Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Jassim SA, Abdulamir AS, Abu Bakar F
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012 Jan;28(1):47-60.
    PMID: 22806779 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0791-6
    To explore new approaches of phage-based bio-process of specifically pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria in food products within a short period. One hundred and forty highly lytic designed coliphages were used. Escherichia coli naturally contaminated and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli experimentally inoculated samples of lettuce, cabbage, meat, and egg were used. In addition, experimentally produced biofilms of E. coli were tested. A phage concentration of 10(3) PFU/ml was used for food products immersion, and for spraying of food products, 10(5) PFU/ml of a phage cocktail was used by applying a 20-s optimal dipping time in a phage cocktail. Food samples were cut into pieces and were either sprayed with or held in a bag immersed in lambda buffer containing a cocktail of 140 phages. Phage bio-processing was successful in eliminating completely E. coli in all processed samples after 48 h storage at 4°C. Partial elimination of E. coli was observed in earlier storage periods (7 and 18 h) at 24° and 37°C. Moreover, E. coli biofilms were reduced >3 log cycles upon using the current phage bio-processing. The use of a phage cocktail of 140 highly lytic designed phages proved highly effective in suppressing E. coli contaminating food products. Proper decontamination/prevention methods of pathogenic E. coli achieved in this study can replace the current chemically less effective decontamination methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity*; Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  2. Norazah A, Rahizan I, Zainuldin T, Rohani MY, Kamel AG
    PMID: 9740276
    A total of 402 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from a variety of food samples and screened for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Screening was carried out using 15 specific monovalent antisera from Murex Diagnostic Limited. A total of 19 E. coli isolates were serotyped as EPEC. The EPEC strains were shown to belong to 8 serotypes. Eight out of 19 EPEC strains belonged to serotype 018C:K77 (B21). Seventeen out of 19 of the EPEC strains were isolated from cooked food. The presence of E. coli in cooked food is an indicator of fecal contamination and a sign of unhygienic food handling. The presence of EPEC in food could be a potential source of food-borne outbreak. Hygiene training for every food-handler is a necessity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity*
  3. Aljumaily MM, Alsaadi MA, Binti Hashim NA, Mjalli FS, Alsalhy QF, Khan AL, et al.
    Biotechnol Prog, 2020 05;36(3):e2963.
    PMID: 31943942 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2963
    To overcome the biofouling challenge which faces membrane water treatment processed, the novel superhydrophobic carbon nanomaterials impregnated on/powder activated carbon (CNMs/PAC) was utilized to successfully design prepare an antimicrobial membrane. The research was conducted following a systematic statistical design of experiments technique considering various parameters of composite membrane fabrication. The impact of these parameters of composite membrane on Staphylococcus aureus growth was investigated. The bacteria growth was analyzed through spectrophotometer and SEM. The effect of CNMs' hydrophobicity on the bacterial colonies revealed a decrease in the abundance of bacterial colonies and an alteration in structure with increasing the hydrophobicity. The results revealed that the optimum preparative conditions for carbon loading CNMs/PAC was 363.04 mg with a polymer concentration of 22.64 g/100 g, and a casting knife thickness of 133.91 μm. These conditions have resulted in decreasing the number of bacteria colonies to about 7.56 CFU. Our results provided a strong evidence on the antibacterial effect and consequently on the antibiofouling potential of CNMs/PAC in membrane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  4. Loh LN, McCarthy EMC, Narang P, Khan NA, Ward TH
    Traffic, 2017 11;18(11):733-746.
    PMID: 28799243 DOI: 10.1111/tra.12508
    Eukaryotic cells utilize multiple endocytic pathways for specific uptake of ligands or molecules, and these pathways are commonly hijacked by pathogens to enable host cell invasion. Escherichia coli K1, a pathogenic bacterium that causes neonatal meningitis, invades the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier, but the entry route remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the bacteria trigger an actin-mediated uptake route, stimulating fluid phase uptake, membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis. The route of uptake requires intact lipid rafts as shown by cholesterol depletion. Using a variety of perturbants we demonstrate that small Rho GTPases and their downstream effectors have a significant effect on bacterial invasion. Furthermore, clathrin-mediated endocytosis appears to play an indirect role in E. coli K1 uptake. The data suggest that the bacteria effect a complex interplay between the Rho GTPases to increase their chances of uptake by macropinocytosis into human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity*
  5. Ho WS, Tan LK, Ooi PT, Yeo CC, Thong KL
    BMC Vet Res, 2013;9:109.
    PMID: 23731465 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-109
    Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited information on VTEC in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolated from post-weaning piglets and growers with respect to their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, pathotypes, production of hemolysins and fimbrial adhesins, serotypes, and genotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  6. Sivasothy Y, Krishnan T, Chan KG, Abdul Wahab SM, Othman MA, Litaudon M, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 21;21(3):391.
    PMID: 27102164 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21030391
    Malabaricones A-C (1-3) and giganteone A (4) were isolated from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were elucidated and characterized by means of NMR and MS spectral analyses. These isolates were evaluated for their anti-quorum sensing activity using quorum sensing biosensors, namely Escherichia coli [pSB401] and Escherichia coli [pSB1075], whereby the potential of giganteone A (4) as a suitable anti-quorum sensing agent was demonstrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  7. Nhu NTK, Phan MD, Peters KM, Lo AW, Forde BM, Min Chong T, et al.
    mBio, 2018 08 21;9(4).
    PMID: 30131362 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01462-18
    Curli are bacterial surface-associated amyloid fibers that bind to the dye Congo red (CR) and facilitate uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm formation and protection against host innate defenses. Here we sequenced the genome of the curli-producing UPEC pyelonephritis strain MS7163 and showed it belongs to the highly virulent O45:K1:H7 neonatal meningitis-associated clone. MS7163 produced curli at human physiological temperature, and this correlated with biofilm growth, resistance of sessile cells to the human cationic peptide cathelicidin, and enhanced colonization of the mouse bladder. We devised a forward genetic screen using CR staining as a proxy for curli production and identified 41 genes that were required for optimal CR binding, of which 19 genes were essential for curli synthesis. Ten of these genes were novel or poorly characterized with respect to curli synthesis and included genes involved in purine de novo biosynthesis, a regulator that controls the Rcs phosphorelay system, and a novel repressor of curli production (referred to as rcpA). The involvement of these genes in curli production was confirmed by the construction of defined mutants and their complementation. The mutants did not express the curli major subunit CsgA and failed to produce curli based on CR binding. Mutation of purF (the first gene in the purine biosynthesis pathway) and rcpA also led to attenuated colonization of the mouse bladder. Overall, this work has provided new insight into the regulation of curli and the role of these amyloid fibers in UPEC biofilm formation and pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the most common cause of urinary tract infection, a disease increasingly associated with escalating antibiotic resistance. UPEC strains possess multiple surface-associated factors that enable their colonization of the urinary tract, including fimbriae, curli, and autotransporters. Curli are extracellular amyloid fibers that enhance UPEC virulence and promote biofilm formation. Here we examined the function and regulation of curli in a UPEC pyelonephritis strain belonging to the highly virulent O45:K1:H7 neonatal meningitis-associated clone. Curli expression at human physiological temperature led to increased biofilm formation, resistance of sessile cells to the human cationic peptide LL-37, and enhanced bladder colonization. Using a comprehensive genetic screen, we identified multiple genes involved in curli production, including several that were novel or poorly characterized with respect to curli synthesis. In total, this study demonstrates an important role for curli as a UPEC virulence factor that promotes biofilm formation, resistance, and pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  8. Suleiman JB, Mohamed M, Abu Bakar AB, Nna VU, Zakaria Z, Othman ZA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 15;26(16).
    PMID: 34443531 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164943
    The aim of the study was to determine the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activities of Heterotrigona itama bee bread from Malaysia. The pH, presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant properties, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), as well as antimicrobial activities, were assessed. Results revealed a decrease in the pH of bee bread water extract (BBW) relative to bee bread ethanolic extract (BBE) and bee bread hot water extract (BBH). Further, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, resins, glycosides and xanthoproteins were detected in BBW, BBH and BBE. Also, significant decreases in TPC, TFC, DPPH activity and FRAP were detected in BBW relative to BBH and BBE. We detected phenolic acids such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, trans 3-hydroxycinnamic acid and 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, and flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and mangiferin in BBE using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The strongest antimicrobial activity was observed in Klebsilla pneumonia (MIC50 1.914 µg/mL), followed by E. coli (MIC50 1.923 µg/mL), Shigella (MIC50 1.813 µg/mL) and Salmonella typhi (MIC50 1.617 µg/mL). Bee bread samples possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Bee bread contains phenolic acids and flavonoids, and could be beneficial in the management and treatment of metabolic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  9. Jegathesan M, Singh RB, Kanaganayagy M, Soon LE
    PMID: 1096307
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  10. Goh KGK, Phan MD, Forde BM, Chong TM, Yin WF, Chan KG, et al.
    mBio, 2017 10 24;8(5).
    PMID: 29066548 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01558-17
    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in capsule biosynthesis, as well as two additional regulatory genes (mprA and lrhA) that we characterized at the molecular level. Mutation of mprA resulted in protection against K1 phage-mediated killing, a phenotype restored by complementation. We also identified a significantly increased unidirectional Tn5 insertion frequency upstream of the lrhA gene and showed that strong expression of LrhA induced by a constitutive Pcl promoter led to loss of capsule production. Further analysis revealed loss of MprA or overexpression of LrhA affected the transcription of capsule biosynthesis genes in PA45B and increased sensitivity to killing in whole blood. Similar phenotypes were also observed in UPEC strains UTI89 (K1) and CFT073 (K2), demonstrating that the effects were neither strain nor capsule type specific. Overall, this study defined the genome of a UPEC urosepsis isolate and identified and characterized two new regulatory factors that affect UPEC capsule production.IMPORTANCE Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans and are primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Many UPEC strains express a polysaccharide K capsule that provides protection against host innate immune factors and contributes to survival and persistence during infection. The K1 serotype is one example of a polysaccharide capsule type and is strongly associated with UPEC strains that cause UTIs, bloodstream infections, and meningitis. The number of UTIs caused by antibiotic-resistant UPEC is steadily increasing, highlighting the need to better understand factors (e.g., the capsule) that contribute to UPEC pathogenesis. This study describes the original and novel application of lytic capsule-specific phage killing, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing to define the entire complement of genes required for capsule production in UPEC. Our comprehensive approach uncovered new genes involved in the regulation of this key virulence determinant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  11. Hosuru Subramanya S, Bairy I, Nayak N, Amberpet R, Padukone S, Metok Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(5):e0227725.
    PMID: 32469888 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227725
    The surge in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in poultry is a global concern as it may pose an extended threat to humans and animal health. The present study aimed to investigate the colonization proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE and CPE, respectively) in the gut of healthy poultry, Gallus gallus domesticus in Kaski district of Western Nepal. Total, 113 pooled rectal swab specimens from 66 private household farms and 47 commercial poultry farms were collected by systematic random sampling from the Kaski district in western Nepal. Out of 113 pooled samples, 19 (28.8%) samples from 66 backyard farms, and 15 (31.9%) from 47 commercial broiler farms were positive for EPE. Of the 38 EPE strains isolated from 34 ESBL positive rectal swabs, 31(81.6%) were identified as Escherichia coli, five as Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.2%), and one each isolate of Enterobacter species and Citrobacter species (2.6%). Based on genotyping, 35/38 examined EPE strains (92.1%) were phylogroup-1 positive, and all these 35 strains (100%) had the CTX-M-15 gene and strains from phylogroup-2, and 9 were of CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-14, respectively. Among 38 ESBL positive isolates, 9 (23.7%) were Ambler class C (Amp C) co-producers, predominant were of DHA, followed by CIT genes. Two (6.5%) E. coli strains of ST131 belonged to clade C, rest 29/31 (93.5%) were non-ST131 E. coli. None of the isolates produced carbapenemase. Twenty isolates (52.6%) were in-vitro biofilm producers. Univariate analysis showed that the odd of ESBL carriage among commercial broilers were 1.160 times (95% CI 0.515, 2.613) higher than organically fed backyard flocks. This is the first study in Nepal, demonstrating the EPE colonization proportion, genotypes, and prevalence of high-risk clone E. coli ST131 among gut flora of healthy poultry. Our data indicated that CTX-M-15 was the most prevalent ESBL enzyme, mainly associated with E. coli belonging to non-ST131clones and the absence of carbapenemases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  12. Lawan A, Jesse FFA, Idris UH, Odhah MN, Arsalan M, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Apr;117:175-183.
    PMID: 29471137 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.02.039
    Innumerable Escherichia coli of animal origin are identified, which are of economic significance, likewise, cattle, sheep and goats are the carrier of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, which are less pathogenic, and can spread to people by way of direct contact and through the contamination of foodstuff or portable drinking water, causing serious illness. The immunization of ruminants has been carried out for ages and is largely acknowledged as the most economical and maintainable process of monitoring E. coli infection in ruminants. Yet, only a limited number of E. coli vaccines are obtainable. Mucosal surfaces are the most important ingress for E. coli and thus mucosal immune responses function as the primary means of fortification. Largely contemporary vaccination processes are done by parenteral administration and merely limited number of E. coli vaccines are inoculated via mucosal itinerary, due to its decreased efficacy. Nevertheless, aiming at maximal mucosal partitions to stimulate defensive immunity at both mucosal compartments and systemic site epitomises a prodigious task. Enormous determinations are involved in order to improve on novel mucosal E. coli vaccines candidate by choosing apposite antigens with potent immunogenicity, manipulating novel mucosal itineraries of inoculation and choosing immune-inducing adjuvants. The target of E. coli mucosal vaccines is to stimulate a comprehensive, effective and defensive immunity by specifically counteracting the antibodies at mucosal linings and by the stimulation of cellular immunity. Furthermore, effective E. coli mucosal vaccine would make vaccination measures stress-free and appropriate for large number of inoculation. On account of contemporary advancement in proteomics, metagenomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics research, a comprehensive appraisal of the immeasurable genes and proteins that were divulged by a bacterium is now in easy reach. Moreover, there exist marvellous prospects in this bourgeoning technologies in comprehending the host bacteria affiliation. Accordingly, the flourishing knowledge could massively guarantee to the progression of immunogenic vaccines against E. coli infections in both humans and animals. This review highlight and expounds on the current prominence of mucosal and systemic immunogenic vaccines for the prevention of E. coli infections in ruminants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  13. Ooi SK, Lim TY, Lee SH, Nathan S
    Virulence, 2012 Oct 01;3(6):485-96.
    PMID: 23076282 DOI: 10.4161/viru.21808
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is hypersusceptible to Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. However, the virulence mechanisms underlying rapid lethality of C. elegans upon B. pseudomallei infection remain poorly defined. To probe the host-pathogen interaction, we constructed GFP-tagged B. pseudomallei and followed bacterial accumulation within the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Contrary to slow-killing by most bacterial pathogens, B. pseudomallei caused fairly limited intestinal lumen colonization throughout the period of observation. Using grinder-defective mutant worms that allow the entry of intact bacteria also did not result in full intestinal lumen colonization. In addition, we observed a significant decline in C. elegans defecation and pharyngeal pumping rates upon B. pseudomallei infection. The decline in defecation rates ruled out the contribution of defecation to the limited B. pseudomallei colonization. We also demonstrated that the limited intestinal lumen colonization was not attributed to slowed host feeding as bacterial loads did not change significantly when feeding was stimulated by exogenous serotonin. Both these observations confirm that B. pseudomallei is a poor colonizer of the C. elegans intestine. To explore the possibility of toxin-mediated killing, we examined the transcription of the C. elegans ABC transporter gene, pgp-5, upon B. pseudomallei infection of the ppgp-5::gfp reporter strain. Expression of pgp-5 was highly induced, notably in the pharynx and intestine, compared with Escherichia coli-fed worms, suggesting that the host actively thwarted the pathogenic assaults during infection. Collectively, our findings propose that B. pseudomallei specifically and continuously secretes toxins to overcome C. elegans immune responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
  14. Mustafa M, Chan WM, Lee C, Harijanto E, Loo CM, Van Kinh N, et al.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2014 Apr;43(4):353-60.
    PMID: 24636429 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.01.017
    Doripenem is approved in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region for treating nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Clinical usage of doripenem (500mg intravenously, infused over 1h or 4h every 8h for 5-14 days) in APAC was evaluated in a prospective, open-label, non-comparative, multicentre study of inpatients (≥18 years) with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. A total of 216 [intention-to-treat (ITT)] patients received doripenem: 53 NP (24.5%); 77 VAP (35.6%); 67 cIAI (31.0%); and 19 cUTI (8.8%). Doripenem MIC90 values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 32, 32, 0.094 and 0.64μg/mL, respectively. Doripenem was used most commonly as monotherapy (86.6%) and as second-line therapy (62.0%). The clinical cure rate in clinically evaluable patients was 86.7% at the end of therapy (EOT) and 87.1% at test of cure (TOC) (7-14 days after EOT). In the ITT population, overall clinical cure rates were 66.2% at EOT and 56.5% at TOC. The median duration of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation was 20, 12 and 10 days, respectively. Of 146 discharged patients, 7 were re-admitted within 28 days of EOT; 1 VAP patient was re-admitted to the ICU. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.7% (49/216). The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea (1.4%) and vomiting (1.4%). Doripenem is a viable option for treating APAC patients with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00986102].
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/pathogenicity
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