Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Al-Resayes SI, Malmiri HJ, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Sep 10;19(9):14257-65.
    PMID: 25211006 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914257
    The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid) in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC) as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4±8.6 nm). It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI) and maximum zeta-potential). This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  2. Nur Azira T, Che Man YB, Raja Mohd Hafidz RN, Aina MA, Amin I
    Food Chem, 2014 May 15;151:286-92.
    PMID: 24423534 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.066
    The study was aimed to differentiate between porcine and bovine gelatines in adulterated samples by utilising sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The distinct polypeptide patterns of 6 porcine type A and 6 bovine type B gelatines at molecular weight ranged from 50 to 220 kDa were studied. Experimental samples of raw gelatine were prepared by adding porcine gelatine in a proportion ranging from 5% to 50% (v/v) to bovine gelatine and vice versa. The method used was able to detect 5% porcine gelatine added to the bovine gelatine. There were no differences in the electrophoretic profiles of the jelly samples when the proteins were extracted with an acetone precipitation method. The simple approach employing SDS-PAGE and PCA reported in this paper may provide a useful tool for food authenticity issues concerning gelatine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  3. Tan TC, AlKarkhi AF, Easa AM
    Food Chem, 2012 Oct 15;134(4):2430-6.
    PMID: 23442706 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.049
    The addition of ribose to bovine or porcine gelatine solutions followed by heating at 95 °C yielded brown solutions with different pH, colour (CIE L(*) and b(*)) and absorbance (A(420*) values. These differences were used for gelatine powder identification, differentiation and quality control. Differentiation analysis of the Maillard reaction parameters was conducted using cluster analysis (CA) and confidence intervals (CI). The potential use of the method as a quality control procedure was evaluated by using statistical process control (SPC). CA revealed that the two types of gelatine could be classified into two different groups. CI (95% confidence) revealed that the absorbance and colour values could be used as indicators for differentiation between the two types of gelatine because the intervals between the Maillard reaction parameters of the samples were far apart. The methodology demonstrated good reproducibility because it behaved predictably based on the X¯-S charts generated from the SPC charts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  4. Tukiran NA, Ismail A, Mustafa S, Hamid M
    PMID: 25861981 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1039605
    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  5. Kuan YH, Nafchi AM, Huda N, Ariffin F, Karim AA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(5):1663-1671.
    PMID: 27465360 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7970
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that duck feet are a rich source of gelatin extractable from avian sources. In this study, the physicochemical and functional properties of avian gelatin extracted from duck feet (DFG) with acetic acid were compared with those of commercial bovine gelatin (BG).

    RESULTS: The yield of DFG obtained in this study was 7.01 ± 0.31%. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the imino acid content was slightly lower for DFG compared with BG (P < 0.05). Differences in molecular size and amino acids between DFG and BG were also observed. The isoelectric points of DFG and BG were at pH 8 and 5 respectively, and the overall protein solubility of BG was higher than that of DFG. Gels prepared from BG exhibited higher bloom strength, viscosity and clarity and were darker in colour compared with DFG gels (P < 0.05). The gelling and melting points of BG were 21.8 and 29.47 °C respectively, while those of DFG were 20.5 and 27.8 °C respectively. BG exhibited slightly better emulsifying and foaming properties compared with DFG.

    CONCLUSION: Although some differences between DFG and BG were observed, the disparities were small, which indicates that DFG could be exploited commercially as an alternative source of gelatin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  6. Oladzadabbasabadi N, Ebadi S, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Karim AA, Kiahosseini SR
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Mar 15;160:43-51.
    PMID: 28115099 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.12.042
    The aim of this study was development a composite film based on sago starch and κ-carrageenan to find a gelatin alternative in the pharmaceutical capsules processing. Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated (dually modified) sago starch was mixed with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The drying kinetics, thermomechanical, physicochemical, and barrier properties of composite films were estimated and compared with bovine gelatin. Results show that drying kinetics and mechanical properties of the composite films were comparable to those of gelatin. The water vapor permeability and moisture content of the composite films were lower than those of gelatin. The solubility of the composite films was higher than that of gelatin, and the composite films were more stable at higher relative humidity than were the gelatin films. These results show that dually modified sago starch in combination with κ-carrageenan has properties similar to those of gelatin, thus proposed system can be used in pharmaceutical capsules processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  7. Hani NM, Torkamani AE, Azarian MH, Mahmood KW, Ngalim SH
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Aug;97(10):3348-3358.
    PMID: 27981649 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8185
    BACKGROUND: Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves have been used as a folk herbal medicine across many cultures since ancient times. This is most probably due to presence of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant properties, which could retard oxidative stress, and their degenerative effect. The current study deals with nanoencapsulation of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethanolic extract within fish sourced gelatine matrix using electrospinning technique.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging (IC50 ) and metal reducing properties were 67.0 ± 2.5 mg GAE g-1 sample 32.0 ± 0.5 mg QE g-1 extract, 0.08 ± 0.01 mg mL-1 and 510 ± 10 µmol eq Fe(II) g-1 extract, respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of the fibre mats confirmed successful nanoencapsulation of MO extract within defect free nanofibres via electrospinning process. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE) was between 80% and 85%. Furthermore, thermal stability of encapsulated fibres, especially at 3% and 5% of core loading content, was significantly improved. Toxicological analysis revealed that the extract in its original and encapsulated form was safe for oral consumption.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study showed the potential of ambient temperature electrospinning process as a safe nanoencapsulation method, where MO extract retained its antioxidative capacities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  8. Hassan N, Ahmad T, Zain NM
    J Food Sci, 2018 Dec;83(12):2903-2911.
    PMID: 30440088 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14370
    The issue of food authenticity has become a concern among religious adherents, particularly Muslims, due to the possible presence of nonhalal ingredients in foods as well as other commercial products. One of the nonhalal ingredients that commonly found in food and pharmaceutical products is gelatin which extracted from porcine source. Bovine and fish gelatin are also becoming the main commercial sources of gelatin. However, unclear information and labeling regarding the actual sources of gelatin in food and pharmaceutical products have become the main concern in halal authenticity issue since porcine consumption is prohibited for Muslims. Hence, numerous analytical methods involving chemical and chemometric analysis have been developed to identify the sources of gelatin. Chemical analysis techniques such as biochemical, chromatography, electrophoretic, and spectroscopic are usually combined with chemometric and mathematical methods such as principal component analysis, cluster, discriminant, and Fourier transform analysis for the gelatin classification. A sample result from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, which combines Fourier transform and spectroscopic technique, is included in this paper. This paper presents an overview of chemical and chemometric methods involved in identification of different types of gelatin, which is important for halal authentication purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  9. Ahmad T, Ismail A, Ahmad SA, Khalil KA, Leo TK, Awad EA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565325 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040730
    Actinidin was used to pretreat the bovine hide and ultrasonic wave (53 kHz and 500 W) was used for the time durations of 2, 4 and 6 h at 60 °C to extract gelatin samples (UA2, UA4 and UA6, respectively). Control (UAC) gelatin was extracted using ultrasound for 6 h at 60 °C without enzyme pretreatment. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in gelatin yield as the time duration of ultrasound treatment increased with UA6 giving the highest yield of 19.65%. Gel strength and viscosity of UAC and UA6 extracted gelatin samples were 627.53 and 502.16 g and 16.33 and 15.60 mPa.s, respectively. Longer duration of ultrasound treatment increased amino acids content of the extracted gelatin and UAC exhibited the highest content of amino acids. Progressive degradation of polypeptide chains was observed in the protein pattern of the extracted gelatin as the time duration of ultrasound extraction increased. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy depicted loss of molecular order and degradation in UA6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed protein aggregation and network formation in the gelatin samples with increasing time of ultrasound treatment. The study indicated that ultrasound assisted gelatin extraction using actinidin exhibited high yield with good quality gelatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  10. Yuswan MH, A Jalil NH, Mohamad H, Keso S, Mohamad NA, Tengku Md Yusoff TS, et al.
    Food Chem, 2021 Feb 01;337:127762.
    PMID: 32777563 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127762
    Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  11. Azilawati MI, Hashim DM, Jamilah B, Amin I
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:368-76.
    PMID: 25442566 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.093
    The amino acid compositions of bovine, porcine and fish gelatin were determined by amino acid analysis using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as derivatization reagent. Sixteen amino acids were identified with similar spectral chromatograms. Data pre-treatment via centering and transformation of data by normalization were performed to provide data that are more suitable for analysis and easier to be interpreted. Principal component analysis (PCA) transformed the original data matrix into a number of principal components (PCs). Three principal components (PCs) described 96.5% of the total variance, and 2 PCs (91%) explained the highest variances. The PCA model demonstrated the relationships among amino acids in the correlation loadings plot to the group of gelatins in the scores plot. Fish gelatin was correlated to threonine, serine and methionine on the positive side of PC1; bovine gelatin was correlated to the non-polar side chains amino acids that were proline, hydroxyproline, leucine, isoleucine and valine on the negative side of PC1 and porcine gelatin was correlated to the polar side chains amino acids that were aspartate, glutamic acid, lysine and tyrosine on the negative side of PC2. Verification on the database using 12 samples from commercial products gelatin-based had confirmed the grouping patterns and the variables correlations. Therefore, this quantitative method is very useful as a screening method to determine gelatin from various sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  12. Azilawati MI, Hashim DM, Jamilah B, Amin I
    J Chromatogr A, 2014 Aug 1;1353:49-56.
    PMID: 24797394 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.050
    In-house method validation was conducted to determine amino acid composition in gelatin by a pre-column derivatization procedure with the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate reagent. The analytical parameters revealed that the validated method was capable of selectively performing a good chromatographic separation for 18 amino acids in less than 40 min; the overall detection and quantitation limit for amino acids fell into ranges of 5.68-12.48 and 36.0-39.0 pmol/μl, respectively; the matrix effect was not observed, and the linearity range was 37.5-1000 pmol/μl. The accuracy (precision and recovery) analyses of the method were conducted under repeatable conditions on different days in random order. Method precision revealed by HorRat values was significantly less than 2, except for histidine with a precision of 2.19, and the method recoveries had a range of 80-115% except for alanine which was recovered at 79.4%. The findings were reproducible and accurately defined, and the method was found to be suited to routine analysis of amino acid composition in gelatin-based ingredients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  13. Aziz HA, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):35-45.
    PMID: 22101965 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9707-x
    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  14. Bin Ahmad M, Lim JJ, Shameli K, Ibrahim NA, Tay MY
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 25;16(9):7237-48.
    PMID: 21869751 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16097237
    In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in chitosan (Cts), Cts/gelatin and gelatin suspensions using a chemical reducing agent. Cts and gelatin were used as natural stabilizers and solid support, whereas AgNO(3) was used as the silver precursor. Sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) was used as the reducing agent. The properties of AgNPs in Cts, Cts/gelatin and gelatin bionanocomposites (BNCs) were studied in terms of their surface plasmon resonance, crystalline structure, average diameter size, particle distributions, surface topography and functional groups. All the samples were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  15. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:569-74.
    PMID: 21674013 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S16867
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been successfully prepared with simple and "green" synthesis method by reducing Ag(+) ions in aqueous gelatin media with and in the absence of glucose as a reducing agent. In this study, gelatin was used for the first time as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of temperature on particle size of Ag-NPs was also studied. It was found that with increasing temperature the size of nanoparticles is decreased. It was found that the particle size of Ag-NPs obtained in gelatin solutions is smaller than in gelatin-glucose solutions, which can be related to the rate of reduction reaction. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed Ag-NPs with a narrow particle size distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  16. Fakharian MH, Tamimi N, Abbaspour H, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Karim AA
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Nov 5;132:156-63.
    PMID: 26256336 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.033
    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% κ-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  17. Sultana S, Hossain MAM, Naquiah NNA, Ali ME
    PMID: 30028648 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1500719
    Gelatin is widely used in pharmaceuticals as a protective coating, such as soft and hard capsule shells. However, the animal source of gelatin is a sensitive issue because certain gelatins such as porcine and bovine gelatins are not welcome in Halal, Kosher and Hindus' consumer goods. Recently, we have documented DNA barcoding and multiplex PCR platforms for discriminating porcine, bovine and fish gelatins in various fish and confectionary products; but those assays were not self-authenticating and also not tested in highly refined pharmaceutical products. To address this knowledge gap, here we report a self-authenticating multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify animal sources of various gelatin in pharmaceutical capsules. Three different restriction enzymes, BsaAI, Hpy188I and BcoDI were used to yield distinctive RFLP patterns for gelatin-based bovine (26, 94 bp), fish (97, 198 bp) and porcine (17, 70 bp) DNA in control experiments. The specificity was cross-tested against 16 non-target species and the optimised assay was used to screen gelatin sources in 30 halal-branded pharmaceuticals capsule shells. Bovine and porcine DNA was found in 27 and 3 of the 30 different capsules products. The assay was suitable for detecting 0.1 to 0.01 ng total DNA extracted from pure and mixed gelatins. The study might be useful to authenticate and monitor halal, kosher, vegetarian and Hindu compliant pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry
  18. Fan HY, Duquette D, Dumont MJ, Simpson BK
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):263-273.
    PMID: 30130612 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.084
    Composite films comprised of salmon (Salmo salar) skin gelatin and zein were prepared via crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize film composition to maximize tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (EAB), and to minimize water solubility (WS) of the films. The significant (P gelatin-zein composite film was successfully crosslinked after the addition of glutaraldehyde, with the formation of crosslinked networks between proteins and a denser packed organization of proteins. Consequently, the resultant crosslinked composite film exhibited improvement on light transparency, water resistance and mechanical strength as a function of increasing humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  19. Abedinia A, Ariffin F, Huda N, Mohammadi Nafchi A
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Apr 01;109:855-862.
    PMID: 29133087 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.051
    Edible duck feet gelatin (DFG)-based biocomposites with different glycerol (GLY) contents (15%, 25%, and 35% of dried DFG) were prepared. Physicochemical, mechanical, barrier, and heat seal properties of DFG films were characterized and compared as an alternative to bovine gelatin film. Increasing glycerol from 15 to 35% decreased the TS and YM and EB and HS increased, in value of 42.54-7.27 and 1240-157.10MPa and 22.82-50.33% and 42.06-347.15N/m respectively. The water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) of films were increased from 4.78 to 5.6×10-11gm-1Pa-1s-1 and from 3.97 to 33.99cm3mμ/m2 d kPa respectively. GAB model estimations showed monolayer water content of films increased with the increase of plasticizer content. Moisture sorption isotherm modelling exhibited a type II BET classification. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed shifted peak at approximately 1024cm-1, which was related to glycerol. The results show that the properties of DFG film are suitable for use as an alternative material to bovine gelatin film.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
  20. Azilawati MI, Dzulkifly MH, Jamilah B, Shuhaimi M, Amin I
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2016 Sep 10;129:389-397.
    PMID: 27454091 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.07.012
    A detailed procedure for estimating uncertainty according to the Laboratory of Government Chemists/Valid Analytical Measurement (LGC/VAM) protocol for determination of 18 amino acids in gelatin is proposed. The expanded uncertainty was estimated using mainly the method validation data (precision and trueness). Other sources of uncertainties were contributed by components in standard preparation measurements. The method scope covered a single matrix (gelatin) under a wide range of analyte concentrations. The uncertainty of method precision, μ(P) was 0.0237-0.1128pmolμl(-1) in which hydroxyproline and histidine represented the lowest and highest values of uncertainties, respectively. Proline and phenylalanine represented the lowest and highest uncertainties value for method recovery, μ(R) that was estimated within 0.0064-0.0995pmolμl(-1). The uncertainties from other sources, μ(Std) were 0.0325, 0.0428 and 0.0413pmolμl(-1) that were contributed by hydroxyproline, other amino acids and cystine, respectively. Hydroxyproline and phenylalanine represented the lowest and highest values of expanded uncertainty, U(y) that were determined at 0.0949 and 0.2473pmolμl(-1), respectively. The data were accurately defined and fulfill the technical requirements of ISO 17025:2005.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gelatin/chemistry*
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