Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Root R
    Med Anthropol Q, 2006 Sep;20(3):321-44.
    PMID: 16937620
    Minah Karan, the stigmatizing label appended to Malay factory women in the 1980s, signaled a dangerous female sexuality that risked spreading beyond the factory gates and infecting Malaysia's idea(l)s of its traditional kampung culture. This article narrates how Minah Karan, as the former antihero of development, was reconstituted in the 1990s, with the government's labeling of factories as "high-risk settings" for HIV/AIDS. This is an ethnoetiology based not on any evidential epidemiological data but on the racial and gendered "mixing" that transpires behind factory walls: a fear that the "mixing of the sexes" means ipso facto "sexual mixing" among the races. The article demonstrates how importation of the high-risk label articulates at the local level the new and contested linkages, economic, religious, and scientific, constitutive of globalization. The pragmatic nature and imperatives of this high-risk process are discerned in factory women's accounts of how they negotiate the interactional imperatives of factory work, because transnational structures of productivity violate the social boundaries that have long connoted political stability, moral integrity, ethnic community, and individual safety. The article concludes by questioning whether ethnoetiologies, especially when they concern sexual networks, become social etiologies, because this would locate ethnoetiologies as central to conventional public health praxis rather than as ethnographic exotica in the margins.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology*
  2. Jin H, Friedman MR, Lim SH, Guadamuz TE, Wei C
    LGBT Health, 2016 Dec;3(6):465-471.
    PMID: 26982598
    PURPOSE: Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia.

    METHODS: The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year.

    RESULTS: About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested.

    CONCLUSION: While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  3. Kamarulzaman A
    Lancet, 2013 Jun 15;381(9883):2058-60.
    PMID: 23769216 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61033-8
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  4. Chen PC
    Pac Health Dialog, 2001 Mar;8(1):166-75.
    PMID: 12017819
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology*
  5. Fauziah MN, Anita S, Sha'ari BN, Rosli BI
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):268-72.
    PMID: 14569748
    A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HIV-associated risk behavior was conducted in February 1998 among 6,324 drug users in 26 drug rehabilitation centres in Malaysia. The majority of respondents were males (97.3%) and Malays (77.8%), administered drugs intravenously (64.6%) and of these 65.4% shared needles. About 78.1% had sexual exposure, of which 55.1% had sex with girl friends, 31.3% with prostitutes and 4.6% with male partners. The HIV prevalence rate in the group was 12.1% and significantly high among injecting drug users (IDU); those sharing needles; those who started addiction at a young age (10-15 years); those who had sexual exposures and had sex with prostitutes.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  6. Jing W, Ismail R
    Int. J. Dermatol., 1999 Jun;38(6):457-63.
    PMID: 10397587 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-4362.1999.00644.x
    Mucocutaneous lesions directly related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present as initial manifestations of immune deficiency. The most common mucocutaneous lesions are Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis, oro-esophageal candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, and, in Asia, Penicillium marneffei infection. Non-HIV-related skin lesions, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nodular prurigo, may be the initial presentation among HIV infected patients attending outpatient clinics.
    Study site: outpatient clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL)
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  7. Root R
    Med Anthropol, 2008 Oct-Dec;27(4):405-34.
    PMID: 18958787 DOI: 10.1080/01459740802427737
    Since the early 1990s, the Malaysian government has identified factories as high risk for HIV and AIDS. Signaling epidemiological concerns over the rising rates of HIV among factory workers, a significant proportion of whom are women, the label also appeared to reconstitute stereotypes of factory women as dangerously sexual and of factories as immoral spaces. Drawing on ethnographic research in the export processing zones of Penang, Malaysia in the mid-1990s, I examine the meanings and experiences of HIV risk among factory women themselves. Data were analyzed using discourse and grounded theory methods, the former to identify women's multiple modes of rationalizing HIV risks, and the latter to theorize the sources and significance of women's HIV risk assemblages. The heuristic of assemblages as localized knowledge spaces helped to show that biomedical and socioreligious risk lexica operated not as fixed epistemological categories but as situational resources in women's risk scripts. Overall, women desired multiple risk knowledges to help them "control themselves by themselves," a project of reflexive self-shaping mediated by the diverse and discordant discourses of gender, ethnicity, and modernity in Malaysia that shaped how HIV risks were engendered and experienced.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology*
  8. Chawarski MC, Mazlan M, Schottenfeld RS
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2006 Apr;82 Suppl 1:S39-42.
    PMID: 16769444
    Malaysia is experiencing severe problems with heroin dependence and HIV infection. This, study evaluated drug use and other HIV risk behaviors and their association with HIV and other infectious diseases in heroin-dependent subjects enrolled in a clinical trial of drug abuse treatment in Muar, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  9. Mukherjee T, Sakthivel R, Fong HY, McStea M, Chong ML, Omar SF, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2018 Oct;22(10):3226-3233.
    PMID: 29508103 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-018-2073-x
    This study determines the optimal cut-off scores for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a multi-ethnic Malaysian HIV-positive cohort by developing demographically corrected normative standards among 283 HIV-negative community-based controls with overlapping demographic characteristics. The norms (corrected for age, sex, education, ethnicity) were applied to 342 HIV-positive virally suppressed individuals on cART. Impairment rates were classified using the Global Deficit Score (GDS ≥ .5) method. The MoCA was also scored according to the recommended cut-off of ≤ 26, and functional decline was applied to both impairment definitions to classify HAND per the Frascati criteria. The ≤ 26 cut-off considerably overestimated cognitive impairment in both samples (59.4% HIV-negative; 69.3% HIV-positive). In contrast, corrected scores yielded impairment rates consistent with what has been reported internationally in virally suppressed cohorts (23.4% with 83.3% mild impairment, 16.7% moderate impairment). A supplemental file allowing the computation of corrected MoCA scores and impairment status is included.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  10. Naftalin CM, Wong NS, Chan DP, Wong KH, Reidpath DD, Lee SS
    Int J STD AIDS, 2015 Oct;26(11):803-9.
    PMID: 25281539 DOI: 10.1177/0956462414553826
    To explore the heterogeneity of CD4 responses following highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patterns of CD4 recovery of HIV-1-infected Chinese patients who have been on their first antiretroviral regimen for ≥5 years were analysed. The CD4 trajectories were traced, smoothed and differentiated into three defined profiles. Half (56.3%) were 'satisfactory responders', with CD4 gain of >100 cells/μL and a peak of >350 cells/μL, plateauing before the end of Year 5. Thirty-three (24.4%) were 'continuing responders' whose CD4 rise persisted at Year 4-5. The remaining 26 (19.3%) were 'poor responders'. Presentation with AIDS before therapy was common not just among 'poor' but also paradoxically the 'continuing' responders. While a majority had responded well to antiretroviral therapy, older patients and those with AIDS diagnosis before initiation of therapy may never achieve a satisfactory level even with effective treatment. Categorization of HIV patients by their CD4 trajectory may support the prediction of immunological outcome over time, and ultimately inform treatment choices.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  11. Wong LP
    AIDS Care, 2013;25(11):1356-69.
    PMID: 23406514 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2013.766302
    The objective of this study was to identify demographic characteristics and correlates of the uptake of HIV testing, willingness to be tested and perceived HIV-related stigma of Malaysian lay public. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multiracial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between December and July 2011. The survey collected information on demographics, knowledge about HIV transmission and religious beliefs on attitudes to HIV/AIDS. A total of 2271 households were successfully interviewed. The response rate was 48.65%. The HIV transmission knowledge score ranged from 0 to 15 (mean =10.56; SD±2.42). Three of the most common misconceptions about HIV transmission were mosquito bite (42.8%), eating in a restaurant where the cook is HIV positive (20.4%) and using a public toilet (20.1%). Only 20.6% reported ever having been tested for HIV, 49.1% reported a willingness to be tested for HIV and 30.3% had no intention of getting an HIV test. Low-risk perception (63.7%) constitutes a major barrier to HIV testing. Being Malay and Chinese (relative to Indian) were the strongest predictors of low-risk perception. Other significant predictors of low-risk perception were being male, being married and living in an urban locality. Perceived self-stigma if tested positive for HIV was prevalent (78.8%). Multivariate findings showed that being female, Malay, low income, living in rural localities and public stigma were significant correlates of self-stigma. These findings warrant interventions to reduce the disproportionate HIV transmission misconception, barriers to HIV testing and stigma and discriminative attitudes to involve considerations of sociocultural economic and demographic characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology*
  12. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  13. Chow WZ, Bon AH, Keating S, Anderios F, Halim HA, Takebe Y, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161853.
    PMID: 27575746 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161853
    Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90.5% male, median age: 27.0 years old). Recent or long-term infection status at the time of donation was determined using a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA). HIV-1 gag-pol genes were amplified and sequenced from residual plasma for 149 cases followed by genotype determination using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Transmitted antiretroviral resistance mutations were not observed among the blood donors, among which 22.7% were classified as recent or incident infections. Major circulating HIV-1 genotypes determined by neighbour-joining phylogenetic inference included CRF01_AE at 40.9% (61/149), CRF33_01B at 21.5% (32/149), and subtype B at 10.1% (15/149). Newly-described CRFs including CRF54_01B circulated at 4.0%, CRF74_01B at 2.0%, and CRF53_01B and CRF48_01B at 0.7% each. Interestingly, unique HIV-1 genotypes including African subtype G (8.7%), CRF45_cpx (1.3%), CRF02_AG (0.7%) and CRF07_BC (0.7%) from China were detected for the first time in the country. A cluster of subtype G sequences formed a distinct founder sub-lineage within the African strains. In addition, 8.7% (13/149) of HIV-infected donors had unique recombinant forms (URFs) including CRF01_AE/B' (4.7%), B'/C (2.7%) and B'/G (1.3%) recombinants. Detailed analysis identified similar recombinant structures with shared parental strains among the B'/C and B'/G URFs, some of which were sequenced from recently infected individuals, indicating the possible emergence and on-going spread of foreign clades of CRF candidates among the local population. The findings demonstrate extensive molecular complexity of HIV-1 among the infected blood donors in Malaysia, driven in part by the increased spread of recently described CRFs and multiple introductions of previously unreported genotypes from highly prevalent countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
  14. Foong AL, Ng SF, Lee CK
    J Adv Nurs, 2005 Apr;50(2):134-42.
    PMID: 15788077 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03372.x
    AIM: This paper reports a study aimed at identifying the primary health care experiences of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Malaysia. The rationale behind the study was to enable informed action for developing more responsive and effective primary care.
    BACKGROUND: Reports such as from the World Health Organisation forecast sharp escalations in the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Malaysia and the Asia-Pacific region within the next few years. With sparse information on the course of infection on the local population and an understanding of health care needs of those afflicted, health services would be ill-prepared for projected increases.
    METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 99 patients attending two major HIV/AIDS clinics in Malaysia.
    FINDINGS: Several gaps in care provision were highlighted, such as with treatment/consultation facilities and availability and accessibility of information. What is also evident is that there are a number of good support services available but not well publicized to those in need of them. That includes health professionals who could be making appropriate referrals. The lack of communications and inter-professional working appears to be part of the problem.
    CONCLUSION: The findings provide baseline data and preliminary insights to government and other service providers towards advancing, optimizing and refining existing policies and infrastructure. Although the availability of a number of primary care facilities have been identified, the study indicates the need for more effective co-ordinated efforts with clear leadership to pull together scarce resources towards the aim of some degree of seamless primary care provision. It is suggested that nurses would be well placed for such a role in view of the nature of their education and training that helps prepare them for the multi-faceted role.

    Study site: One is located
    in the main general hospital in the capital city of Kuala
    Lumpur, and the other in an outpatient clinic on the outskirts
    of the city
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology
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