Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 160 in total

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  1. J Sykepleien, 1993 Jan 19;81(1):20.
    PMID: 8466793
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  2. Dokubo EK, Kim AA, Le LV, Nadol PJ, Prybylski D, Wolfe MI
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Apr-Jun;15(2):67-76.
    PMID: 23681434
    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  3. Ong HC, Quah SH, Low HC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):385-91.
    PMID: 10971982
    The method of backcalculation estimates past HIV infection rates from available AIDS incidence data and an estimate of the incubation period. The method is used on the Malaysian data to model the AIDS epidemic because it makes use of the Malaysian AIDS incidence data which is fairly reliable and is more reflective of the trend of the epidemic as compared to the HIV infection rate recorded. An application is made on the monthly AIDS incidence data in Malaysia from January 1995 until August 1996 released by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia using the backcalculation program from Bacchetti et al and the incubation period distribution from Brookmeyer to generate the current HIV infection rate for Malaysia (until August 1996).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  4. Kaldor JM, Sittitrai W, John TJ, Kitamura T
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S1-2.
    PMID: 7857551
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  5. Choi P, Kavasery R, Desai MM, Govindasamy S, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J STD AIDS, 2010 Jun;21(6):416-23.
    PMID: 20606222 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2009.009180
    HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-related stigma were independently associated with challenges to obtaining HIV care. In multivariate analyses, those with previous incarcerations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.6), higher HIV-related symptoms (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.1) and higher public attitudes-related stigma (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1) had a significantly higher likelihood of identifying more re-entry challenges. Targeted interventions, such as effective drug treatment, HIV care and public awareness campaigns, are crucial for stemming the HIV epidemic and improving health outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  6. Bazazi AR, Crawford F, Zelenev A, Heimer R, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2015 Dec;19(12):2347-57.
    PMID: 26358544 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1191-y
    The HIV epidemic in Malaysia is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID). Accurate estimates of HIV prevalence are critical for developing appropriate treatment and prevention interventions for PWID in Malaysia. In 2010, 461 PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed rapid HIV testing and behavioral assessments. Estimates of HIV prevalence were computed for each of the three recruitment sites and the overall sample. HIV prevalence was 15.8 % (95 % CI 12.5-19.2 %) overall but varied widely by location: 37.0 % (28.6-45.4 %) in Kampung Baru, 10.3 % (5.0-15.6 %) in Kajang, and 6.3 % (3.0-9.5 %) in Shah Alam. Recruitment extended to locations far from initial interview sites but was concentrated around discrete geographic regions. We document the high prevalence of HIV among PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur. Sustained support for community surveillance and HIV prevention interventions is needed to stem the HIV epidemic among PWID in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  7. Apenteng OO, Ismail NA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0131950.
    PMID: 26147199 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131950
    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 < 1, the disease dies out; and if R0 > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  8. Ng KT, Ng KY, Chen JH, Ng OT, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2014 Sep 15;59(6):910-1.
    PMID: 24944233 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu480
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  9. Mapanga KG, Mapanga MB
    Clin Nurse Spec, 2008 Sep-Oct;22(5):226-30.
    PMID: 18753880 DOI: 10.1097/01.NUR.0000325367.54044.d5
    In Africa, there is an overwhelming and increasing prevalence of illnesses such as HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This constitutes a "burden of disease" facing Africa. Nursing must evolve accordingly to the changing needs of clients, many of whom have chronic illnesses. In achieving desirable outcomes, it is essential to adopt and adapt the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role so that expert and specialist practice is available to clients in a cost-effective manner. The role of the CNS singles out clinical responsibilities in a hospital setting so that nurse administrators can concentrate on the provision of resources. A CNS position in the hospital structure would offer a clinical career pathway for advanced practice nurses who wish to remain "by-the-bedside." Regional initiatives are already beginning to show a need for master's-prepared, advanced practice nurses in the clinical areas so as to reduce maternal mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  10. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  11. Duraisamy G, Zuridah H, Ariffin Y, Kek CS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):212-6.
    PMID: 7845268
    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA containing virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply the envelope proteins. HDV only infect man in the presence of HBV, either as a coinfection or as superinfection in HBV carriers. In the presence of hepatitis B infection, the HDV may cause more severe liver damage than that caused by the hepatitis B virus alone. HDV infection was studied in 44 HBsAg positive serum samples collected from male intravenous drug users sent for screening to the Blood Services Centre (BSC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) between 1990 and 1992. The majority (39) were in the 20 to 39 age group. The youngest was 19 years old and the oldest was 61 years old. There were 25 Malays, 13 Chinese, five Indians and one Albanian. Anti hepatitis delta antibody (Anti-HDV) was detected in 15 out of 44 (34%) of the drug addicts. These results shows an increased in delta infection in HBsAg positive intravenous drug addicts compared to the surveillance results in 1985 when no delta antibodies were detected, and the 1986 and 1989 surveillance which showed 17.8% and 20% delta antibody positivity respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  12. Mondal MN, Shitan M
    J Epidemiol, 2014;24(2):117-24.
    PMID: 24390415
    BACKGROUND: We attempted to identify the pathways by which demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and availability of health factors influence life expectancy in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    METHODS: Data for 91 countries were obtained from United Nations agencies. The response variable was life expectancy, and the determinant factors were demographic events (total fertility rate and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean years of schooling and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] prevalence rate). Path analysis was used to determine the direct, indirect, and total effects of these factors on life expectancy.

    RESULTS: All determinant factors were significantly correlated with life expectancy. Mean years of schooling, total fertility rate, and HIV prevalence rate had significant direct and indirect effects on life expectancy. The total effect of higher physician density was to increase life expectancy.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified several direct and indirect pathways that predict life expectancy. The findings suggest that policies should concentrate on improving reproductive decisions, increasing education, and reducing HIV transmission. In addition, special attention should be paid to the emerging need to increase life expectancy by increasing physician density.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  13. Ng KT, Ng KY, Khong WX, Chew KK, Singh PK, Yap JK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e80884.
    PMID: 24312505 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080884
    HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 - 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 - 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 - 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 - 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  14. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  15. Mondal MN, Shitan M
    Afr Health Sci, 2013 Jun;13(2):301-10.
    PMID: 24235928 DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v13i2.15
    All over the world the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has became a stumbling stone in progress of human civilization and is a huge concern for people worldwide.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  16. Manan MM, Ali SM, Khan MA, Jafarian S, Hameed MA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jul;26(4):841-6.
    PMID: 23811468
    This study is an observational cross-sectional study aimed to examine the possible demographic and social characteristics of patients enrolled at the Methadone Maintenance Therapy Adherence Clinic (MMTAC) in Malaysia. Medical records from year 2009 - 2011 were Reviewed. Demographic, social characteristics and laboratory examinations such as age, gender, race, clinic attendances and urine analysis were recorded. Subjects were selected by means of convenient sampling but based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by either Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test Mann-Whitney U-test, with the limit of significance was set at p < 0.05. Demographically, this study found that the ratio of Malays, Chinese and Indian enrolled to the MMTAC program is similar to the distribution of races in Malaysia. Their starting age for drug use was between 14-35 years and the age to enrolment between 30-58 years. Socially, many are unemployed, lowly educated and married. Most are drug users with a high percentage of HCV accompanied with impaired liver function. Retention rate was 87% but illicit drug use was at 57.50%. However, percentage of employment increased significantly after therapy. The study managed to identify several demographical and social distributions of patients attending the MMTAC. Although attendance rate was high, many were on illicit drug use. Nevertheless, employment rate improved significantly.
    Study site: government methadone clinic in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  17. Shetty P
    Lancet, 2013 Jun 15;381(9883):2073.
    PMID: 23769222 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61231-3
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  18. Kamarulzaman A
    Lancet, 2013 Jun 15;381(9883):2058-60.
    PMID: 23769216 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61033-8
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  19. Ng KT, Ong LY, Lim SH, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(6):e67286.
    PMID: 23840653 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067286
    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  20. Chow WZ, Al-Darraji H, Lee YM, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J. Virol., 2012 Oct;86(20):11398-9.
    PMID: 22997419
    A novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF53_01B was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unrelated persons in Malaysia. Here we announced three recently isolated full-length genomes of CRF53_01B, which is likely to be phylogenetically linked to CRF33_01B, circulating widely in Southeast Asia. The genome sequences may contribute to HIV-1 molecular surveillance and future vaccine development in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
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