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  1. Almasi D, Sadeghi M, Lau WJ, Roozbahani F, Iqbal N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Jul 01;64:102-107.
    PMID: 27127033 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.053
    The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  2. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chong TM, Chin PS, Ngeow YF, Yin WF, et al.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2017 04 01;72(4):1253-1255.
    PMID: 28031273 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw541
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics*; Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  3. Fan YV, Lee CT, Klemeš JJ, Chua LS, Sarmidi MR, Leow CW
    J Environ Manage, 2018 Jun 15;216:41-48.
    PMID: 28427880 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.04.019
    Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition. As assayed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the functional group of humic acid was initially dominated by aliphatic structure but was dominated by the aromatic in the final compost. The EM compost has a sharper peak of aromatic CC bond presenting a better degree of humification. Compost with EM achieved a slightly higher temperature at the early stage, with foul odour suppressed, enhanced humification process and a greater fat reduction (73%). No significant difference was found for the final composts inoculated with and without EM. The properties included pH (∼7), electric conductivity (∼2), carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C: N 100%), humic acid content (4.5-4.8%) and pathogen content (no Salmonella, <1000 Most Probable Number/g E. coli). All samples were well matured within 2 months. The potassium and phosphate contents in both cases were similar however the EM compost has a higher nitrogen content (+1.5%). The overall results suggested the positive effect provided by EM notably in odour control and humification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli*
  4. Aung TS, Masandid H, Oo KS, Lin Z, Rayaji SJ
    MyJurnal
    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most frequent causes of many bacterial infections especially
    gastroenteritis in developing countries. It is also used as an indicator for faecal pollution in the
    surveillance of bacteriological quality of drinking water. This study was conducted to determine the
    survival of E. coli in water at room temperature (27oC). E. coli which is cultured in Lactose Peptone Broth
    was inoculated into 8 bottles each containing 10 millilitres of distilled water. They were kept at 27oC.
    Starting from the day 1, ten-fold dilutions were made from each bottle number and E. coli count was
    done from each dilutions by using pour plate method. The colony forming unit/ millilitre (CFU/ml) was
    calculated. The same procedure was carried out from bottles number 2 to 8 from day 2 to day 8
    consecutively. CFU/ml of E. coli in dilution 10-5was markedly decreased from 3.9 x 106
    in day 1to 0 in
    day 8. The findings suggest that if the water is contaminated with low number of E. coli, it can be
    eliminated by keeping water at room temperature for only few days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli*
  5. Alias FL, Nezhad NG, Normi YM, Ali MSM, Budiman C, Leow TC
    Mol Biotechnol, 2023 Nov;65(11):1737-1749.
    PMID: 36971996 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-023-00725-y
    Heterologous functional expression of the recombinant lipases is typically a bottleneck due to the expression in the insoluble fraction as inclusion bodies (IBs) which are in inactive form. Due to the importance of lipases in various industrial applications, many investigations have been conducted to discover suitable approaches to obtain functional lipase or increase the expressed yield in the soluble fraction. The utilization of the appropriate prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, along with the suitable vectors, promoters, and tags, has been recognized as a practical approach. One of the most powerful strategies to produce bioactive lipases is using the molecular chaperones co-expressed along with the target protein's genes into the expression host to produce the lipase in soluble fraction as a bioactive form. The refolding of expressed lipase from IBs (inactive) is another practical strategy which is usually carried out through chemical and physical methods. Based on recent investigations, the current review simultaneously highlights strategies to express the bioactive lipases and recover the bioactive lipases from the IBs in insoluble form.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics
  6. Liu B, Lee CW, Bong CW, Wang AJ
    PeerJ, 2024;12:e16556.
    PMID: 38223759 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.16556
    BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a commonly used faecal indicator bacterium to assess the level of faecal contamination in aquatic habitats. However, extensive studies have reported that sediment acts as a natural reservoir of E. coli in the extraintestinal environment. E. coli can be released from the sediment, and this may lead to overestimating the level of faecal contamination during water quality surveillance. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of E. coli habitat transition from sediment to water on its abundance in the water column.

    METHODS: This study enumerated the abundance of E. coli in the water and sediment at five urban lakes in the Kuala Lumpur-Petaling Jaya area, state of Selangor, Malaysia. We developed a novel method for measuring habitat transition rate of sediment E. coli to the water column, and evaluated the effects of habitat transition on E. coli abundance in the water column after accounting for its decay in the water column.

    RESULTS: The abundance of E. coli in the sediment ranged from below detection to 12,000 cfu g-1, and was about one order higher than in the water column (1 to 2,300 cfu mL-1). The habitat transition rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.41 h-1. In contrast, the E. coli decay rates ranged from 0.02 to 0.16 h-1. In most cases (>80%), the habitat transition rates were higher than the decay rates in our study.

    DISCUSSION: Our study provided a possible explanation for the persistence of E. coli in tropical lakes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study on habitat transition of E. coli from sediments to water column.

    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli*
  7. Teh CS, Chua KH, Lim YA, Lee SC, Thong KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:457839.
    PMID: 24967435 DOI: 10.1155/2014/457839
    We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 10(2) CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 10(3) CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/classification; Escherichia coli/genetics*; Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology*; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/classification; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics*
  8. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chin PS, Ngeow YF, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2016 Jun;47(6):504-5.
    PMID: 27208898 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.04.004
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/drug effects*; Escherichia coli/genetics; Escherichia coli/isolation & purification; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology*; Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary*; Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  9. Wan Makhtar WR, Mohd Azlan M, Hassan NH, Aziah I, Samsurizal NH, Yusof NY
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2020 Aug 13;9(33).
    PMID: 32817162 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.01497-19
    We describe here the draft genome sequence and basic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolate INF13/18/A, which was isolated from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Hospital. This isolate was identified as an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain harboring the antimicrobial resistance genes TEM, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-9.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli; Escherichia coli Infections; Escherichia coli Proteins
  10. Manuvera VA, Kharlampieva DD, Bobrovsky PA, Grafskaia EN, Brovina KA, Lazarev VN
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2024 Feb 12;696:149473.
    PMID: 38241814 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2024.149473
    The saliva of the medicinal leech contains various anticoagulants. Some of them, such as hirudin, are well known. However, it is reasonable to believe that not all anticoagulant proteins from medicinal leech saliva have been identified. We previously performed a comprehensive study of the transcriptome, genome, and proteome of leech salivary gland cells, which led to the discovery of several previously unknown hypothetical proteins that may have anticoagulant properties. Subsequently, we obtained a series of recombinant proteins and investigated their impact on coagulation in in vitro assays. We identified a previously undescribed protein that exhibited a high ability to suppress coagulation. The His-tagged recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using metal chelate chromatography. To determine its activity, commonly used coagulation methods were used: activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin inhibition clotting assay. Clotting and chromogenic assays for factor Xa inhibition were performed to evaluate anti-Xa activity. We used recombinant hirudin as a control anticoagulant protein in all experiments. The new protein showed significantly greater inhibition of coagulation than hirudin at the same molar concentrations in the activated partial thrombin time assay. However, hirudin demonstrated better results in the direct thrombin inhibition test, although the tested protein also exhibited the ability to inhibit thrombin. The chromogenic analysis of factor Xa inhibition revealed no activity, whereas the clotting test for factor Xa showed the opposite result. Thus, a new powerful anticoagulant protein has been discovered in the medicinal leech. This protein is homologous to antistatin, with 28 % identical amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli. This protein is capable of directly inhibiting thrombin, and based on indirect evidence, other proteases of the blood coagulation cascade have been identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics; Escherichia coli/metabolism
  11. Abd Rahman NH, Md Jahim J, Abdul Munaim MS, A Rahman R, Fuzi SFZ, Md Illias R
    Enzyme Microb Technol, 2020 Apr;135:109495.
    PMID: 32146929 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2019.109495
    E. coli has been engineered to produce xylitol, but the production faces bottlenecks in terms of production yield and cell viability. In this study, recombinant E. coli (rE. coli) was immobilized on untreated and treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for xylitol production. The immobilized rE. coli on untreated MWCNTs gave the highest xylitol production (5.47 g L-1) and a productivity of 0.22 g L-1 h-1. The doubling time for the immobilized cells increased up to 20.40 h and was higher than that of free cells (3.67 h). Cell lysis of the immobilized cells was reduced by up to 73 %, and plasmid stability improved by up to 17 % compared to those of free cells. Xylitol production using the optimum parameters (pH 7.4, 0.005 mM and 29 °C) achieved a xylitol production and productivity of 6.33 g L-1 and 0.26 g L-1 h-1, respectively. A seven-cycle repeated batch fermentation was carried out for up to 168 h, which showed maximum xylitol production of 7.36 g L-1 during the third cycle. Hence, this new adsorption immobilization system using MWCNTs is an alternative to improve the production of xylitol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics*; Escherichia coli/metabolism*; Escherichia coli/chemistry
  12. Ratan Dewi Abdul Rahman, Norrakiah Abdullah Sani, Abdul Aziz Jemain
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1629-1634.
    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memilih kaedah terbaik daripada sebelas kaedah pengiraan Escherichia coli dalam masakan ayam. Kaedah-kaedah tersebut adalah piring curahan, piring sebaran, piring titisan, PetrifilmTM, tiga jenis pemiringan terus dan empat jenis kaedah bilangan paling mungkin (MPN). Perbandingan kaedah dijalankan mengikut prosedur ISO 16140. Setiap strain E. coli (ATCC 25922, IMR 1/3 107B dan IMR E243) telah diinokulasikan ke dalam lima jenis masakan ayam bagi mendapatkan kepekatan bakteria sehingga 105 cfu/g. Perlakuan haba dibuat pada 55oC selama
    4-6 min bagi mewujudkan persekitaran yang seakan-akan sama seperti makanan tersebut dihidangkan sebaik sahaja selepas dimasak. Analisis statistik Regressi Kaedah Kuasa Dua Terkecil (KKDT) dijalankan bagi membandingkan sebelas kaedah pengiraan E. coli. Nilai kecerunan (m) yang signifikan (p < 0.05) pada kesemua Graf KKDT membawa maksud kesemua kaedah adalah serupa daripada segi kejituan, korelasi, dan ketepatan relatif. Oleh itu, penilaian praktikal turut dipertimbangkan bagi menentukan tiga kaedah terbaik bagi pengiraan E. coli dalam masakan ayam. Piring curahan, PetrifilmTM dan piring titisan adalah lebih praktikal berbanding lapan kaedah yang lain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli
  13. Tong CY, Honda K, Derek CJC
    Sci Total Environ, 2024 Jan 01;906:167576.
    PMID: 37804964 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.167576
    Research on renewable energy from microalgae has led to a growing interest in porous substrate photobioreactors, but their widespread adoption is currently limited to pure microalgal biofilm cultures. The behavior of microalgal-bacterial biofilms immobilized on microporous substrates remains as a research challenge, particularly in uncovering their mutualistic interactions in environment enriched with dissolved organic matter. Therefore, this study established a novel culture platform by introducing microalgal-derived bio-coating that preconditioned hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride membranes for the microalgal-bacterial biofilm growth of freshwater microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris ESP 31 and marine microalgae, Cylindrotheca fusiformis with bacteria, Escherichia coli. In the attached co-culture mode, the bio-coating we proposed demonstrated the ability to enhance microalgal growth for both studied species by a range of 2.5 % to 19 % starting from day 10 onwards. Additionally, when compared to co-culture on uncoated membranes, the bio-coating exhibited a significant bacterial growth promotion effect, increasing bacterial growth by at least 2.35 times for the C. vulgaris-E. coli co-culture after an initial adaptation phase. A significant increase of at least 72 % in intracellular biochemical compounds (including chlorophyll, polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids) was observed within just five days, primarily due to the high concentration of pre-coated organic matter, mainly sourced from the internal organic matter (IOM) of C. fusiformis. Higher accumulation of organic compounds in the bio-coating indirectly triggers a competition between microalgae and bacteria which potentially stimulate the production of additional intra-/extra-organic substances as a defensive response. In short, insight gained from this study may represent a paradigm shift in the ways that symbiotic interactions are promoted to increase the yield of specific bio-compounds with the presence of bio-coating.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli
  14. Nandanwar N, Janssen T, Kühl M, Ahmed N, Ewers C, Wieler LH
    Int J Med Microbiol, 2014 Oct;304(7):835-42.
    PMID: 25037925 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.06.009
    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of certain genetic lineages are frequently implicated in a wide range of diseases in humans and birds. ExPEC strains belonging to the phylogenetic lineage/sequence type complex 95 (STC95) are one such prominent lineage that is commonly isolated from extraintestinal infections such as systemic disease in poultry and urinary tract infections (UTIs), neonatal meningitis and sepsis in humans. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that ST95 strains obtained from such infections may share similar virulence genes and other genomic features. However, data on their ability to establish infections in vivo as deduced from the manifestation of similar virulence phenotypes remain elusive. In the present study, 116 STC95 ExPEC isolates comprising 55 human and 61 avian strains, possessing similar virulence gene patterns, were characterized in vitro using adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation and serum bactericidal assays. Overall, STC95 strains from both groups, namely human and birds, were equally capable of adhering to and invading the two mammalian kidney cell lines. Similarly, these strains were able to form strong biofilms in M63 medium. Furthermore, they were equally resistant to the bactericidal activity of human and avian serum. Our cumulative data reinforce the understanding that ST95 strains from poultry present a potential zoonotic risk and therefore need a One Health strategy for a successfull intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/classification*; Escherichia coli/genetics*; Escherichia coli/isolation & purification; Escherichia coli/physiology; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology*; Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary*
  15. Cheng KK, Lee BS, Masuda T, Ito T, Ikeda K, Hirayama A, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014;5:3233.
    PMID: 24481126 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4233
    Comparative whole-genome sequencing enables the identification of specific mutations during adaptation of bacteria to new environments and allelic replacement can establish their causality. However, the mechanisms of action are hard to decipher and little has been achieved for epistatic mutations, especially at the metabolic level. Here we show that a strain of Escherichia coli carrying mutations in the rpoC and glpK genes, derived from adaptation in glycerol, uses two distinct metabolic strategies to gain growth advantage. A 27-bp deletion in the rpoC gene first increases metabolic efficiency. Then, a point mutation in the glpK gene promotes growth by improving glycerol utilization but results in increased carbon wasting as overflow metabolism. In a strain carrying both mutations, these contrasting carbon/energy saving and wasting mechanisms work together to give an 89% increase in growth rate. This study provides insight into metabolic reprogramming during adaptive laboratory evolution for fast cellular growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics; Escherichia coli/growth & development; Escherichia coli/metabolism*; Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  16. Mohd Yusoff MZ, Hashiguchi Y, Maeda T, Wood TK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2013 Oct 4;439(4):576-9.
    PMID: 24025676 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.09.016
    Pseudogenes are considered to be nonfunctional genes that lack a physiological role. By screening 3985 Escherichia coli mutants using chemochromic membranes, we found four pseudogenes involved in hydrogen metabolism. Knockouts of pseudogenes ydfW and ypdJ had a defective hydrogen phenotype on glucose and formate, respectively. Also, the knockout of pseudogene yqiG formed hydrogen from formate but not from glucose. For the yqiG mutant, 100% hydrogen recovery was obtained by the complementation of YqiG via a plasmid. The knockout of pseudogene ylcE showed hydrogen deficiency in minimal media which suggested that the role of YlcE is associated with cell growth. Hence, the products of these four pseudogenes play an important physiological role in hydrogen production in E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/genetics; Escherichia coli/metabolism*; Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*; Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism
  17. Lau GL, Sieo CC, Tan WS, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2012 Oct;92(13):2657-63.
    PMID: 22505020 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5683
    Colibacillosis is one of the main causes of economic loss in the poultry industry worldwide. Although antibiotics have been used to control this infection, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a threat to animal and human health. Phage therapy has been reported as one of the potential alternative methods to control bacterial infections. However, efficient phage therapy is highly dependent on the characteristics of the phage isolated. In the present study the characteristics of a lytic phage, ØEC1, which was found to be effective against the causative agent of colibacillosis in chickens in a previous in vivo study, are reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/virology*; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology; Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control*; Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary
  18. Forde BM, Roberts LW, Phan MD, Peters KM, Fleming BA, Russell CW, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 08 13;10(1):3643.
    PMID: 31409795 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11571-5
    Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are extremely common, with ~ 25% of all women experiencing a recurrence within 1 year of their original infection. Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally dominant multidrug resistant clone associated with high rates of rUTI. Here, we show the dynamics of an ST131 population over a 5-year period from one elderly woman with rUTI since the 1970s. Using whole genome sequencing, we identify an indigenous clonal lineage (P1A) linked to rUTI and persistence in the fecal flora, providing compelling evidence of an intestinal reservoir of rUTI. We also show that the P1A lineage possesses substantial plasmid diversity, resulting in the coexistence of antibiotic resistant and sensitive intestinal isolates despite frequent treatment. Our longitudinal study provides a unique comprehensive genomic analysis of a clonal lineage within a single individual and suggests a population-wide resistance mechanism enabling rapid adaptation to fluctuating antibiotic exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/classification*; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Escherichia coli/genetics; Escherichia coli/isolation & purification*; Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology*
  19. Afiqah RN, Paital B, Kumar S, Majeed AB, Tripathy M
    J. Mol. Recognit., 2016 11;29(11):544-554.
    PMID: 27406464 DOI: 10.1002/jmr.2554
    The inhibitory role of AgNO3 on glucose-mediated respiration in Escherichia coli has been investigated as a function of pH and temperature using Clark-type electrode, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and computational tools. In the given concentration of bacterial suspension (1 × 10(8)  CFU/ml), E. coli showed an increasing nonlinear trend of tetra-phasic respiration between 1-133 μM glucose concentration within 20 min. The glucose concentrations above 133 μM did not result any linear increment in respiration but rather showed a partial inhibition at higher glucose concentrations (266-1066 μM). In the presence of glucose, AgNO3 caused a concentration-dependent (47-1960 μM) inhibition of the respiration rate within 4 min of its addition. The respiration rate was the highest at pH 7-8 and then was decreased on either side of this pH range. The inhibitory action of AgNO3 upon bacterial respiration was the highest at 37 °C. The observations of the respiration data were well supported by the altered bacterial morphology as observed in electron microscopic study. Docking study indicated the AgNO3 binding to different amino acids of all respiratory complex enzymes in E. coli and thereby explaining its interference with the respiratory chain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/drug effects; Escherichia coli/physiology*; Escherichia coli/ultrastructure; Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism; Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry
  20. Ho WS, Tan LK, Ooi PT, Yeo CC, Thong KL
    BMC Vet Res, 2013;9:109.
    PMID: 23731465 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-109
    Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited information on VTEC in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolated from post-weaning piglets and growers with respect to their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, pathotypes, production of hemolysins and fimbrial adhesins, serotypes, and genotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology; Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology; Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary*; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/classification; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification*; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
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