Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 975 in total

  1. Mohan K, Muralisankar T, Uthayakumar V, Chandirasekar R, Revathi N, Ramu Ganesan A, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Jun 15;238:116185.
    PMID: 32299552 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116185
    Tropical and sub-tropical fruits are tremendous sources of polysaccharides (PSs), which are of great interest in the human welfare system as natural medicines, food and cosmetics. This review paper aims to highlight the recent trends in extraction (conventional and non-conventional), purification and analytic techniques of fruit polysaccharides (FPSs). The chemical structure and biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-coagulant and anti-diabetic effects, of PSs extracted from 53 various fruits were compared and discussed. With this wide coverage, a total of 172 scientific articles were reviewed and discussed. This comprehensive survey from previous studies suggests that the FPSs are non-toxic and highly biocompatible. In addition, this review highlights that FPSs might be excellent functional foods as well as effective therapeutic drugs. Finally, the future research advances of FPSs are also described. The content of this review will promote human wellness-based food product development in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/chemistry*
  2. Simpson IA
    Malayan Medical Journal, 1935;10:140-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit
  3. Tang PL, Hong WL, Yue CS, Harun S
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Oct;314:123723.
    PMID: 32599527 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123723
    Pretreatment is an essential upstream process to deconstruct oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFBF) prior to sugars production. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of OPEFBF pretreatment using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as solvent. The effect of alkali catalyst (5%w/w NaOH and ammonia), temperature (90,120,135 °C) and time (60,120,180 min) on the efficiency of pretreatment (OPEFBF-to-solvent ratio of 1:25) was also investigated. The results indicated that POME-pretreatment (135 °C, 180 min) enhanced glucose yield by only ~56%. Glucose production was increased about 5.8-fold to 495.3 ± 5.9 mg g-1 OPEFBF when NaOH was added in POME-pretreatment (Na-P). The xylose production from OPEFBF was increased about 3.7-fold after ammonia-catalyzed POME-pretreatment. About 12.1 ± 0.2 g L-1 of ethanol was produced from Na-P-hydrolysate at molar conversion of 59.4 ± 1.4%. This research provides new insight into the use of POME as a cost-effective pretreatment solvent of OPEFBF to reduce upstream process cost by cutting down water usage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  4. Ruman UE, Zubair M, Zeeshan MH
    Anal Biochem, 2023 Jun 01;670:115148.
    PMID: 37019252 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2023.115148
    The purpose of this study was to explore the new effective method and investigate the dissipation of chlorfenapyr and deltamethrin (DM) pesticides used in the treatment of guava fruit from tropical and sub-tropical areas of Pakistan. Five different solutions of varying concentrations of pesticides were prepared. This study involved the in-vitro and in-vivo analysis of modulated electric flux-triggered degradation as an efficient method for the safer degradation of selected pesticides. The Taser gun was used as a tool for providing different numbers of electrical shocks of million voltages to the pesticides present in guava fruit at different temperatures. The degraded pesticides were extracted and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC chromatograms verified that significant dissipation of pesticides took place when these were exposed to 9 shocks at 37 °C, which proved the efficiency of this degradation method. More than 50% of the total spray of both pesticides was dissipated. Thus, modulated electrical flux-triggered degradation is one of the effective methods for pesticide degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/chemistry
  5. Li X, Wang X, Ong P, Yi Z, Ding L, Han C
    Sensors (Basel), 2023 Oct 13;23(20).
    PMID: 37896537 DOI: 10.3390/s23208444
    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) is a tropical and subtropical fruit that undergoes multiple ripening cycles throughout the year. Accurate monitoring of the flower and fruit quantities at various stages is crucial for growers to estimate yields, plan orders, and implement effective management strategies. However, traditional manual counting methods are labor-intensive and inefficient. Deep learning techniques have proven effective for object recognition tasks but limited research has been conducted on dragon fruit due to its unique stem morphology and the coexistence of flowers and fruits. Additionally, the challenge lies in developing a lightweight recognition and tracking model that can be seamlessly integrated into mobile platforms, enabling on-site quantity counting. In this study, a video stream inspection method was proposed to classify and count dragon fruit flowers, immature fruits (green fruits), and mature fruits (red fruits) in a dragon fruit plantation. The approach involves three key steps: (1) utilizing the YOLOv5 network for the identification of different dragon fruit categories, (2) employing the improved ByteTrack object tracking algorithm to assign unique IDs to each target and track their movement, and (3) defining a region of interest area for precise classification and counting of dragon fruit across categories. Experimental results demonstrate recognition accuracies of 94.1%, 94.8%, and 96.1% for dragon fruit flowers, green fruits, and red fruits, respectively, with an overall average recognition accuracy of 95.0%. Furthermore, the counting accuracy for each category is measured at 97.68%, 93.97%, and 91.89%, respectively. The proposed method achieves a counting speed of 56 frames per second on a 1080ti GPU. The findings establish the efficacy and practicality of this method for accurate counting of dragon fruit or other fruit varieties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  6. Ng MH, Nu'man AH, Hasliyanti A
    J Sep Sci, 2024 Feb;47(4):e2300842.
    PMID: 38403445 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.202300842
    The study explored ferulic acid extraction from palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber using deep eutectic solvent (DES) of chlorine chloride-acetic acid as the extraction medium and the way to recover and recycle the DES thereafter. Antisolvent was added to selectively precipitate the ferulic acid, which was recovered by filtration thereafter. Recycling the DES without further purification led to increased ferulic acid yield with each subsequent extraction, likely due to retained ferulic acid. The retained ferulic acid and other impurities could be removed by precipitation brought upon by the addition of a second antisolvent. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance revealed that there was no excess ferulic acid in the recycled DES-treated with two types of antisolvents (ethanol and water). The yield of ferulic acid increased from 0.1367-0.1856 g/g when treated with only one antisolvent to 0.1368-0.2897 g/g with two antisolvent treatments. Oil droplets were also observed in the DES upon the addition of antisolvent 2, with recovered oil ranging from 0.6% to 3%. The study emphasized the significance of using DES as an extraction medium for ferulic acid from oil palm EFB fiber and the method to recycle the DES for subsequent processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  7. Md Tahir P, Liew WP, Lee SY, Ang AF, Lee SH, Mohamed R, et al.
    Waste Manag, 2019 Dec;100:128-137.
    PMID: 31536923 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.09.002
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is the most significant waste generated from the agricultural industry in Malaysia. Composting is one of the potential approaches to utilize EFB. However, composting of EFB is a time-consuming process, thus impractical for industrial application. The composting process can be shortened by introducing competent fungi into an optimal EFB composting system. This study was conducted to isolate and identify competent fungi that can naturally compost EFB. Samplings were carried out at eight different time points over a 20-weeks experimental period. The physical properties of EFB samples such as pH, residual oil content, and moisture content were measured and the EFB composting process that was indicated by the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were assessed. The fungal growth, distribution, and lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were evaluated. The results indicated that the changes in physical properties of EFB were correlated to the fungal growth. The gradual reduction in moisture content and residual oil, and the increment in pH values in EFB samples throughout the experimental period resulted in reduced fungal growth and diversity. Such phenomenon delayed EFB composting process as revealed by the changes in EFB lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contents. The most dominant and resilient fungi (Lichtheimia ramosa and Neurospora crassa) survived up to 16 weeks and were capable of producing various lignocellulolytic enzymes. Further understanding of these factors that would contribute to effective EFB composting could be useful for future industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit
  8. Chuah YY, Lee YY, Hsu PI
    Br J Hosp Med (Lond), 2023 Sep 02;84(9):1.
    PMID: 37769261 DOI: 10.12968/hmed.2023.0163
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit
  9. Yoo HM, Park SW, Seo YC, Kim KH
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Mar 15;234:1-7.
    PMID: 30599325 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.11.035
    Palm kernel shells (PKS), empty fruit bunches (EFB), and trunks are by-products of the palm oil industry and form approximately 50 wt % of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In particular, EFB accounts for approximately 20 wt % of FFB. Although large amounts of EFB are generated from palm oil mills every year in Indonesia and Malaysia, EFB is treated as waste because commercial technologies for thermo-chemical conversion of EFB into renewable energy are still under development. A robust conversion method can transform EFB into an appealing renewable energy source. In order to secure this renewable energy source, Korea can import EFB as biomass. This paper investigates literature on the status of utilization of EFB, by-products from palm oil mills in order to identify the best available technological process to use EFB as bio-solid refuse fuels (SRF). Meanwhile, physico-chemical analyses (proximate, elemental, and calorific value analyses), biomass and heavy metal content were measured in order to assess whether EFB would be suitable for use as a bio-SRF, in accordance with the Korean quality standard for SRF. According to the analysis results, EFB showed applicability to use as bio-SRF; main analysis results - moisture (9.63 wt %), ash (5.94 wt %), biomass content (97.82 wt %) and calorific value (3668 kcal kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  10. Granados A, Bernard H, Brodie JF
    J Anim Ecol, 2019 06;88(6):892-902.
    PMID: 30895613 DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12983
    Periods of extreme food abundance, such as irregular masting events, can dramatically affect animal populations and communities, but the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances alter animal responses to mast events is not clear. In South-East Asia, dipterocarp trees reproduce in mast fruiting events every 2-10 years in some of the largest masting events on the planet. These trees, however, are targeted for selective logging, reducing the intensity of fruit production and potentially affecting multiple trophic levels. Moreover, animal responses to resource pulse events have largely been studied in systems where the major mast consumers have been extirpated. We sought to evaluate the influence of human-induced habitat disturbance on animal responses to masting in a system where key mast consumers remain extant. We used motion-triggered camera traps to quantify terrestrial mammal and bird occurrences in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, relative to variation in fruit biomass from 69 plant families during a major (2014) and minor (2015) masting event and a non-mast year (2013), in both logged and unlogged forests. Bearded pigs (Sus barbatus) showed the clearest responses to masting and occurrence rates were highest in unlogged forest in the year following the major mast, suggesting that the pulse in fruit availability increased immigration or reproduction. We also detected local-scale spatial tracking of dipterocarp fruits in bearded pigs in unlogged forest, while this was equivocal in other species. In contrast, pigs and other vertebrate taxa in our study showed limited response to spatial or temporal variation in fruit availability in logged forest. Our findings suggest that vertebrates, namely bearded pigs, may respond to masting via movement and increased reproduction, but that these responses may be attenuated by habitat disturbance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  11. Chong YY, Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Ng HK, Lee LY, Gan S
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Oct 01;247:38-45.
    PMID: 31229784 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.06.049
    Fast pyrolysis is a potential technology for converting lignocellulosic biomass into bio-oil. Nevertheless, the high amounts of acid, oxygenated compounds, and water content diminish the energy density of the bio-oil and cause it to be unsuitable for direct usage. Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) is able to improve bio-oil properties so that downstream upgrading processes can be economically feasible. Here, calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were employed due to their potential in enhancing bio-oil properties. The results showed that overall, all three catalysts positively impacted the empty fruit bunch fibre-derived bio-oil properties. Among the catalysts, CaO showed the most favorable effects in terms of reducing the acidity of the bio-oil and anhydrosugar. Thermal stability of bio-oils produced in the presence of CaO was studied as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  12. Goh MS, Lam SD, Yang Y, Naqiuddin M, Addis SNK, Yong WTL, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 10 15;420:126624.
    PMID: 34329083 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126624
    In agriculture, the convenience and efficacy of chemical pesticides have become inevitable to manage cultivated crop production. Here, we review the worldwide use of pesticides based on their categories, mode of actions and toxicity. Excessive use of pesticides may lead to hazardous pesticide residues in crops, causing adverse effects on human health and the environment. A wide range of high-tech-analytical methods are available to analyse pesticide residues. However, they are mostly time-consuming and inconvenient for on-site detection, calling for the development of biosensors that detect cellular changes in crops. Such new detection methods that combine biological and physicochemical knowledge may overcome the shortage in current farming to develop sustainable systems that support environmental and human health. This review also comprehensively compiles domestic pesticide residues removal tips from vegetables and fruits. Synthetic pesticide alternatives such as biopesticide and nanopesticide are greener to the environment. However, its safety assessment for large-scale application needs careful evaluation. Lastly, we strongly call for reversions of pesticide application trends based on the changing climate, which is lacking in the current scenario.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/chemistry
  13. Foo ML, Ooi CW, Tan KW, Chew IML
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 2):132108.
    PMID: 34509022 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132108
    The groundbreaking innovation and industrialization are ushering in a new era where technology development is integrated with the sustainability of materials. Over the decade, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) obtained from lignocellulosic biomass had created a great value in various aspects. The abundantly available empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the palm oil industry has motivated us to utilize it as a sustainable alternative for the isolation of NCC, which is a worthwhile opportunity to the waste management of EFB. Taking advantage of the shape anisotropy and amphiphilic character, NCC has been demonstrated as a natural stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsion. In this work, preparation of highly stable Pickering nanoemulsion using black cumin seed oil and NCC was attempted. Black cumin seed oil is a class of plant oil with various nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits. However, its poor solubility could substantially lower the therapeutic effect, and thus, requires a delivery system to overcome this limitation. The role of NCC in the formation of stable Pickering nanoemulsion was investigated. The emulsification process was found crucial to the resulting droplet size, whereas NCC contributed critically to its stabilization. The droplet size obtained from ultrasonication and microfluidization was approximately 400 nm, as examined using transmission electron microscopy. The droplet (oil-to-water = 2:8) has long-term stability against creaming and coalescence for more than six months. The nanoemulsion stabilized by NCC could allow a better absorption by the human body, thereby maximizing the potential of black cumin seed oil in the personal care and food industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  14. Wong KW, Lansing MG
    BMJ Case Rep, 2021 Jul 22;14(7).
    PMID: 34301701 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2021-242325
    Bilimbi fruit is widely eaten in Malaysia. Rarely reported is its potential to cause acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with prior normal renal function. The possible dangers of its consumption are still relatively unknown among many. This case highlights the importance of taking a thorough dietary history in patients with AKI. We also hope to increase awareness among healthcare professionals on the nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effects of bilimbi fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  15. Uemura Y, Sellappah V, Trinh TH, Hassan S, Tanoue KI
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Nov;243:107-117.
    PMID: 28810504 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.06.057
    Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  16. Campos-Arceiz A, Steele MA, Carlo TA, Xiong W
    Integr Zool, 2011 Jun;6(2):71-73.
    PMID: 21645272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2011.00241.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  17. Lam SS, Liew RK, Cheng CK, Rasit N, Ooi CK, Ma NL, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2018 May 01;213:400-408.
    PMID: 29505995 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.092
    Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7-47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m2/g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  18. Yiin CL, Yusup S, Quitain AT, Uemura Y, Sasaki M, Kida T
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 May;255:189-197.
    PMID: 29414166 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.132
    The impacts of low-transition-temperature mixtures (LTTMs) pretreatment on thermal decomposition and kinetics of empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. EFB was pretreated with the LTTMs under different duration of pretreatment which enabled various degrees of alteration to their structure. The TG-DTG curves showed that LTTMs pretreatment on EFB shifted the temperature and rate of decomposition to higher values. The EFB pretreated with sucrose and choline chloride-based LTTMs had attained the highest mass loss of volatile matter (78.69% and 75.71%) after 18 h of pretreatment. For monosodium glutamate-based LTTMs, the 24 h pretreated EFB had achieved the maximum mass loss (76.1%). Based on the Coats-Redfern integral method, the LTTMs pretreatment led to an increase in activation energy of the thermal decomposition of EFB from 80.00 to 82.82-94.80 kJ/mol. The activation energy was mainly affected by the demineralization and alteration in cellulose crystallinity after LTTMs pretreatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit*
  19. Zianor Azrina ZA, Beg MDH, Rosli MY, Ramli R, Junadi N, Alam AKMM
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Apr 15;162:115-120.
    PMID: 28224888 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.035
    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/chemistry*
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