METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).
RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p HIV injection drug risk behaviors.
METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates on how HIV is associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We searched for the eligible studies in the electronic databases using search terms related to HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Where possible, we estimated the summary odds ratios using random effects meta-analysis. We stratified analysis by the type of study design. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group of studies was assessed using I (2) test.
RESULTS: Nineteen studies (7 case control studies and 12 cohort studies) were identified for the present study. The pooled analysis shows a significant association between HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary odds ratio: 1.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.6; I (2): 0 %). In a subgroup analysis with two studies, a significant association was found between CD4+ count less than 100 and the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary OR: 1.31; 95 % CI 1.02-1.68; I (2): 0 %).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings show evidence on the association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV, based on case control studies. Further studies to understand the mechanisms of interaction of the two pathogens are recommended.