Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 306 in total

  1. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Ramli MM
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2020 Oct 01;577:345-354.
    PMID: 32485416 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2020.05.070
    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is widely utilised to develop various types of biosensors; however, producing self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting remains inconsistent. In the present work, we systematically used three different methods to prepare rGO suspensions in order to produce large scale self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting. The rGO suspensions were prepared using only deionised water with no added any chemicals/organic solvents, which we considered to be a low-cost method. Subsequently, the most effective preparation method was used to deposit rGO nanoflakes onto commercial gold interdigitated microelectrodes (Au-IDE) to examine their electrical performance. Assessment of the yields, developed methods, surface morphologies, spectroscopy and structural analyses of the as-prepared rGO nanoflakes were conducted. The results revealed that method-3 (involving sonication, centrifugation and post-sonication) produced large self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks with strong adhesion to glass substrates. Furthermore, the as-prepared rGO/Au-IDE modified sensors showed excellent electron mobility where the electrical conductivity was enhanced approximately ~ 1000 fold compared to the bare devices. The present work provided new insights for depositing large self-assembled interconnected rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting which will be beneficial for biosensor development and other downstream applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold*
  2. Morsin M, Nafisah S, Sanudin R, Razali NL, Mahmud F, Soon CF
    PLoS One, 2021;16(11):e0259730.
    PMID: 34748606 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0259730
    An anisotropic structure, gold (Au) nanoplates was synthesized using a two-step wet chemical seed mediated growth method (SMGM) directly on the substrate surface. Prior to the synthesis process, poly-l-lysine (PLL) as a cation polymer was used to enhance the yield of grown Au nanoplates. The electrostatic interaction of positive charged by PLL with negative charges from citrate-capped gold nanoseeds contributes to the yield increment. The percentage of PLL was varied from 0% to 10% to study the morphology of Au nanoplates in term of shape, size and surface density. 5% PLL with single layer treatment produce a variety of plate shapes such as hexagonal, flat rod and triangular obtained over the whole substrate surface with the estimated maximum yield up to ca. 48%. The high yield of Au nanoplates exhibit dual plasmonic peaks response that are associated with transverse and longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (TSPR and LSPR). Then, the PLL treatment process was repeated twice resulting the increment of Au nanoplates products to ca. 60%. The thin film Au nanoplates was further used as sensing materials in plasmonic sensor for detection of boric acid. The anisotropic Au nanoplates have four sensing parameters being monitored when the medium changes, which are peak position (wavelength shift), intensity of TSPR and LSPR, and the changes on sensing responses. The sensor responses are based on the interaction of light with dielectric properties from surrounding medium. The resonance effect produces by a collection of electron vibration on the Au nanoparticles surface after hit by light are captured as the responses. As a conclusion, it was found that the PLL treatment is capable to promote high yield of Au nanoplates. Moreover, the high yield of the Au nanoplates is an indication as excellent candidate for sensing material in plasmonic sensor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold*
  3. Yusof NS, Ashokkumar M
    Chemphyschem, 2015 Mar 16;16(4):775-81.
    PMID: 25598360 DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201402697
    The sonochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different shapes and size distributions by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating at 463 kHz is reported. GNP formation proceeds through the reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) by radicals generated by acoustic cavitation. TEM images reveal that GNPs show irregular shapes at 30 W, are primarily icosahedral at 50 W and form a significant amount of nanorods at 70 W. The size of GNPs decreases with increasing acoustic power with a narrower size distribution. Sonochemiluminescence images help in the understanding of the effect of HIFU in controlling the size and shapes of GNPs. The number of radicals that form and the mechanical forces that are generated control the shape and size of the GNPs. UV/Vis spectra and TEM images are used to propose a possible mechanism for the observed effects. The results presented demonstrate, for the first time, that the HIFU system can be used to synthesise size- and shape-controlled metal nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  4. Syahir A, Tomizaki KY, Kajikawa K, Mihara H
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1352:97-110.
    PMID: 26490470 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3037-1_8
    The importance of protein detection system for protein functions analyses in recent post-genomic era is rising with the emergence of label-free protein detection methods. We are focusing on a simple and practical label-free optical-detection method called anomalous reflection (AR) of gold. When a molecular layer forms on the gold surface, significant reduction in reflectivity can be observed at wavelengths of 400-500 nm. This allows the detection of molecular interactions by monitoring changes in reflectivity. In this chapter, we describe the AR method with three different application platforms: (1) gold, (2) gold containing alloy/composite (AuAg2O), and (3) metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin layers. The AuAg2O composite and MIM are implemented as important concepts for signal enhancement process for the AR technique. Moreover, the observed molecular adsorption and activity is aided by a three-dimensional surface geometry, performed using poly(amidoamine) or PAMAM dendrimer modification. The described system is suitable to be used as a platform for high-throughput detection system in a chip format.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold; Gold Alloys
  5. Watts MP, Gan HM, Peng LY, Lê Cao KA, Moreau JW
    Environ Sci Technol, 2017 Nov 21;51(22):13353-13362.
    PMID: 29064247 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b04152
    Thiocyanate (SCN-) is a contaminant requiring remediation in gold mine tailings and wastewaters globally. Seepage of SCN--contaminated waters into aquifers can occur from unlined or structurally compromised mine tailings storage facilities. A wide variety of microorganisms are known to be capable of biodegrading SCN-; however, little is known regarding the potential of native microbes for in situ SCN- biodegradation, a remediation option that is less costly than engineered approaches. Here we experimentally characterize the principal biogeochemical barrier to SCN- biodegradation for an autotrophic microbial consortium enriched from mine tailings, to arrive at an environmentally realistic assessment of in situ SCN- biodegradation potential. Upon amendment with phosphate, the consortium completely degraded up to ∼10 mM SCN- to ammonium and sulfate, with some evidence of nitrification of the ammonium to nitrate. Although similarly enriched in known SCN--degrading strains of thiobacilli, this consortium differed in its source (mine tailings) and metabolism (autotrophy) from those of previous studies. Our results provide a proof of concept that phosphate limitation may be the principal barrier to in situ SCN- biodegradation in mine tailing waters and also yield new insights into the microbial ecology of in situ SCN- bioremediation involving autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold*
  6. da Silva-Junio AG, Frias IAM, Lima-Neto RG, Migliolo L, E Silva PS, Oliveira MDL, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2022 Jul 15;216:114788.
    PMID: 35525110 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2022.114788
    Bacterial and fungal infections are challenging due to their low susceptibility and resistance to antimicrobial drugs. For this reason, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) emerge as excellent alternatives to overcome these problems. At the same time, their active insertion into the cell wall of microorganisms can be availed for biorecognition applications in biosensing platforms. Temporin-PTA (T-PTA) is an AMP found in the skin secretions of the Malaysian fire frog Hylarana picturata, which presents antibacterial activity against MRSA, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. In this work, T-PTA was explored as an innovative sensing layer aiming for the electrochemical differentiation of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis based on the structural differences of their membranes. The biosensor was analyzed through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In this approach, the different structural features of each microorganism resulted in different adherence degrees and, therefore, different electrochemical responses. The transducing layer was fabricated by the self-assembling of a 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) monolayer and gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) implemented to improve the electrical signal of the biointeraction. We found that each interaction, expressed in variations of electron transfer resistance and anodic peak current, demonstrated a singular response from which the platform can discriminate all different microorganisms. We found expressive sensitivity towards Gram-negative species, especially K. pneumoniae. A detection limit of 101 CFU.mL-1 and a linear range of 101 to 105 CFU.mL-1 were obtained. The T-PTA biosensor platform is a promising and effective tool for microbial identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  7. Haarindraprasad RP, Thurga Devi N, Thevendran R, Maheswaran S
    Biotechnol J, 2023 Aug;18(8):e2300092.
    PMID: 37139895 DOI: 10.1002/biot.202300092
    The creation of nanostructure is profound for the generation of nanobiosensors in several medical diagnosis. Here, we employed an aqueous hydrothermal route using Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and Gold (Au), which under optimal conditions formed an ultra-crystalline rose-like nanostructure textured with nanowires on the surface, coined as "spiked nanorosette." The spiked nanorosette structures was further characterized to possess crystallites of ZnO and Au grains with average sizes of 27.60 and 32.33 nm, respectively. The intensity for both ZnO (002) and Au (111) planes of the nanocomposite was inferred to be controlled by fine-tuning the percentage of Au nanoparticles doped in the ZnO/Au matrix, as referred by X-ray diffraction analysis. The formation of ZnO/Au-hybrid nanorosettes were additionally verified by the distinct corresponding peaks from photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, supported by electrical validations. The biorecognition properties of the spiked nanorosettes were also examined using custom targeted and non-target DNA sequences. The DNA targeting capabilities of the nanostructures were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The fabricated nanowire-embedded nanorosette exhibited a detection limit at the lower picomolar range of 1 × 10-12 M, with high selectivity, stability and reproducibility and good linearity, under optimal conditions. Impedance-based techniques are more sensitive to the detection of nucleic acid molecule whereas this novel spiked nanorosette demonstrate promising attributes as excellent nanostructures for nanobiosensor developments and their potential future application for nucleic-acids or disease diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
  8. Tan KF, In LLA, Vijayaraj Kumar P
    ACS Appl Bio Mater, 2023 Aug 21;6(8):2944-2981.
    PMID: 37435615 DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.3c00202
    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have undergone significant research for their use in the treatment of cancer. Numerous researchers have established their potent antitumor properties, which have greatly impacted the treatment of cancer. AuNPs have been used in four primary anticancer treatment modalities, namely radiation, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy. However, the ability of AuNPs to destroy cancer is lacking and can even harm healthy cells without the right direction to transport them to the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, a suitable targeting technique is needed. Based on the distinct features of the human tumor microenvironment, this review discusses four different targeting strategies that target the four key features of the tumor microenvironment, including abnormal vasculature, overexpression of specific receptors, an acidic microenvironment, and a hypoxic microenvironment, to direct surface-functionalized AuNPs to the tumor microenvironment and increase antitumor efficacies. In addition, some current completed or ongoing clinical trials of AuNPs will also be discussed below to further reinforce the concept of using AuNPs in anticancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/therapeutic use
  9. Loke YL, Beishenaliev A, Wang PW, Lin CY, Chang CY, Foo YY, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2023 Jun;96:106437.
    PMID: 37187119 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2023.106437
    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) emerges as a promising non-invasive alternative for eradicating malignant tumours. However, its therapeutic efficacy remains limited due to the lack of sonosensitisers with high potency and biosafety. Previously, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been extensively studied for their applications in photodynamic or photothermal cancer therapy, but their sonosensitising properties are largely unexplored. Here, we reported the applicability of alginate-coated AuNRs (AuNRsALG) with improved biocompatibility profiles as promising nanosonosensitisers for SDT for the first time. AuNRsALG were found stable under ultrasound irradiation (1.0 W/cm2, 5 min) and maintained structural integrity for 3 cycles of irradiation. The exposure of the AuNRsALG to ultrasound irradiation (1.0 W/cm2, 5 min) was shown to enhance the cavitation effect significantly and generate a 3 to 8-fold higher amount of singlet oxygen (1O2) than other reported commercial titanium dioxide nanosonosensitisers. AuNRsALG exerted dose-dependent sonotoxicity on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro, with ∼ 81% cancer cell killing efficacy at a sub-nanomolar level (IC50 was 0.68 nM) predominantly through apoptosis. The protein expression analysis showed significant DNA damage and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, suggesting AuNRsALG induced cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. The addition of mannitol, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, inhibited cancer-killing effect of AuNRsALG-mediated SDT, further verifying that the sonotoxicity of AuNRsALG is driven by the production of ROS. Overall, these results highlight the potential application of AuNRsALG as an effective nanosonosensitising agent in clinical settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/pharmacology; Gold/chemistry
  10. Ahmad SN, Zaharim WN, Sulaiman S, Hasan Baseri DF, Mohd Rosli NA, Ang LS, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2020 Dec 29;5(51):33253-33261.
    PMID: 33403287 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c04937
    Density functional theory computational investigation was performed to study the electronic structures, muon sites, and the associated hyperfine interactions in [Au25(SR)18]0 and [Au25(SeR)18]0 where R is phenylethane. The calculated electronic structures show inhomogeneous spin density distribution and are also affected by different ligands. The two most stable muon sites near Au atoms in the thiolated system are MAu11 and MAu6. When the thiolate ligands were replaced by selenolate ligands, the lowest energy positions of muons moved to MAu6 and MAu5. Muons prefer to stop inside the Au12 icosahedral shell, away from the central Au and the staple motifs region. Muonium states at phenyl ring and S/Se atoms in the ligand were found to be stable and the Fermi contact fields are much larger as compared to the field experienced by muons near Au atoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold
  11. Amirah Ahmad, Mohamed Rozali Othman
    The electrooxidation of propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde on a gold electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry in alkaline media. Electrooxidation of both aldehydes showed the appearance of two anodic peaks. Another oxidation peak on a newly generated electrode surface was observed after the corresponding reduction peak for both aldehydes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold
  12. Chong Leong G, Uda H
    PLoS One, 2013;8(11):e78705.
    PMID: 24244344 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078705
    This paper compares and discusses the wearout reliability and analysis of Gold (Au), Palladium (Pd) coated Cu and Pd-doped Cu wires used in fineline Ball Grid Array (BGA) package. Intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion (Do) under various aging conditions of different bonding wires. Wire pull and ball bond shear strengths have been analyzed and we found smaller variation in Pd-doped Cu wire compared to Au and Pd-doped Cu wire. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The obtained weibull slope, β of three bonding wires are greater than 1.0 and belong to wearout reliability data point. Pd-doped Cu wire exhibits larger time-to-failure and cycles-to-failure in both wearout reliability tests in Highly Accelerated Temperature and Humidity (HAST) and Temperature Cycling (TC) tests. This proves Pd-doped Cu wire has a greater potential and higher reliability margin compared to Au and Pd-coated Cu wires.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold; Gold Alloys
  13. Dheyab MA, Aziz AA, Rahman AA, Ashour NI, Musa AS, Braim FS, et al.
    Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj, 2023 Apr;1867(4):130318.
    PMID: 36740000 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2023.130318
    BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are regarded as potential agents that enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells for theranostic applications. To elucidate the biological mechanisms of radiation dose enhancement effects of Au NPs as well as DNA damage attributable to the inclusion of Au NPs, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been deployed in a number of studies.

    SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review paper concisely collates and reviews the information reported in the simulation research in terms of MC simulation of radiosensitization and dose enhancement effects caused by the inclusion of Au NPs in tumor cells, simulation mechanisms, benefits and limitations.

    MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we first explore the recent advances in MC simulation on Au NPs radiosensitization. The MC methods, physical dose enhancement and enhanced chemical and biological effects is discussed, followed by some results regarding the prediction of dose enhancement. We then review Multi-scale MC simulations of Au NP-induced DNA damages for X-ray irradiation. Moreover, we explain and look at Multi-scale MC simulations of Au NP-induced DNA damages for X-ray irradiation.

    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Using advanced chemical module-implemented MC simulations, there is a need to assess the radiation-induced chemical radicals that contribute to the dose-enhancing and biological effects of multiple Au NPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gold*
  14. Sun RW, Zhang M, Li D, Zhang ZF, Cai H, Li M, et al.
    Chemistry, 2015 Dec 14;21(51):18534-8.
    PMID: 26459298 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503656
    A dinuclear gold(I) pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato complex (1) with a bidentate carbene ligand has been constructed and shows potent in vitro cytotoxic activities towards cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells A2780cis. Its rigid scaffold enables a zinc(II)-based metal-organic framework (Zn-MOF) to be used as a carrier in facilitating the uptake and release of 1 in solutions. Instead of using a conventional dialysis approach for the drug-release testing, in this study, a set of transwell assay-based experiments have been designed and employed to examine the cytotoxic and antimigratory activities of 1@Zn-MOF towards A2780cis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*; Gold Compounds/toxicity*; Gold Compounds/chemistry*
  15. Khatir NM, Banihashemian SM, Periasamy V, Ritikos R, Abd Majid WH, Abdul Rahman S
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(3):3578-86.
    PMID: 22737025 DOI: 10.3390/s120303578
    This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  16. Aziz MS, Suwanpayak N, Jalil MA, Jomtarak R, Saktioto T, Ali J, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:11-7.
    PMID: 22275818 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S27417
    A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  17. Umar AA, Salleh MM, Majlis BY, Oyama M
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2011 Jun;11(6):4974-80.
    PMID: 21770130
    We found that the gold nanoparticles with high-density and crystalline-shape, such as nanocubes, nanobricks, pentahedral nanorods, etc., can be realized on the surface by using a seed-mediated growth method with a unique seeding process, namely alcohothermal. By using a conventional growth solution that contains HAuCl4, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, NaOH and ascorbic acid, gold nanoparticles with crystalline-morphology (gold nanocrystals) of yield up to ca. 95%, can be prepared. An alcohothermal seeding was carried out by a thermal reduction of gold ions from an alcoholic solution of gold salt on the surface through an annealing process at a moderate temperature, namely 250 degrees C. It is believed that the unique initial characteristic (presumably the structures) of the gold nanoseeds particles as the result of peculiar nanoseeds formation process, prepared using this approach, instead of a simple thermal restructuring of the as prepared nanoseeds as confirmed by the results of annealing treatment on the nanoseed prepared using the normal and in-situ reduction seeding, was as the driving factor for the projected growth of crystalline-shape gold nanoparticles on the surface. The crystalline-shape gold nanoparticles modified-surface should find a potential application in catalysis, sensors and SERS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold; Gold Compounds
  18. Yeo CI, Ooi KK, Tiekink ERT
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 11;23(6).
    PMID: 29891764 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061410
    A new era of metal-based drugs started in the 1960s, heralded by the discovery of potent platinum-based complexes, commencing with cisplatin [(H₃N)₂PtCl₂], which are effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. While clinical applications of gold-based drugs largely relate to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, attention has turned to the investigation of the efficacy of gold(I) and gold(III) compounds for anti-cancer applications. This review article provides an account of the latest research conducted during the last decade or so on the development of gold compounds and their potential activities against several cancers as well as a summary of possible mechanisms of action/biological targets. The promising activities and increasing knowledge of gold-based drug metabolism ensures that continued efforts will be made to develop gold-based anti-cancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry*
  19. Rosnita M, Yussof W, Zuhairi I, Zulkafli O, Samsudi S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1133-1138.
    Annealing temperature plays an important role in the formation of an Au-Ga eutectic alloy. The effects of the annealing temperature on gold nanoparticles colloid and substrate surface were studied using AFM, FE-SEM and TEM. At 600oC, the layer of gold colloids particle formed an island in the state of molten eutectic alloy and absorbed evaporated metalorganics to formed nanowire (NW) underneath the alloy. Pit formed on the substrate surface due to the chemical reactions during the annealing process have an impact on the direction of growth of the NW. Without annealing, the NW formed vertically on the GaAs (100) surface. The growth direction depends on the original nucleation facets and surface energy when annealed. When annealed, the wire base is large and curved due to the migration of Ga atoms on the substrate surface towards the tip of the wire and the line tension between the substrate surface and gold particle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold; Gold Colloid
  20. Mohamad Nor N, Ramli NH, Poobalan H, Qi Tan K, Abdul Razak K
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2023;53(2):253-288.
    PMID: 34565248 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2021.1950521
    Heavy metal pollution has gained global attention due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability, even at a low level of exposure. Therefore, the development of a disposable electrode that is sensitive, simple, portable, rapid, and cost-effective as the sensor platform in electrochemical heavy metal detection is vital. Disposable electrodes have been modified with nanomaterials so that excellent electrochemical properties can be obtained. This review highlights the recent progress in the development of numerous types of disposable electrodes modified with nanomaterials for electrochemical heavy metal detection. The disposable electrodes made from carbon-based, glass-based, and paper-based electrodes are reviewed. In particular, the analytical performance, fabrication technique, and integration design of disposable electrodes modified with metal (such as gold, tin and bismuth), carbon (such as carbon nanotube and graphene), and metal oxide (such as iron oxide and zinc oxide) nanomaterials are summarized. In addition, the role of the nanomaterials in improving the electrochemical performance of the modified disposable electrodes is discussed. Finally, the current challenges and future prospect of the disposable electrode modified with nanomaterials are summarized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gold/chemistry
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