The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition. As assayed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the functional group of humic acid was initially dominated by aliphatic structure but was dominated by the aromatic in the final compost. The EM compost has a sharper peak of aromatic CC bond presenting a better degree of humification. Compost with EM achieved a slightly higher temperature at the early stage, with foul odour suppressed, enhanced humification process and a greater fat reduction (73%). No significant difference was found for the final composts inoculated with and without EM. The properties included pH (∼7), electric conductivity (∼2), carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C: N 100%), humic acid content (4.5-4.8%) and pathogen content (no Salmonella, <1000 Most Probable Number/g E. coli). All samples were well matured within 2 months. The potassium and phosphate contents in both cases were similar however the EM compost has a higher nitrogen content (+1.5%). The overall results suggested the positive effect provided by EM notably in odour control and humification.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most frequent causes of many bacterial infections especially
gastroenteritis in developing countries. It is also used as an indicator for faecal pollution in the
surveillance of bacteriological quality of drinking water. This study was conducted to determine the
survival of E. coli in water at room temperature (27oC). E. coli which is cultured in Lactose Peptone Broth
was inoculated into 8 bottles each containing 10 millilitres of distilled water. They were kept at 27oC.
Starting from the day 1, ten-fold dilutions were made from each bottle number and E. coli count was
done from each dilutions by using pour plate method. The colony forming unit/ millilitre (CFU/ml) was
calculated. The same procedure was carried out from bottles number 2 to 8 from day 2 to day 8
consecutively. CFU/ml of E. coli in dilution 10-5was markedly decreased from 3.9 x 106
in day 1to 0 in
day 8. The findings suggest that if the water is contaminated with low number of E. coli, it can be
eliminated by keeping water at room temperature for only few days.
We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 10(2) CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 10(3) CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.
We describe here the draft genome sequence and basic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolate INF13/18/A, which was isolated from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Hospital. This isolate was identified as an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain harboring the antimicrobial resistance genes TEM, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-9.
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memilih kaedah terbaik daripada sebelas kaedah pengiraan Escherichia coli dalam masakan ayam. Kaedah-kaedah tersebut adalah piring curahan, piring sebaran, piring titisan, PetrifilmTM, tiga jenis pemiringan terus dan empat jenis kaedah bilangan paling mungkin (MPN). Perbandingan kaedah dijalankan mengikut prosedur ISO 16140. Setiap strain E. coli (ATCC 25922, IMR 1/3 107B dan IMR E243) telah diinokulasikan ke dalam lima jenis masakan ayam bagi mendapatkan kepekatan bakteria sehingga 105 cfu/g. Perlakuan haba dibuat pada 55oC selama
4-6 min bagi mewujudkan persekitaran yang seakan-akan sama seperti makanan tersebut dihidangkan sebaik sahaja selepas dimasak. Analisis statistik Regressi Kaedah Kuasa Dua Terkecil (KKDT) dijalankan bagi membandingkan sebelas kaedah pengiraan E. coli. Nilai kecerunan (m) yang signifikan (p < 0.05) pada kesemua Graf KKDT membawa maksud kesemua kaedah adalah serupa daripada segi kejituan, korelasi, dan ketepatan relatif. Oleh itu, penilaian praktikal turut dipertimbangkan bagi menentukan tiga kaedah terbaik bagi pengiraan E. coli dalam masakan ayam. Piring curahan, PetrifilmTM dan piring titisan adalah lebih praktikal berbanding lapan kaedah yang lain.
E. coli has been engineered to produce xylitol, but the production faces bottlenecks in terms of production yield and cell viability. In this study, recombinant E. coli (rE. coli) was immobilized on untreated and treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for xylitol production. The immobilized rE. coli on untreated MWCNTs gave the highest xylitol production (5.47 g L-1) and a productivity of 0.22 g L-1 h-1. The doubling time for the immobilized cells increased up to 20.40 h and was higher than that of free cells (3.67 h). Cell lysis of the immobilized cells was reduced by up to 73 %, and plasmid stability improved by up to 17 % compared to those of free cells. Xylitol production using the optimum parameters (pH 7.4, 0.005 mM and 29 °C) achieved a xylitol production and productivity of 6.33 g L-1 and 0.26 g L-1 h-1, respectively. A seven-cycle repeated batch fermentation was carried out for up to 168 h, which showed maximum xylitol production of 7.36 g L-1 during the third cycle. Hence, this new adsorption immobilization system using MWCNTs is an alternative to improve the production of xylitol.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of certain genetic lineages are frequently implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and birds. ExPEC strains belonging to the phylogenetic lineage/sequence type complex 95 (STC95) are one such prominent lineage that is commonly isolated from extraintestinal infections such as systemic disease in poultry and urinary tract infections (UTIs), neonatal meningitis and sepsis in humans. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that ST95 strains obtained from such infections may share similar virulence genes and other genomic features. However, data on their ability to establish infections in vivo as deduced from the manifestation of similar virulence phenotypes remain elusive. In the present study, 116 STC95 ExPEC isolates comprising 55 human and 61 avian strains, possessing similar virulence gene patterns, were characterized in vitro using adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation and serum bactericidal assays. Overall, STC95 strains from both groups, namely human and birds, were equally capable of adhering to and invading the two mammalian kidney cell lines. Similarly, these strains were able to form strong biofilms in M63 medium. Furthermore, they were equally resistant to the bactericidal activity of human and avian serum. Our cumulative data reinforce the understanding that ST95 strains from poultry present a potential zoonotic risk and therefore need a One Health strategy for a successfull intervention.
Comparative whole-genome sequencing enables the identification of specific mutations during adaptation of bacteria to new environments and allelic replacement can establish their causality. However, the mechanisms of action are hard to decipher and little has been achieved for epistatic mutations, especially at the metabolic level. Here we show that a strain of Escherichia coli carrying mutations in the rpoC and glpK genes, derived from adaptation in glycerol, uses two distinct metabolic strategies to gain growth advantage. A 27-bp deletion in the rpoC gene first increases metabolic efficiency. Then, a point mutation in the glpK gene promotes growth by improving glycerol utilization but results in increased carbon wasting as overflow metabolism. In a strain carrying both mutations, these contrasting carbon/energy saving and wasting mechanisms work together to give an 89% increase in growth rate. This study provides insight into metabolic reprogramming during adaptive laboratory evolution for fast cellular growth.
Pseudogenes are considered to be nonfunctional genes that lack a physiological role. By screening 3985 Escherichia coli mutants using chemochromic membranes, we found four pseudogenes involved in hydrogen metabolism. Knockouts of pseudogenes ydfW and ypdJ had a defective hydrogen phenotype on glucose and formate, respectively. Also, the knockout of pseudogene yqiG formed hydrogen from formate but not from glucose. For the yqiG mutant, 100% hydrogen recovery was obtained by the complementation of YqiG via a plasmid. The knockout of pseudogene ylcE showed hydrogen deficiency in minimal media which suggested that the role of YlcE is associated with cell growth. Hence, the products of these four pseudogenes play an important physiological role in hydrogen production in E. coli.
Colibacillosis is one of the main causes of economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Although antibiotics have been used to control this infection, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a threat to animal and human health. Phage therapy has been reported as one of the potential alternative methods to control bacterial infections. However, efficient phage therapy is highly dependent on the characteristics of the phage isolated. In the present study the characteristics of a lytic phage, ØEC1, which was found to be effective against the causative agent of colibacillosis in chickens in a previous in vivo study, are reported.
Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are extremely common, with ~ 25% of all women experiencing a recurrence within 1 year of their original infection. Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally dominant multidrug resistant clone associated with high rates of rUTI. Here, we show the dynamics of an ST131 population over a 5-year period from one elderly woman with rUTI since the 1970s. Using whole genome sequencing, we identify an indigenous clonal lineage (P1A) linked to rUTI and persistence in the fecal flora, providing compelling evidence of an intestinal reservoir of rUTI. We also show that the P1A lineage possesses substantial plasmid diversity, resulting in the coexistence of antibiotic resistant and sensitive intestinal isolates despite frequent treatment. Our longitudinal study provides a unique comprehensive genomic analysis of a clonal lineage within a single individual and suggests a population-wide resistance mechanism enabling rapid adaptation to fluctuating antibiotic exposure.
Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited information on VTEC in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolated from post-weaning piglets and growers with respect to their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, pathotypes, production of hemolysins and fimbrial adhesins, serotypes, and genotypes.
The ST131 multilocus sequence type (MLST) of Escherichia coli is a globally successful pathogen whose dissemination is increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Numerous global surveys have demonstrated the pervasiveness of this clone; in some regions ST131 accounts for up to 30% of all E. coli isolates. However, many regions are underrepresented in these published surveys, including Africa, South America, and Asia. We collected consecutive bloodstream E. coli isolates from three countries in Southeast Asia; ST131 was the most common MLST type. As in other studies, the C2/H30Rx clade accounted for the majority of ST131 strains. Clinical risk factors were similar to other reported studies. However, we found that nearly all of the C2 strains in this study were closely related, forming what we denote the SEA-C2 clone. The SEA-C2 clone is enriched for strains from Asia, particularly Southeast Asia and Singapore. The SEA-C2 clone accounts for all of the excess resistance and virulence of ST131 relative to non-ST131 E. coli. The SEA-C2 strains appear to be locally circulating and dominant in Southeast Asia, despite the intuition that high international connectivity and travel would enable frequent opportunities for other strains to establish themselves.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are one of the most common forms of human disease. In this study, the effect of the presence of newly acquired antibiotic resistance genes on biofilm formation of UTI-associated E. coli strains was examined. Two clinical UTI-associated E. coli strains (SMC18 and SMC20) carrying different combinations of virulence genes were transformed with pGEM-T, pGEM-T::KmΔAmp, or pGEM-T::Km to construct ampicillin-resistant (Km(S)Amp(R)), kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(S)), or ampicillin- and kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)Amp(R)) strains. Transformed and wild-type strains were characterized for biofilm formation, bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, morphology, and attachment to abiotic surfaces. Transformation with a plasmid carrying an ampicillin resistance gene alone decreased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC18 (8 virulence marker genes) but increased (p < 0.05) biofilm formation by SMC20 (5 virulence marker genes). On the other hand, transformation with a plasmid carrying a kanamycin resistance gene alone or both ampicillin and kanamycin resistance genes resulted in a decrease (p < 0.05) in biofilm formation by SMC18 but did not affect (p > 0.05) the biofilm formation by SMC20. Our results suggest that transformation of UTI-associated E. coli with plasmids carrying different antibiotic resistance gene(s) had a significant impact on biofilm formation and that these effects were both strain dependent and varied between different antibiotics.
Fifteen independent E. coli strains of avian, bovine and porcine origin in Peninsular Malaysia were tested for antibiotic resistance and conjugative R plasmids. Eight (53%) isolates were found to be antibiotic resistant. Among them, 37.5% were mono-resistant and 62.5% were resistant to three or more antibiotics, i.e., multi-resistant. All of them were resistant to Tc and sensitive to Gm and Nx. Three of the eight antibiotic resistant strains were able to transfer all or part of their resistance to an E. coli K12 recipient by conjugation. The transfer frequencies of Km, Sm and Tc resistance of the three donors varied between 4.5 X 10(-8) to 6.8 X 10(-7). Analysis of the plasmid profiles of all the three donors and their respective transconjugants after agarose gel electrophoresis provided conclusive evidence that the transferable resistance traits were plasmid-mediated.