Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 165 in total

  1. J Sykepleien, 1993 Jan 19;81(1):20.
    PMID: 8466793
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  2. Dokubo EK, Kim AA, Le LV, Nadol PJ, Prybylski D, Wolfe MI
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Apr-Jun;15(2):67-76.
    PMID: 23681434
    Rates of new HIV infections in Asia are poorly characterized, likely resulting in knowledge gaps about infection trends and the most important areas to target for interventions. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed English language publications and conference abstracts on HIV incidence in thirteen countries - Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We obtained data on HIV incidence rate, incidence estimation method, population, and risk factors for incident infection. Our search yielded 338 unique incidence estimates from 70 published articles and 41 conference abstracts for eight countries. A total of 138 (41%) were obtained from prospective cohort studies and 106 (31%) were from antibody-based tests for recent infection. High HIV incidence rates were observed among commercial sex workers (0.4-27.8 per 100 person-years), people who inject drugs (0.0-43.6 per 100 person-years) and men who have sex with men (0.7-15.0 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for incident HIV infection include brothel-based sex work and cervicitis among commercial sex workers; young age, frequent injection use and sharing needles or syringes among people who inject drugs; multiple male sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men. In the countries with available data, incidence rates were highest in key populations and varied widely by incidence estimation method. Established surveillance systems that routinely monitor trends in HIV incidence are needed to inform prevention planning, prioritize resources, measure impact, and improve the HIV response in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  3. Kaldor JM, Sittitrai W, John TJ, Kitamura T
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S1-2.
    PMID: 7857551
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  4. Ong HC, Quah SH, Low HC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):385-91.
    PMID: 10971982
    The method of backcalculation estimates past HIV infection rates from available AIDS incidence data and an estimate of the incubation period. The method is used on the Malaysian data to model the AIDS epidemic because it makes use of the Malaysian AIDS incidence data which is fairly reliable and is more reflective of the trend of the epidemic as compared to the HIV infection rate recorded. An application is made on the monthly AIDS incidence data in Malaysia from January 1995 until August 1996 released by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia using the backcalculation program from Bacchetti et al and the incubation period distribution from Brookmeyer to generate the current HIV infection rate for Malaysia (until August 1996).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  5. Bazazi AR, Crawford F, Zelenev A, Heimer R, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2015 Dec;19(12):2347-57.
    PMID: 26358544 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1191-y
    The HIV epidemic in Malaysia is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID). Accurate estimates of HIV prevalence are critical for developing appropriate treatment and prevention interventions for PWID in Malaysia. In 2010, 461 PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Participants completed rapid HIV testing and behavioral assessments. Estimates of HIV prevalence were computed for each of the three recruitment sites and the overall sample. HIV prevalence was 15.8 % (95 % CI 12.5-19.2 %) overall but varied widely by location: 37.0 % (28.6-45.4 %) in Kampung Baru, 10.3 % (5.0-15.6 %) in Kajang, and 6.3 % (3.0-9.5 %) in Shah Alam. Recruitment extended to locations far from initial interview sites but was concentrated around discrete geographic regions. We document the high prevalence of HIV among PWID in Greater Kuala Lumpur. Sustained support for community surveillance and HIV prevention interventions is needed to stem the HIV epidemic among PWID in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  6. Choi P, Kavasery R, Desai MM, Govindasamy S, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J STD AIDS, 2010 Jun;21(6):416-23.
    PMID: 20606222 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2009.009180
    HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-related stigma were independently associated with challenges to obtaining HIV care. In multivariate analyses, those with previous incarcerations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.6), higher HIV-related symptoms (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.1) and higher public attitudes-related stigma (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1) had a significantly higher likelihood of identifying more re-entry challenges. Targeted interventions, such as effective drug treatment, HIV care and public awareness campaigns, are crucial for stemming the HIV epidemic and improving health outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  7. Mapanga KG, Mapanga MB
    Clin Nurse Spec, 2008 Sep-Oct;22(5):226-30.
    PMID: 18753880 DOI: 10.1097/01.NUR.0000325367.54044.d5
    In Africa, there is an overwhelming and increasing prevalence of illnesses such as HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This constitutes a "burden of disease" facing Africa. Nursing must evolve accordingly to the changing needs of clients, many of whom have chronic illnesses. In achieving desirable outcomes, it is essential to adopt and adapt the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role so that expert and specialist practice is available to clients in a cost-effective manner. The role of the CNS singles out clinical responsibilities in a hospital setting so that nurse administrators can concentrate on the provision of resources. A CNS position in the hospital structure would offer a clinical career pathway for advanced practice nurses who wish to remain "by-the-bedside." Regional initiatives are already beginning to show a need for master's-prepared, advanced practice nurses in the clinical areas so as to reduce maternal mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  8. Apenteng OO, Ismail NA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0131950.
    PMID: 26147199 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131950
    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 < 1, the disease dies out; and if R0 > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  9. Ng KT, Ng KY, Chen JH, Ng OT, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2014 Sep 15;59(6):910-1.
    PMID: 24944233 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu480
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  10. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  11. Duraisamy G, Zuridah H, Ariffin Y, Kek CS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):212-6.
    PMID: 7845268
    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an RNA containing virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) to supply the envelope proteins. HDV only infect man in the presence of HBV, either as a coinfection or as superinfection in HBV carriers. In the presence of hepatitis B infection, the HDV may cause more severe liver damage than that caused by the hepatitis B virus alone. HDV infection was studied in 44 HBsAg positive serum samples collected from male intravenous drug users sent for screening to the Blood Services Centre (BSC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) between 1990 and 1992. The majority (39) were in the 20 to 39 age group. The youngest was 19 years old and the oldest was 61 years old. There were 25 Malays, 13 Chinese, five Indians and one Albanian. Anti hepatitis delta antibody (Anti-HDV) was detected in 15 out of 44 (34%) of the drug addicts. These results shows an increased in delta infection in HBsAg positive intravenous drug addicts compared to the surveillance results in 1985 when no delta antibodies were detected, and the 1986 and 1989 surveillance which showed 17.8% and 20% delta antibody positivity respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  12. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MK, Kamarulzaman A, El-Bassel N
    BMC Public Health, 2016 06 02;16:464.
    PMID: 27250497 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3125-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen.

    METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).

    RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p HIV injection drug risk behaviors.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  13. Culbert GJ, Pillai V, Bick J, Al-Darraji HA, Wickersham JA, Wegman MP, et al.
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 2016 09;11(3):446-55.
    PMID: 27216260 DOI: 10.1007/s11481-016-9676-7
    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these interventions in Malaysian prisons.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  14. Ghosh D, Krishnan A, Gibson B, Brown SE, Latkin CA, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Apr;21(4):1183-1207.
    PMID: 27125244 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1413-y
    Social network analysis (SNA) and social network-based interventions (SNI) are important analytical tools harnessing peer and family influences critical for HIV prevention and treatment among substance users. While SNA is an effective way to measure social network influences, SNI directly or indirectly involves network members in interventions. Even though these methods have been applied in heterogeneous ways, leading to extensive evidence-based practices, systematic reviews are however, lacking. We searched five bibliographic databases and identified 58 studies involving HIV in substance users that had utilized SNA or SNI as part of their methodology. SNA was used to measure network variables as inputs in statistical/mathematical models in 64 % of studies and only 22 % of studies used SNI. Most studies focused on HIV prevention and few addressed diagnosis (k = 4), care linkage and retention (k = 5), ART adherence (k = 2), and viral suppression (k = 1). This systematic review highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of social network approaches for HIV prevention and treatment and gaps in its use for HIV care continuum.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  15. Hser YI, Liang D, Lan YC, Vicknasingam BK, Chakrabarti A
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 2016 09;11(3):383-93.
    PMID: 27000123 DOI: 10.1007/s11481-016-9665-x
    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  16. Ng KT, Takebe Y, Chook JB, Chow WZ, Chan KG, Abed Al-Darraji HA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:15198.
    PMID: 26459957 DOI: 10.1038/srep15198
    Co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human pegivirus (HPgV) are common in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. However, analysis on the evolutionary dynamics and transmission network profiles of these viruses among individuals with multiple infections remains limited. A total of 228 injecting drug users (IDUs), either HCV- and/or HIV-1-infected, were recruited in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genes were sequenced, with epidemic growth rates assessed by the Bayesian coalescent method. Based on the sequence data, mono-, dual- and triple-infection were detected in 38.8%, 40.6% and 20.6% of the subjects, respectively. Fifteen transmission networks involving HCV (subtype 1a, 1b, 3a and 3b), HIV-1 (CRF33_01B) and HPgV (genotype 2) were identified and characterized. Genealogical estimates indicated that the predominant HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genotypes were introduced into the IDUs population through multiple sub-epidemics that emerged as early as 1950s (HCV), 1980s (HIV-1) and 1990s (HPgV). By determining the difference in divergence times between viral lineages (ΔtMRCA), we also showed that the frequency of viral co-transmission is low among these IDUs. Despite increased access to therapy and other harm reduction interventions, the continuous emergence and coexistence of new transmission networks suggest persistent multiple viral transmissions among IDUs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  17. Naing C, Mak JW, Maung M, Wong SF, Kassim AI
    Lung, 2013 Feb;191(1):27-34.
    PMID: 23180033 DOI: 10.1007/s00408-012-9440-6
    BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been an AIDS-defining condition. Individual studies that highlight the association between HIV and extrapulmonary TB are available. Our objectives were to synthesis evidence on the association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV and to explore the effective preventive measures of these two diseases.

    METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates on how HIV is associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We searched for the eligible studies in the electronic databases using search terms related to HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Where possible, we estimated the summary odds ratios using random effects meta-analysis. We stratified analysis by the type of study design. We assessed heterogeneity of effect estimates within each group of studies was assessed using I (2) test.

    RESULTS: Nineteen studies (7 case control studies and 12 cohort studies) were identified for the present study. The pooled analysis shows a significant association between HIV and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary odds ratio: 1.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.6; I (2): 0 %). In a subgroup analysis with two studies, a significant association was found between CD4+ count less than 100 and the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (summary OR: 1.31; 95 % CI 1.02-1.68; I (2): 0 %).

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings show evidence on the association between extrapulmonary tuberculosis and HIV, based on case control studies. Further studies to understand the mechanisms of interaction of the two pathogens are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  18. Oyomopito RA, Chen YJ, Sungkanuparph S, Kantor R, Merati T, Yam WC, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2015 Sep;31(9):445-53.
    PMID: 26362956 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.07.002
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
  19. Kanter J, Koh C, Razali K, Tai R, Izenberg J, Rajan L, et al.
    Int J STD AIDS, 2011 Jan;22(1):30-7.
    PMID: 21364064 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2010.010277
    This research aimed to determine HIV prevalence, risk behaviour and knowledge of transmission methods among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Venue-day-time sampling (VDTS) was applied to identify venues where men congregate to solicit sex from other men. Participants recruited from clubs, massage parlours, saunas and one park self-completed a computerized behavioural questionnaire, were administered an oral rapid HIV test and given the opportunity to return later to receive full counselling and learn their HIV status. A total of 517 men were enrolled into the study. The majority were Malays (47.0%) and Chinese (43.7%). Twenty tested HIV positive (3.9%). Significant predictors of HIV infection included having unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (44.9% of participants, odds ratio [OR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.90; P = 0.027), having unprotected receptive anal sex (27.9%, OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.10-6.54; P = 0.030) and having group sex (33.3%, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.55-10.09; P = 0.004). One in five participants (20.1% and 19.5%) did not believe that HIV could be transmitted through insertive or receptive anal sex, respectively. Risk behaviour is high and knowledge of HIV transmission methods was low among MSM in Kuala Lumpur. Future prevention efforts should focus on providing risk reduction education to this community.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  20. Lim YA, Iqbal A, Surin J, Sim BL, Jex AR, Nolan MJ, et al.
    Infect. Genet. Evol., 2011 Jul;11(5):968-74.
    PMID: 21439404 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.03.007
    Given the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, genetic information on opportunistic pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in HIV/AIDS patients is pivotal to enhance our understanding of epidemiology, patient care, management and disease surveillance. In the present study, 122 faecal samples from HIV/AIDS patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts and cysts were detected in 22.1% and 5.7% of the 122 faecal samples, respectively. Genomic DNAs from selected samples were tested in a nested-PCR, targeting regions of the small subunit (SSU) of nuclear ribosomal RNA and the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes (for Cryptosporidium), and the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene (for Giardia), followed by direct sequencing. The sequencing of amplicons derived from SSU revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the most frequently detected species (64% of 25 samples tested), followed by C. hominis (24%), C. meleagridis (8%) and C. felis (4%). Sequencing of a region of gp60 identified C. parvum subgenotype IIdA15G2R1 and C. hominis subgenotypes IaA14R1, IbA10G2R2, IdA15R2, IeA11G2T3R1 and IfA11G1R2. Sequencing of amplicons derived from tpi revealed G. duodenalis assemblage A, which is of zoonotic importance. This is the first report of C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. felis from Malaysian HIV/AIDS patients. Future work should focus on an extensive analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in such patients as well as in domestic and wild animals, in order to improve the understanding of transmission patterns and dynamics in Malaysia. It would also be particularly interesting to establish the relationship among clinical manifestation, CD4 cell counts and genotypes/subgenotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in HIV/AIDS patients. Such insights would assist in a better management of clinical disease in immuno-deficient patients as well as improved preventive and control strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology
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