Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Michel Devadoss PS, Agamuthu P, Mehran SB, Santha C, Fauziah SH
    Waste Manag, 2021 Jan 01;119:135-144.
    PMID: 33059163 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.09.038
    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia has been mainly focused on collection, transportation and disposal of MSW. To examine the contribution of MSW management to GHG emissions, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Waste Model was used by deploying Tier 2 method. It estimated that 6,898,167 tonnes CO2-eq of GHG emissions were released in 2016 from solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) and are projected to increase to 9,991,486 tonnes CO2-eq in 2030. To reduce GHG emissions from MSW management, Solid-Waste-Management Greenhouse-Gas (SWM-GHG) calculator was used to compare different approaches. SWM-GHG calculator focused on three settings including recycling approach, incineration approach and integrated approach. According to SWM-GHG calculator, in 2016, 15,906,614 tonnes CO2-eq of GHG emissions were released by recycling approximately 16% of MSW and disposing of 84% of MSW in SWDS. Out of the three approaches, integrated approach can result in highest reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 (64%) from GHG emissions in 2016, as compared to recycling approach (50% reduction) and incineration approach (46% reduction). While, recycling has been the main national goal for last 14 years as it has increased up to 17.5% by 2016, the current Malaysian government aims to establish 8 incinerators in Malaysia that will treat approximately 32% of MSW annually. However, estimations of SWM-GHG calculator and some opportunities and threats highlighted by SWOT analysis suggest the integrated approach as the best suited approach for Malaysia for achieving significant and sustainable reductions in GHG emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis
  2. Akbari E, Buntat Z, Ahmad MH, Enzevaee A, Yousof R, Iqbal SM, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(3):5502-15.
    PMID: 24658617 DOI: 10.3390/s140305502
    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I-V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  3. Ibrahim S, Yunus MA, Green RG, Dutton K
    ISA Trans, 2012 Nov;51(6):821-6.
    PMID: 22624831 DOI: 10.1016/j.isatra.2012.04.010
    Optical tomography provides a means for the determination of the spatial distribution of materials with different optical density in a volume by non-intrusive means. This paper presents results of concentration measurements of gas bubbles in a water column using an optical tomography system. A hydraulic flow rig is used to generate vertical air-water two-phase flows with controllable bubble flow rate. Two approaches are investigated. The first aims to obtain an average gas concentration at the measurement section, the second aims to obtain a gas distribution profile by using tomographic imaging. A hybrid back-projection algorithm is used to calculate concentration profiles from measured sensor values to provide a tomographic image of the measurement cross-section. The algorithm combines the characteristic of an optical sensor as a hard field sensor and the linear back projection algorithm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  4. Abualqumboz MS, Malakahmad A, Mohammed NI
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2016 06;66(6):597-608.
    PMID: 27249105 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1154115
    Landfills throughout the world are contributing to the global warming problem. This is due to the existence of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG) in landfill gas (LFG); namely, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The aim of this paper is quantifying the total potential emissions, as well as the variation in production with time of CH4 from a proposed landfill (El Fukhary landfill) in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Two different methods were adopted in order to quantify the total potential CH4 emissions; the Default methodology based on the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) 1996 revised guidelines and the Landfill Gas Emissions model (LandGEM V3.02) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second objective of the study has been accomplished using the Triangle gas production model. The results obtained from both Default and LandGEM methods were found to be nearly the same. For 25 years of disposing MSW, El Fukhary landfill expected to have potential CH4 emissions of 1.9542 ± 0.0037 ×109 m3. Triangle model showed that the peak production in term of CH4 would occur in 2043; 28 years beyond the open year. Moreover, the model shows that 50 % of the gas will be produced approximately at the middle of the total duration of gas production. Proper control of Methane emissions from El Fukhary landfill is highly suggested in order to reduce the harmful effects on the environment.

    IMPLICATIONS: Although, GHG emissions are extensively discussed in the developed countries throughout the world, it has gained little concern in the developing countries because they are forced most of the time to put environmental concerns at the end of their priority list. The paper shows that developing countries have to start recognizing their fault and change their way of dealing with environmental issues especially GHG emissions (mainly Methane and carbon dioxide). The authors estimated the potential methane emissions from a proposed central landfill that has been approved to be built in Palestine, a country that is classified as a developing country.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis
  5. Lam SS, Wan Mahari WA, Ma NL, Azwar E, Kwon EE, Peng W, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2019 Sep;230:294-302.
    PMID: 31108440 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.054
    Used baby diaper consists of a combination of decomposable cellulose, non-biodegradable plastic materials (e.g. polyolefins) and super-absorbent polymer materials, thus making it difficult to be sorted and separated for recycling. Microwave pyrolysis was examined for its potential as an approach to transform used baby diapers into value-added products. Influence of the key operating parameters comprising process temperature and microwave power were investigated. The pyrolysis showed a rapid heating process (up to 43 °C/min of heating rate) and quick reaction time (20-40 min) in valorizing the used diapers to generate pyrolysis products comprising up to 43 wt% production of liquid oil, 29 wt% gases and 28 wt% char product. Microwave power and operating temperature were observed to have impacts on the heating rate, process time, production and characteristics of the liquid oil and solid char. The liquid oil contained alkanes, alkenes and esters that can potentially be used as chemical additives, cosmetic products and fuel. The solid char contained high carbon, low nitrogen and free of sulphur, thus showing potential for use as adsorbents and soil additives. These observations demonstrate that microwave pyrolysis has great prospect in transforming used baby diaper into liquid oil and char products that can be utilised in several applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis
  6. Illias HA, Zhao Liang W
    PLoS One, 2018;13(1):e0191366.
    PMID: 29370230 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191366
    Early detection of power transformer fault is important because it can reduce the maintenance cost of the transformer and it can ensure continuous electricity supply in power systems. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) technique is commonly used to identify oil-filled power transformer fault type but utilisation of artificial intelligence method with optimisation methods has shown convincing results. In this work, a hybrid support vector machine (SVM) with modified evolutionary particle swarm optimisation (EPSO) algorithm was proposed to determine the transformer fault type. The superiority of the modified PSO technique with SVM was evaluated by comparing the results with the actual fault diagnosis, unoptimised SVM and previous reported works. Data reduction was also applied using stepwise regression prior to the training process of SVM to reduce the training time. It was found that the proposed hybrid SVM-Modified EPSO (MEPSO)-Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (TVAC) technique results in the highest correct identification percentage of faults in a power transformer compared to other PSO algorithms. Thus, the proposed technique can be one of the potential solutions to identify the transformer fault type based on DGA data on site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  7. Naz MY, Shukrullah S, Ghaffar A, Rehman NU
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:279868.
    PMID: 24683326 DOI: 10.1155/2014/279868
    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasma Gases/analysis*
  8. Zainal-Mokhtar K, Mohamad-Saleh J
    Sensors (Basel), 2013;13(9):11385-406.
    PMID: 24064598 DOI: 10.3390/s130911385
    This paper presents novel research on the development of a generic intelligent oil fraction sensor based on Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) data. An artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed as the intelligent system to sense and estimate oil fractions from the cross-sections of two-component flows comprising oil and gas in a pipeline. Previous works only focused on estimating the oil fraction in the pipeline based on fixed ECT sensor parameters. With fixed ECT design sensors, an oil fraction neural sensor can be trained to deal with ECT data based on the particular sensor parameters, hence the neural sensor is not generic. This work focuses on development of a generic neural oil fraction sensor based on training a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) ANN with various ECT sensor parameters. On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  9. Lahijani P, Zainal ZA
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jan;102(2):2068-76.
    PMID: 20980143 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.101
    Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was investigated in a pilot-scale air-blown fluidized bed. The effect of bed temperature (650-1050 °C) on gasification performance was studied. To explore the potential of EFB, the gasification results were compared to that of sawdust. Results showed that maximum heating values (HHV) of 5.37 and 5.88 (MJ/Nm3), dry gas yield of 2.04 and 2.0 (Nm3/kg), carbon conversion of 93% and 85 % and cold gas efficiency of 72% and 71 % were obtained for EFB and sawdust at the temperature of 1050 °C and ER of 0.25. However, it was realized that agglomeration was the major issue in EFB gasification at high temperatures. To prevent the bed agglomeration, EFB gasification was performed at temperature of 770±20 °C while the ER was varied from 0.17 to 0.32. Maximum HHV of 4.53 was obtained at ER of 0.21 where no agglomeration was observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  10. Bahraminejad B, Basri S, Isa M, Hambli Z
    Sensors (Basel), 2010;10(6):5359-77.
    PMID: 22219666 DOI: 10.3390/s100605359
    In this study, the ability of the Capillary-attached conductive gas sensor (CGS) in real-time gas identification was investigated. The structure of the prototype fabricated CGS is presented. Portions were selected from the beginning of the CGS transient response including the first 11 samples to the first 100 samples. Different feature extraction and classification methods were applied on the selected portions. Validation of methods was evaluated to study the ability of an early portion of the CGS transient response in target gas (TG) identification. Experimental results proved that applying extracted features from an early part of the CGS transient response along with a classifier can distinguish short-chain alcohols from each other perfectly. Decreasing time of exposition in the interaction between target gas and sensing element improved the reliability of the sensor. Classification rate was also improved and time of identification was decreased. Moreover, the results indicated the optimum interval of the early transient response of the CGS for selecting portions to achieve the best classification rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  11. Singh MK, O'Donnell C, Woodford NW
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 2009;5(3):236-42.
    PMID: 19669956 DOI: 10.1007/s12024-009-9103-y
    We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with a past history of diabetes mellitus who died following blunt head injury sustained in a fall resulting in an acute subdural hematoma. Serial postmortem CT scans of the chest and abdomen performed over a 3-day period demonstrated progressive intra-hepatic and intra-cardiac gas formation whilst the deceased was stored in a standard mortuary refrigerator at a nominated temperature of 4 degrees C. Measured mortuary refrigerator temperatures over a 7 day period showed statistically significant day to day variability in temperatures above 4 degrees C as well as variations in temperature depending on location within the refrigerator space. In the absence of other known factors associated with such gas formation, putrefaction seems the likely cause despite a lack of obvious external features. This phenomenon must therefore be taken into account when interpreting the presence of visceral gas on postmortem CT and relating such gas to the cause of death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
  12. Ali Tahir A, Ullah H, Sudhagar P, Asri Mat Teridi M, Devadoss A, Sundaram S
    Chem Rec, 2016 06;16(3):1591-634.
    PMID: 27230414 DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500279
    Graphene (GR) and its derivatives are promising materials on the horizon of nanotechnology and material science and have attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. The unique atom-thick 2D structure with sp(2) hybridization and large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, superior electron mobility, and chemical stability have made GR and its derivatives extremely attractive components for composite materials for solar energy conversion, energy storage, environmental purification, and biosensor applications. This review gives a brief introduction of GR's unique structure, band structure engineering, physical and chemical properties, and recent energy-related progress of GR-based materials in the fields of energy conversion (e.g., photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical water splitting, CO2 reduction, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices) and energy storage (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors). The vast coverage of advancements in environmental applications of GR-based materials for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, gas sensing, and removal of heavy-metal ions is presented. Additionally, the use of graphene composites in the biosensing field is discussed. We conclude the review with remarks on the challenges, prospects, and further development of GR-based materials in the exciting fields of energy, environment, and bioscience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis
  13. Rezk H, Nassef AM, Inayat A, Sayed ET, Shahbaz M, Olabi AG
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Mar 25;658:1150-1160.
    PMID: 30677979 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.284
    Fossil fuel depletion and the environmental concerns have been under discussion for energy production for many years and finding new and renewable energy sources became a must. Biomass is considered as a net zero CO2 energy source. Gasification of biomass for H2 and syngas production is an attractive process. The main target of this research is to improve the production of hydrogen and syngas from palm kernel shell (PKS) steam gasification through defining the optimal operating parameters' using a modern optimization algorithm. To predict the gaseous outputs, two PKS models were built using fuzzy logic based on the experimental data sets. A radial movement optimizer (RMO) was applied to determine the system's optimal operating parameters. During the optimization process, the decision variables were represented by four different operating parameters. These parameters include; temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio and coal bottom ash (CBA) with their operating ranges of (650-750 °C), (0.5-1 mm), (0.5-2) and wt% (0.02-0.10), respectively. The individual and interactive effects of different combinations were investigated on the production of H2 and syngas yield. The optimized results were compared with experimental data and results obtained from Response Surface Methodology (RSM) reported in literature. The obtained optimal values of the operating parameters through RMO were found 722 °C, 0.92 mm, 1.72 and 0.06 wt% for the temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio and coal bottom ash, respectively. The results showed that syngas production was significantly improved as it reached 65.44 vol% which was better than that obtained in earlier studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis
  14. Gregory SD, Brook BW, Goossens B, Ancrenaz M, Alfred R, Ambu LN, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(9):e43846.
    PMID: 22970145 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043846
    Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world's highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gases/analysis*
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