Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 110 in total

  1. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics
  2. Ramli US, Baker DS, Quant PA, Harwood JL
    Biochem. Soc. Trans., 2002 Nov;30(Pt 6):1043-6.
    PMID: 12440968
    Control analysis is a powerful method to quantify the regulation of metabolic pathways. We have applied it to lipid biosynthesis for the first time by using model tissue culture systems from the important oil crops, olive ( Olea europaea L.) and oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). By the use of top-down control analysis, fatty acid biosynthesis has been shown to exert more control than lipid assembly under different experimental conditions. However, both parts of the lipid biosynthetic pathway are important, so that attempts to alter oil yield by manipulating the activity of a single enzyme step are very unlikely to produce significant increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  3. Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, van Wijnen AJ, Rice D, Rafii MY, Azizi P, et al.
    Gene, 2018 Jul 30;665:155-166.
    PMID: 29684486 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.04.050
    Plants maintain extensive growth flexibility under different environmental conditions, allowing them to continuously and rapidly adapt to alterations in their environment. A large portion of many plant genomes consists of transposable elements (TEs) that create new genetic variations within plant species. Different types of mutations may be created by TEs in plants. Many TEs can avoid the host's defense mechanisms and survive alterations in transposition activity, internal sequence and target site. Thus, plant genomes are expected to utilize a variety of mechanisms to tolerate TEs that are near or within genes. TEs affect the expression of not only nearby genes but also unlinked inserted genes. TEs can create new promoters, leading to novel expression patterns or alternative coding regions to generate alternate transcripts in plant species. TEs can also provide novel cis-acting regulatory elements that act as enhancers or inserts within original enhancers that are required for transcription. Thus, the regulation of plant gene expression is strongly managed by the insertion of TEs into nearby genes. TEs can also lead to chromatin modifications and thereby affect gene expression in plants. TEs are able to generate new genes and modify existing gene structures by duplicating, mobilizing and recombining gene fragments. They can also facilitate cellular functions by sharing their transposase-coding regions. Hence, TE insertions can not only act as simple mutagens but can also alter the elementary functions of the plant genome. Here, we review recent discoveries concerning the contribution of TEs to gene expression in plant genomes and discuss the different mechanisms by which TEs can affect plant gene expression and reduce host defense mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology*
  4. Sahebi M, Hanafi MM, Rafii MY, Mahmud TMM, Azizi P, Osman M, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:3158474.
    PMID: 30175125 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3158474
    Drought tolerance is an important quantitative trait with multipart phenotypes that are often further complicated by plant phenology. Different types of environmental stresses, such as high irradiance, high temperatures, nutrient deficiencies, and toxicities, may challenge crops simultaneously; therefore, breeding for drought tolerance is very complicated. Interdisciplinary researchers have been attempting to dissect and comprehend the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought stress using various methods; however, the limited success of molecular breeding and physiological approaches suggests that we rethink our strategies. Recent genetic techniques and genomics tools coupled with advances in breeding methodologies and precise phenotyping will likely reveal candidate genes and metabolic pathways underlying drought tolerance in crops. The WRKY transcription factors are involved in different biological processes in plant development. This zinc (Zn) finger protein family, particularly members that respond to and mediate stress responses, is exclusively found in plants. A total of 89 WRKY genes in japonica and 97 WRKY genes in O. nivara (OnWRKY) have been identified and mapped onto individual chromosomes. To increase the drought tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.), research programs should address the problem using a multidisciplinary strategy, including the interaction of plant phenology and multiple stresses, and the combination of drought tolerance traits with different genetic and genomics approaches, such as microarrays, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), WRKY gene family members with roles in drought tolerance, and transgenic crops. This review discusses the newest advances in plant physiology for the exact phenotyping of plant responses to drought to update methods of analysing drought tolerance in rice. Finally, based on the physiological/morphological and molecular mechanisms found in resistant parent lines, a strategy is suggested to select a particular environment and adapt suitable germplasm to that environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  5. Nadarajah K, Kumar IS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 01;20(15).
    PMID: 31374851 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20153766
    As a semi-aquatic plant, rice requires water for proper growth, development, and orientation of physiological processes. Stress is induced at the cellular and molecular level when rice is exposed to drought or periods of low water availability. Plants have existing defense mechanisms in planta that respond to stress. In this review we examine the role played by miRNAs in the regulation and control of drought stress in rice through a summary of molecular studies conducted on miRNAs with emphasis on their contribution to drought regulatory networks in comparison to other plant systems. The interaction between miRNAs, target genes, transcription factors and their respective roles in drought-induced stresses is elaborated. The cross talk involved in controlling drought stress responses through the up and down regulation of targets encoding regulatory and functional proteins is highlighted. The information contained herein can further be explored to identify targets for crop improvement in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  6. Ling AP, Ung YC, Hussein S, Harun AR, Tanaka A, Yoshihiro H
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2013 Dec;14(12):1132-43.
    PMID: 24302713 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1200126
    Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/radiation effects*
  7. Feldman AB, Murchie EH, Leung H, Baraoidan M, Coe R, Yu SM, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e94947.
    PMID: 24760084 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094947
    A high leaf vein density is both an essential feature of C4 photosynthesis and a foundation trait to C4 evolution, ensuring the optimal proportion and proximity of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells for permitting the rapid exchange of photosynthates. Two rice mutant populations, a deletion mutant library with a cv. IR64 background (12,470 lines) and a T-DNA insertion mutant library with a cv. Tainung 67 background (10,830 lines), were screened for increases in vein density. A high throughput method with handheld microscopes was developed and its accuracy was supported by more rigorous microscopy analysis. Eight lines with significantly increased leaf vein densities were identified to be used as genetic stock for the global C4 Rice Consortium. The candidate population was shown to include both shared and independent mutations and so more than one gene controlled the high vein density phenotype. The high vein density trait was found to be linked to a narrow leaf width trait but the linkage was incomplete. The more genetically robust narrow leaf width trait was proposed to be used as a reliable phenotypic marker for finding high vein density variants in rice in future screens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology
  8. Yeap WC, Lee FC, Shabari Shan DK, Musa H, Appleton DR, Kulaveerasingam H
    Plant J., 2017 Jul;91(1):97-113.
    PMID: 28370622 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13549
    The oil biosynthesis pathway must be tightly controlled to maximize oil yield. Oil palm accumulates exceptionally high oil content in its mesocarp, suggesting the existence of a unique fruit-specific fatty acid metabolism transcriptional network. We report the complex fruit-specific network of transcription factors responsible for modulation of oil biosynthesis genes in oil palm mesocarp. Transcriptional activation of EgWRI1-1 encoding a key master regulator that activates expression of oil biosynthesis genes, is activated by three ABA-responsive transcription factors, EgNF-YA3, EgNF-YC2 and EgABI5. Overexpression of EgWRI1-1 and its activators in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, increased seed size and oil content, and altered expression levels of oil biosynthesis genes. Protein-protein interaction experiments demonstrated that EgNF-YA3 interacts directly with EgWRI1-1, forming a transcription complex with EgNF-YC2 and EgABI5 to modulate transcription of oil biosynthesis pathway genes. Furthermore, EgABI5 acts downstream of EgWRKY40, a repressor that interacts with EgWRKY2 to inhibit the transcription of oil biosynthesis genes. We showed that expression of these activators and repressors in oil biosynthesis can be induced by phytohormones coordinating fruit development in oil palm. We propose a model highlighting a hormone signaling network coordinating fruit development and fatty acid biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology
  9. Hanifiah FHA, Abdullah SNA, Othman A, Shaharuddin NA, Saud HM, Hasnulhadi HAH, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2018 Aug;37(8):1127-1143.
    PMID: 29789886 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-018-2300-y
    KEY MESSAGE: TAAAAT and a novel motif, GCTTCA found in the oil palm stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1) promoter are involved in regulating mesocarp-specific expression. Two key fatty acid biosynthetic genes, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD1), and acyl-carrier protein (ACP3) in Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) showed high level of expression during the period of oil synthesis in the mesocarp [12-19 weeks after anthesis (w.a.a.)] and kernel (12-15 w.a.a.). Both genes are expressed in spear leaves at much lower levels and the expression increased by 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold following treatments with ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). Both SAD1 and ACP3 promoters contain phytohormone-responsive, light-responsive, abiotic factors/wounding-responsive, endosperm specificity and fruit maturation/ripening regulatory motifs. The activities of the full length and six 5' deletion fragments of the SAD1 promoter were analyzed in transiently transformed oil palm tissues by quantitative β-glucuronidase (GUS) fluorometric assay. The highest SAD1 promoter activity was observed in the mesocarp followed by kernel and the least in the leaves. GUS activity in the D3 deletion construct (- 486 to + 108) was the highest, while the D2 (- 535 to + 108) gave the lowest suggesting the presence of negative cis-acting regulatory element(s) in the deleted - 535 to - 486 (49 bp). It was found that the 49-bp region binds to the nuclear protein extract from mesocarp but not from leaves in electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Further fine-tuned analysis of this 49-bp region using truncated DNA led to the identification of GCTTCA as a novel motif in the SAD1 promoter. Interestingly, another known fruit ripening-related motif, LECPLEACS2 (TAAAAT) was found to be required for effective binding of the novel motif to the mesocarp nuclear protein extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/drug effects; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics
  10. Chin CF, Teoh EY, Chee MJY, Al-Obaidi JR, Rahmad N, Lawson T
    Protein J., 2019 12;38(6):704-715.
    PMID: 31552579 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-019-09868-x
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an economically important fruit. However, the marketability of mango is affected by the perishable nature and short shelf-life of the fruit. Therefore, a better understanding of the mango ripening process is of great importance towards extending its postharvest shelf life. Proteomics is a powerful tool that can be used to elucidate the complex ripening process at the cellular and molecular levels. This study utilized 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF to identify differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process of the two varieties of tropical mango, Mangifera indica cv. 'Chokanan' and Mangifera indica cv 'Golden Phoenix'. The comparative analysis between the ripe and unripe stages of mango fruit mesocarp revealed that the differentially abundant proteins identified could be grouped into the three categories namely, ethylene synthesis and aromatic volatiles, cell wall degradation and stress-response proteins. There was an additional category for differential proteins identified from the 'Chokanan' variety namely, energy and carbohydrate metabolism. However, of all the differential proteins identified, only methionine gamma-lyase was found in both 'Chokanan' and 'Golden Phoenix' varieties. Six differential proteins were selected from each variety for validation by analysing their respective transcript expression using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results revealed that two genes namely, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and alpha-1,4 glucan phosphorylase (AGP) were found to express in concordant with protein abundant. The findings will provide an insight into the fruit ripening process of different varieties of mango fruits, which is important for postharvest management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  11. Khew CY, Mori IC, Matsuura T, Hirayama T, Harikrishna JA, Lau ET, et al.
    J. Plant Res., 2020 Jan;133(1):73-94.
    PMID: 31853665 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-019-01156-0
    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world with culinary uses and various pharmacological properties. In order to satisfy the growing worldwide demand for black pepper, improved productivity of pepper is highly desirable. A primary constraint in black pepper production is the non-synchronous nature of flower development and non-uniform fruit ripening within a spike. The uneven ripening of pepper berries results in a high labour requirement for selective harvesting contributes to low productivity and affects the quality of the pepper products. In Malaysia, there are a few recommended varieties for black pepper planting, each having some limitations in addition to the useful characteristics. Therefore, a comparative study of different black pepper varieties will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms regulates fruit development and ripening. Plant hormones are known to influence the fruit development process and their roles in black pepper flower and fruit development were inferred based on the probe-based gene expression analysis and the quantification of the multiple plant hormones using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this study, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were found to play roles in flowering and fruit setting, whereas auxin, gibberellin and cytokinins are important for fruit growth. Abscisic acid has positive role in fruit maturation and ripening in the development process. Distinct pattern of plant hormones related gene expression profiles with the hormones accumulation profiles suggested a complex network of regulation is involved in the signaling process and crosstalk between plant hormones was another layer of regulation in the black pepper fruit development mechanisms. The current study provides clues to help in elucidating the timing of the action of each specific plant hormone during fruit development and ripening which could be applied to enhance our ability to control the ripening process, leading to improving procedures for the production and post-harvest handling of pepper fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  12. Nezhadahmadi A, Prodhan ZH, Faruq G
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:610721.
    PMID: 24319376 DOI: 10.1155/2013/610721
    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology*
  13. Yeap WC, Namasivayam P, Ho CL
    Plant Sci., 2014 Oct;227:90-100.
    PMID: 25219311 DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.07.005
    Plant cells contain a diverse repertoire of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that coordinate a network of post-transcriptional regulation. RBPs govern diverse developmental processes by modulating the gene expression of specific transcripts. Recent gene annotation and RNA sequencing clearly showed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like proteins which form a family of RBPs, are also expressed in higher plants and serve specific plant functions. In addition to their involvement in post-transcriptional regulation from mRNA capping to translation, they are also involved in telomere regulation, gene silencing and regulation in chloroplast. Here, we review the involvement of plant hnRNP-like proteins in post-transcription regulation of RNA processes and their functional roles in control of plant developmental processes especially plant-specific functions including flowering, chloroplastic-specific mRNA regulation, long-distance phloem transportation and plant responses to environmental stresses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  14. Nakasha JJ, Sinniah UR, Puteh A, Hassan SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:168950.
    PMID: 24688363 DOI: 10.1155/2014/168950
    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology*
  15. Jaligot E, Hooi WY, Debladis E, Richaud F, Beulé T, Collin M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(3):e91896.
    PMID: 24638102 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091896
    The mantled floral phenotype of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) affects somatic embryogenesis-derived individuals and is morphologically similar to mutants defective in the B-class MADS-box genes. This somaclonal variation has been previously demonstrated to be associated to a significant deficit in genome-wide DNA methylation. In order to elucidate the possible role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of EgDEF1, the APETALA3 ortholog of oil palm, we studied this epigenetic mark within the gene in parallel with transcript accumulation in both normal and mantled developing inflorescences. We also examined the methylation and expression of two neighboring retrotransposons that might interfere with EgDEF1 regulation. We show that the EgDEF1 gene is essentially unmethylated and that its methylation pattern does not change with the floral phenotype whereas expression is dramatically different, ruling out a direct implication of DNA methylation in the regulation of this gene. Also, we find that both the gypsy element inserted within an intron of the EgDEF1 gene and the copia element located upstream from the promoter are heavily methylated and show little or no expression. Interestingly, we identify a shorter, alternative transcript produced by EgDEF1 and characterize its accumulation with respect to its full-length counterpart. We demonstrate that, depending on the floral phenotype, the respective proportions of these two transcripts change differently during inflorescence development. We discuss the possible phenotypical consequences of this alternative splicing and the new questions it raises in the search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the mantled phenotype in the oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  16. Azizi P, Rafii MY, Mahmood M, Abdullah SN, Hanafi MM, Nejat N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0126188.
    PMID: 26001124 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126188
    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a serious pathogen that jeopardises the world's most important food-security crop. Ten common Malaysian rice varieties were examined for their morphological, physiological and genomic responses to this rice blast pathogen. qPCR quantification was used to assess the growth of the pathogen population in resistant and susceptible rice varieties. The chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were also measured to further understand the disruptive effects that M. oryzae has on infected plants of these varieties. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of eight blast resistance genes among the ten local varieties. Blast disease has destructive effects on the growth of rice, and the findings of our study provide evidence that the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes are involved in defence responses in the leaves of Malaysian rice at 31 h after inoculation with M. oryzae pathotype P7.2. Both the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis were reduced, but the levels of Pikh gene expression remained constant in susceptible varieties, with a developed pathogen population and mild or severe symptoms. The Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes, however, were simultaneously upregulated in infected rice plants. Therefore, the presence of the Pikh, Pi9, Pi21, and Osw45 genes in the germplasm is useful for improving the resistance of rice varieties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  17. Vikashini B, Shanthi A, Ghosh Dasgupta M
    Gene, 2018 Nov 15;676:37-46.
    PMID: 30201104 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.07.012
    Casuarina equisetifolia L. is an important multi-purpose, fast growing and widely planted tree species native to tropical and subtropical coastlines of Australia, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Melanesia, Polynesia and New Caledonia. It is a nitrogen-fixing tree mainly used for charcoal making, construction poles, landscaping, timber, pulp, firewood, windbreaks, shelterbelts, soil erosion and sand dune stabilization. Casuarina wood is presently used for paper and pulp production. Raw material with reduced lignin is highly preferred to increase the pulp yield. Hence, understanding the molecular regulation of wood formation in this tree species is vital for selecting industrially suitable phenotypes for breeding programs. The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied in tree species like Eucalypts, poplars, pines, Picea, Betula and Acacia sp. However, studies on wood formation at molecular level is presently lacking in casuarinas. Hence, in the present study, the transcriptome of the developing secondary tissues of 15 years old Casuarina equiseitfolia subsp. equisetifolia was sequenced, de novo assembled, annotated and mapped to functional pathways. Transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26,985 transcripts mapped to 31 pathways. Mining of the annotated data identified nine genes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathway and relative expression of the transcripts in four tissues including scale-like leaves, needle-like brachlets, wood and root were documented. The expression of CeCCR1 and CeF5H were found to be significantly high in wood tissues, while maximum expression of CeHCT was documented in stem. Additionally, CeTUBA and CeH2A were identified as the most stable reference transcript for normalization of qRT-PCR data in C. equisetifolia. The present study is the first wood genomic resource in C. equisetifolia, which will be valuable for functional genomics research in this genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics
  18. Yeang HY
    Yale J Biol Med, 2019 06;92(2):213-223.
    PMID: 31249482
    The widely held explanation for photoperiod-controlled flowering in long-day plants is largely embodied in the External Coincidence Hypothesis which posits that flowering is induced when activity of a rhythmic gene that regulates it (a putative "flowering gene") occurs in the presence of light. Nevertheless, re-examination of the Arabidopsis flowering data from non 24-hour cycles of Roden et al. suggests that External Coincidence is not tenable if the circadian rhythm of the "flowering gene" were entrained to sunrise as commonly accepted. On the other hand, the hypothesis is supported if circadian cycling of the gene conforms to a solar rhythm, and its entrainment is to midnight on the solar clock. Data available point to flowering being induced by the gene which peaks in its expression between 16 to 19 h after midnight. In the normal 24 h cycle, that would be between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m., regardless of the photoperiod. Such timing of the "flowering gene" expression allows for variable coincidence between gene activity and light, depending on the photoperiod and cycle period. A correlation is found between earliness of flowering and the degree of coincidence of "flowering gene" expression with light (r = 0.88, p<0.01).
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/radiation effects
  19. Samad AFA, Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Sajad M, Jani J, Murad AMA, Noor NM, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2019 07 16;20(1):586.
    PMID: 31311515 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-019-5954-0
    BACKGROUND: Persicaria minor (kesum) is an herbaceous plant with a high level of secondary metabolite compounds, particularly terpenoids. These terpenoid compounds have well-established roles in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Although the terpenoids of P. minor have been studied thoroughly, the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) in terpenoid regulation remains poorly understood and needs to be explored. In this study, P. minor plants were inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum for terpenoid induction.

    RESULT: SPME GC-MS analysis showed the highest terpenoid accumulation on the 6th day post-inoculation (dpi) compared to the other treatment time points (0 dpi, 3 dpi, and 9 dpi). Among the increased terpenoid compounds, α-cedrene, valencene and β-bisabolene were prominent. P. minor inoculated for 6 days was selected for miRNA library construction using next generation sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis showed that 58 miRNAs belonging to 30 families had significantly altered regulation.
    Among these 58 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 27 [corrected] miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 31 [corrected] miRNAs were downregulated. Two putative novel pre-miRNAs were identified and validated through reverse transcriptase PCR. Prediction of target transcripts potentially involved in the mevalonate pathway (MVA) was carried out by psRobot software, resulting in four miRNAs: pmi-miR530, pmi-miR6173, pmi-miR6300 and a novel miRNA, pmi-Nov_13. In addition, two miRNAs, miR396a and miR398f/g, were predicted to have their target transcripts in the non-mevalonate pathway (MEP). In addition, a novel miRNA, pmi-Nov_12, was identified to have a target gene involved in green leaf volatile (GLV) biosynthesis. RT-qPCR analysis showed that pmi-miR6173, pmi-miR6300 and pmi-nov_13 were downregulated, while miR396a and miR398f/g were upregulated. Pmi-miR530 showed upregulation at 9 dpi, and dynamic expression was observed for pmi-nov_12. Pmi-6300 and pmi-miR396a cleavage sites were detected through degradome sequence analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between miRNA metabolites and mRNA metabolites was validated using correlation analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that six studied miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate terpenoid biosynthesis in P. minor. This regulatory behaviour of miRNAs has potential as a genetic tool to regulate terpenoid biosynthesis in P. minor.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  20. Huang W, Chen X, Guan Q, Zhong Z, Ma J, Yang B, et al.
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:43-50.
    PMID: 30528270 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.11.083
    Atmospheric CO2 level is one of the most important factors which affect plant growth and crop production. Although many crucial genes and pathways have been identified in response to atmospheric CO2 changes, the integrated and precise mechanisms of plant CO2 response are not well understood. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important gene regulation process that affects many biological processes in plants. However, the AS pattern changes in plants in response to elevated CO2 levels have not yet been investigated. Here, we used RNA-Seq data of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under different CO2 concentration to analyze the global changes in AS. We found that AS increased with the rise in CO2 concentration. Additionally, we identified 345 differentially expressed (DE) genes and 251 differentially alternative splicing (DAS) genes under the elevated CO2 condition. Moreover, the results showed that the expression of most of the DAS genes did not change significantly, indicating that AS can serve as an independent mechanism for gene regulation in response to elevated CO2. Furthermore, our analysis of function categories revealed that the DAS genes were associated mainly with the stimulus response. Overall, this the first study to explore the changes of AS in plants in response to elevated CO2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/drug effects
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links