different dielectric value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/instrumentation*
  6. Ahsan MR, Islam MT, Habib Ullah M, Misran N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:856504.
    PMID: 24723832 DOI: 10.1155/2014/856504
    A meandered-microstrip fed circular shaped monopole antenna loaded with vertical slots on a high dielectric material substrate (ε r = 15) is proposed in this paper. The performance criteria of the proposed antenna have been experimentally verified by fabricating a printed prototype. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has achieved wider bandwidth with satisfactory gain by introducing meandered-microstrip feeding in assistant of partial ground plane. It is observed that, the -10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower band is 44.4% (600 MHz-1 GHz) and at upper band is 28% (2.25 GHz-2.95 GHz). The measured maximum gains of -1.18 dBi and 4.87 dBi with maximum radiation efficiencies have been observed at lower band and upper band, respectively. The antenna configuration and parametric study have been carried out with the help of commercially available computer-aided EM simulator, and a good accordance is perceived in between the simulated and measured results. The analysis of performance criteria and almost consistent radiation pattern make the proposed antenna a suitable candidate for UHF RFID, WiMAX, and WLAN applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  7. Shakib MN, Moghavvemi M, Mahadi WN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:874241.
    PMID: 24723835 DOI: 10.1155/2014/874241
    A new compact planar notched ultrawideband (UWB) antenna is designed for wireless communication application. The proposed antenna has a compact size of 0.182λ × 0.228λ × 0.018λ where λ is the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. The antenna is comprised of rectangular radiating patch, ground plane, and an arc-shaped strip in between radiating patch and feed line. By introducing a new Tuning Fork-shaped notch in the radiating plane, a stopband is obtained. The antenna is tested and measured. The measured result indicated that fabricated antenna has achieved a wide bandwidth of 4.33-13.8 GHz (at -10 dB return loss) with a rejection frequency band of 5.28-6.97 GHz (WiMAX, WLAN, and C-band). The effects of the parameters of the antenna are discussed. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can well meet the requirement for the UWB communication in spite of its compactness and small size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/methods*
  8. Ashyap AYI, Elamin NIM, Dahlan SH, Abidin ZZ, See CH, Majid HA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0246057.
    PMID: 33508025 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246057
    A compact fabric antenna structure integrated with electromagnetic bandgap structures (EBGs) covering the desired frequency spectrum between 2.36 GHz and 2.40 GHz for Medical Body-Area Networks (MBANs), is introduced. The needs of flexible system applications, the antenna is preferably low-profile, compact, directive, and robust to the human body's loading effect have to be satisfied. The EBGs are attractive solutions for such requirements and provide efficient performance. In contrast to earlier documented EBG backed antenna designs, the proposed EBG behaved as shielding from the antenna to the human body, reduced the size, and acted as a radiator. The EBGs reduce the frequency detuning due to the human body and decrease the back radiation, improving the antenna efficiency. The proposed antenna system has an overall dimension of 46×46×2.4 mm3. The computed and experimental results achieved a gain of 7.2 dBi, a Front to Back Ratio (FBR) of 12.2 dB, and an efficiency of 74.8%, respectively. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) demonstrates a reduction of more than 95% compared to the antenna without EBGs. Moreover, the antenna performance robustness to human body loading and bending is also studied experimentally. Hence, the integrated antenna-EBG is a suitable candidate for many wearable applications, including healthcare devices and related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  9. Li Y, Ghazilla RAR, Abdul-Rashid SH
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Oct 22;19(21).
    PMID: 36360620 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192113742
    In the current situation of global aging, the current market shortage of age-appropriate smart home products and the recent epidemic have led to greater isolation of the elderly, seriously affecting their physical and mental health. In order to optimize the sustainable user experience of the elderly when using smart home products, this paper proposes a research method based on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for the optimal design of user experience of smart home products for the elderly, taking the design of age-appropriate home smart refrigerators as an example. Firstly, based on the results of market research and user interviews, the requirements of smart refrigerators for the elderly are screened and integrated, and the Kano model is used to prioritize these needs, resulting in the identification of important features needed in smart refrigerators for the elderly. Secondly, based on QFD, user requirements are transformed into design requirements, and a quality house model is established to ascertain the degree of importance of each design requirement through user ratings so as to obtain the key requirements as the theoretical basis for the solution design. Finally, optional solutions are generated for concept evaluation based on PUGH concept selection, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the solutions and recombining them into an evaluation to determine the best solution. The quantitative evaluation of the four solutions reveals that Solution A has the highest score of 117.358, followed by Solution D with 113.259, Solution B with 96.415, and Solution C with 85.511, which is the lowest. The scoring allows the best design solution to be selected and applied to product development. The results show that the introduction of the Kano model and PUGH concept selection into QFD can be effectively used as a research method for optimizing the user experience of smart refrigerators for the elderly, and a corresponding design strategy for sustainable user experience optimization is proposed. The method and strategy provide guidance for the innovative design of new smart home products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  10. Ibrahim SH, Ali SH, Islam MS
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:131568.
    PMID: 24991635 DOI: 10.1155/2014/131568
    The design and implementation of a high-speed direct digital frequency synthesizer are presented. A modified Brent-Kung parallel adder is combined with pipelining technique to improve the speed of the system. A gated clock technique is proposed to reduce the number of registers in the phase accumulator design. The quarter wave symmetry technique is used to store only one quarter of the sine wave. The ROM lookup table (LUT) is partitioned into three 4-bit sub-ROMs based on angular decomposition technique and trigonometric identity. Exploiting the advantages of sine-cosine symmetrical attributes together with XOR logic gates, one sub-ROM block can be removed from the design. These techniques, compressed the ROM into 368 bits. The ROM compressed ratio is 534.2:1, with only two adders, two multipliers, and XOR-gates with high frequency resolution of 0.029 Hz. These techniques make the direct digital frequency synthesizer an attractive candidate for wireless communication applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/instrumentation*; Equipment Design/methods*
  11. Gitan AA, Zulkifli R, Abdullah S, Sopian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:767614.
    PMID: 24672370 DOI: 10.1155/2014/767614
    Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design
  12. Raman R, Omar R
    Trop Doct, 2010 Oct;40(4):210.
    PMID: 20729262 DOI: 10.1258/td.2010.100141
    An idea to fix broken nose pads of spectacles has been suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design
  13. Islam MT, Rahman MN, Samsuzzaman M, Mansor MF, Misran N
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Dec 01;18(12).
    PMID: 30513712 DOI: 10.3390/s18124213
    A digit 8-shaped resonator inspired metamaterial is proposed herein for sensor applications. The resonator is surrounded by a ground frame and excited by a microstrip feedline. The measurement of the sensor can be performed using common laboratory facilities in lieu of using the waveguide, as the resonator, ground frame, and feedline are all on the same microstrip. To achieve metamaterial properties, more than one unit cell is usually utilized, whereas, in this work, a single cell was used to achieve the metamaterial characteristics. The properties of the metamaterial were investigated to find the relationship between the simulation and measurements. The proposed metamaterial sensor shows considerable sensitivity in sensor application. For the sensor application, FR4 and Rogers RO4350 materials were used as the over-layer. The sensor can measure dielectric thickness with a sensitivity of 625 MHz/mm, 468 MHz/mm, and 354 MHz/mm for the single over-layer, double over-layers, and multiple over-layers, respectively. The proposed prototype can be utilized in several applications where metamaterial characteristics are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design
  14. Islam MT, Samsuzzaman M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:673846.
    PMID: 24987742 DOI: 10.1155/2014/673846
    This paper introduces a new configuration of compact, triangular- and diamond-slotted, microstrip-fed, low-profile antenna for C/X band applications on polytetrafluoroethylene glass microfiber reinforced material substrate. The antenna is composed of a rectangular-shaped patch containing eight triangles and two diamond-shaped slots and an elliptical-slotted ground plane. The rectangular-shaped patch is obtained by cutting two diamond slots in the middle of the rectangular patch, six triangular slots on the left and right side of the patch, and two triangular slots on the up and down side of the patch. The slotted radiating patch, the elliptical-slotted ground plane, and the microstrip feed enable the matching bandwidth to be widened. A prototype of the optimized antenna was fabricated on polytetrafluoroethylene glass microfiber reinforced material substrate using LPKF prototyping machine and investigated to validate the proposed design. The simulated results are compared with the measured data, and good agreement is achieved. The proposed antenna offers fractional bandwidths of 13.69% (7.78-8.91 GHz) and 10.35% (9.16-10.19 GHz) where S11 < -10 dB at center frequencies of 8.25 GHz and 9.95 GHz, respectively, and relatively stable gain, good radiation efficiency, and omnidirectional radiation patterns in the matching band.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  15. Alam MJ, Ahamed E, Faruque MRI, Islam MT, Tamim AM
    PLoS One, 2019;14(11):e0224478.
    PMID: 31714917 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224478
    Interferences and accuracy problem are one of the most talked issues in today's world for sensor technology. To deal with this contention, a microstrip framework consisting of a dual mode double negative (DNG) metamaterial based bandpass filter is presented in this article. To obtain the ultimate noise reduction bandpass filter, the proposed structure has to go through a series of development process, where the characteristics of the structure are tested to the limit. This filter is built on Rogers RT-5880 substrate with a 50Ω microstrip line. To pursue the elementary mode of resonant frequency, the ground layer of the structure is kept partially filled and a gradual analysis is executed on the prospective metamaterial (resonator) unit cell. Depending on the developed unit cell, the filter is constructed and fabricated to verify the concept, concentrating on GPS (1.55GHz), Earth Exploration-Satellite (2.70GHz) and WiMAX (3.60GHz) bands of frequencies. Moreover, the structure is investigated using Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) approach to justify the metamaterial characteristics, and also tested on S-parameters, current distribution, electric and magnetic fields and quality factor. Having a propitious architecture and DNG characteristics, the proposed structure is suitable for bandpass filter for GPS, Earth Exploration-Satellite and WiMAX frequency sensing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  16. Anjum W, Husain AR, Abdul Aziz J, Abbasi MA, Alqaraghuli H
    PLoS One, 2020;15(2):e0228636.
    PMID: 32027697 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228636
    For closed-loop controlled DC-AC inverter system, the performance is highly influenced by load variations and online current measurement. Any variation in the load will introduce unwanted periodic error at the inverter output voltage. In addition, when the current sensor is in faulty condition, the current measurement will be imprecise and the designed feedback control law will be ineffective. In this paper, a sensorless continuous sliding mode control (SMC) scheme has been proposed to address these issues. The chattering effect due to the discontinuous switching nature of SMC has been attenuated by designing a novel boundary-based saturation function where the selection of the thickness of boundary is dependent to the PWM signal generation of the inverter. In order to remove the dependency on the current sensor, a particle swarm optimization(PSO) based modified observer is proposed to estimate the inductor current in which the observer gains are optimized using PSO by reducing the estimation errors cost function. The proposed dynamic smooth SMC algorithm has been simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment for 0.2-kVA DC-AC inverter and the results exhibit rapid dynamic response with a steady-state error of 0.4V peak-to-peak voltage under linear and nonlinear load perturbations. The total harmonic distortion (THD) is also reduced to 0.20% and 1.14% for linear and non-linear loads, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design*
  17. Jalal Abdullah S, Shaikh Mohammed J
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2019 11;14(8):849-858.
    PMID: 30556753 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2018.1539130
    Purpose: Some wheelchair users continue to struggle in maneuvering a wheelchair and navigating through manual doors. Several smart wheelchairs and robotic manipulators were developed to minimize such challenges facing disabled people. Disappointingly, a majority of these high-tech solutions are restricted to laboratories and are not extensively available as commercial products. Previously, a low-tech wheelchair accessory (arc-shaped with many wheels) for pushing doors was modelled and simulated. This work demonstrates the fabrication and testing of the first-generation prototype of the accessory.Materials and methods: The accessory has side portions with a straight arrangement of wheels and a front portion with a straight-arc-straight arrangement of wheels. The accessory was fabricated using conventional manufacturing, off-the-shelf components, and 3D printed ABS fasteners. Stress analysis simulations were done for the fasteners that attach the front accessory to the wheelchair frame. The proof-of-concept of the prototype installed onto a powered wheelchair was tested with a door and an obstacle, each with ∼50 N resistance force.Results: Prototype tests demonstrate the ability of the accessory along with the mechanical robustness of the 3D printed fasteners to push open doors allowing easy navigation through doors and to push/glide against obstacles. The accessory is foldable and detachable.Conclusion: The low-cost of the accessory makes it affordable to many users intending to improve their quality of life. The current study provides an engineering perspective of the accessory, and a clinical perspective is crucial. Other potential applications of the wheelchair accessory include use with scooters, walkers and stretchers.Implications for rehabilitationLow-cost, low-tech accessory is foldable and detachable.Accessory is effective for pushing doors and pushing/gliding against obstacles.Protective nature of the front accessory could prove highly beneficial to some wheelchair users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/economics*; Equipment Design/methods*
  18. Samsuzzaman M, Islam MT, Arshad H, Mandeep JS, Misran N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:345190.
    PMID: 24982943 DOI: 10.1155/2014/345190
    Circularly polarized (CP) dual frequency cross-shaped slotted patch antenna on 1.575 mm thick glass microfiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite material substrate is designed and fabricated for satellite applications. Asymmetric cross-shaped slots are embedded in the middle of the square patch for CP radiation and four hexagonal slots are etched on the four sides of the square patch for desired dual frequency. Different substrate materials have been analysed to achieve the desired operating band. The experimental results show that the impedance bandwidth is approximately 30 MHz (2.16 GHz to 2.19 GHz) for lower band and 40 MHz (3.29 GHz to 3.33 GHz) for higher band with an average peak gain of 6.59 dBiC and 5.52 dBiC, respectively. Several optimizations are performed to obtain the values of the antenna physical parameters. Moreover, the proposed antenna possesses compactness, light weight, simplicity, low cost, and circularly polarized. It is an attractive candidate for dual band satellite antennas where lower band can be used for uplink and upper band can be used for downlink.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/methods*
  19. Lim WC, Kanagaraj G, Ponnambalam SG
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:264518.
    PMID: 24707198 DOI: 10.1155/2014/264518
    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/methods*
  20. Khalid HM
    Appl Ergon, 2006 Jul;37(4):409-18.
    PMID: 16764817
    To develop product portfolios and affective design we need to understand the diversity in user needs. The challenge is how to predict what users want and how they will behave. One approach is to understand user emotions and affective needs, and predict successful product design that can match the needs. This paper discusses affect and its link to cognition. To provide a context, several theories are presented. A framework is described that incorporates characteristics of users, tasks, products, and use environment. The goal is to highlight the importance of emotions in enhancing the value of products. This research field, which we call Hedonomics, is new. There are many challenges in developing valid and reliable measurements of affect, which can influence human factors research as well as design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Equipment Design/psychology*
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