Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Koh KC, Rene TJ, Khan SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:462826.
    PMID: 24285935 DOI: 10.1155/2013/462826
    We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student's t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  2. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MK, Kamarulzaman A, El-Bassel N
    BMC Public Health, 2016 06 02;16:464.
    PMID: 27250497 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3125-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen.

    METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).

    RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p HIV injection drug risk behaviors.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology
  3. Ahmadi K, Reidpath DD, Allotey P, Hassali MAA
    BMC Med Educ, 2016 May 30;16:155.
    PMID: 27240562 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-016-0676-3
    BACKGROUND: The attitudes of healthcare professionals towards HIV positive patients and high risk groups are central to the quality of care and therefore to the management of HIV/AIDS related stigma in health settings. Extant HIV/AIDS stigma scales that measure stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS have been developed using scaling techniques such as principal component analysis. This approach has resulted in instruments that are often long. Mokken scale analysis is a nonparametric hierarchical scaling technique that can be used to develop unidimensional cumulative scales. This technique is advantageous over the other approaches; as the scales are usually shorter, while retaining acceptable psychometric properties. Moreover, Mokken scales also make no distributional assumptions about the underlying data, other than that the data are capable of being ordered by item and by person. In this study we aimed at developing a precise and concise measure of HIV/AIDS related stigma among health care professionals, using Mokken scale analysis.
    METHODS: We carried out a cross sectional survey of healthcare students at the Monash University campuses in Malaysia and Australia. The survey consisted of demographic questions and an initial item pool of twenty five potential questions for inclusion in an HIV stigma scale.
    RESULTS: We analysed the data using the mokken package in the R statistical environment providing a 9-item scale with high reliability, validity and acceptable psychometric properties, measuring and ranking the HIV/AIDS related stigmatising attitudes.
    CONCLUSION: Mokken scaling procedure not only produced a comprehensive hierarchical scale that could accurately order a person along HIV/AIDS stigmatising attitude, but also demonstrated a unidimensional and reliable measurement tool which could be used in future studies. The principal component analysis confirmed the accuracy of the Mokken scale analysis in correctly detecting the unidimensionality of this scale. We recommend future works to study the generalisability of this scale in a new population.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  4. Syed IA, Syed Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Thiruchelvum K, Lee CK
    Health Expect, 2015 Dec;18(6):2841-52.
    PMID: 25228140 DOI: 10.1111/hex.12268
    BACKGROUND: Understanding patients' knowledge and belief towards disease could play a vital role from an outcome perspective of disease management and HIV/AIDS patients are not exception to that.

    METHODS: Qualitative methodology was used to explore Malaysian HIV/AIDS patients' perspectives on disease and status disclosure. A semi structured interview guide was used to interview the patients and a saturation point was reached after the 13th interview. All interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to a standard content analysis framework.

    RESULTS: Understandings and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS and Perspective on disease disclosures were two main themes derived from patients' data. Beliefs towards causes and cure emerged as sub-themes under disease understandings while reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure were resulted as main sub-themes under disease disclosure. Majority of patients apprehended HIV/AIDS and its causes to acceptable extent, there were elements of spirituality and lack of education involved with such understandings. Though beliefs existed that knowing status is better than being ignorant, fear of stigma and discrimination, social consequences and family emotions were found important elements linked to disease non-disclosure.

    CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes provided basic information about patients' perceptions towards disease and status disclosure among HIV/AIDS patients which can help in the designing and improvising existing strategies to enhance disease awareness and acceptance and will also serve as baseline data for future research further focusing on this subject.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  5. Ismail SM, Kari F, Kamarulzaman A
    J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care, 2015 12 28;16(5):446-454.
    PMID: 26715489 DOI: 10.1177/2325957415622449
    To determine the socioeconomic impacts among HIV-infected persons in Sudan and examine whether there are significant variations in coping strategies between infected men and women, a primary survey was conducted among infected persons (n = 555). Discriminant function was used to analyze the data. We found significant variation in the coping strategies (HIV/AIDS impacts were more critical for women. Infected people have 3 alternatives in coping with the changes in their income and expenditure, that is, borrow, utilize savings, or sell assets. Policy makers should consider economic information in planning health care to mitigate the impacts and remove the gender gap.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology
  6. Ghajarieh AB, Kow KY
    Health Care Women Int, 2011 Apr;32(4):314-27.
    PMID: 21409664 DOI: 10.1080/07399332.2010.532577
    To date, researchers investigating gender in relation to social issues underscore women and appear to sideline men. Focusing on women in studies concerning sociogender issues may exclude not only men from mainstream research, but also those who do not fit into the binary gender system, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people. One area closely related to gender issues is the HIV epidemic. Mainstream discussions of men and other versions of masculinity and femininity including GLBT people in the gender-related studies of the HIV epidemic can decrease the vulnerability of individuals against HIV infections regardless of their biological sex.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  7. Naing CM, Hakim M, Yee DA, Mun KR, Yung TC, Jian KK, et al.
    PMID: 21073071
    This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among a community in a semi-urban setting in Malaysia, to determine factors affecting perceptions toward people living with HIV in the community, and to provide baseline information for planning preventive measures against HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2009. Two hundred sixty-two household members were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Most respondents (232; 88.5%) had heard of HIV/AIDS. Only a few respondents (6; 2.6%) could correctly answer all the questionnaire items. Misconceptions about disease transmission were seen among surveyed participants, such as the belief HIV/AIDS can be contracted from saliva (104; 44.8%), mosquito bites (95; 40.9%) or casual touch (86; 37.1%). A multivariate linear regression model showed better perceptions towards people living with HIV depend on an improved knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission. Current data emphasize the need to scale up HIV/AIDS education incorporating the mode of disease transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  8. Saddki N, Noor MM, Norbanee TH, Rusli MA, Norzila Z, Zaharah S, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2009 Oct;21(10):1271-8.
    PMID: 20024703 DOI: 10.1080/09540120902803216
    This study determines the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instrument in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional study on 157 patients with HIV seen at the Infectious Disease Unit, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan was conducted. Factor analysis identified five major domains: physical needs, spirituality, social relationship, psychological, and environment. Significant correlation was found between each domain scores and the general health questions. The instrument was able to discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV positive patients for all domain scores except for the spirituality domain. The internal consistency of the five domains ranged from 0.70 to 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.60 to 0.87 across all domains. In conclusion, the Malay version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing quality of life in HIV positive patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  9. Chen PC
    Pac Health Dialog, 2001 Mar;8(1):166-75.
    PMID: 12017819
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology
  10. Bisallah CI, Rampal L, Lye MS, Mohd Sidik S, Ibrahim N, Iliyasu Z, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(2):e0192276.
    PMID: 29470530 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192276
    INTRODUCTION: The risk of development of active TB in HIV-infected individuals is 20-37 times higher than those that are HIV negative. Poor knowledge of TB amongst people living with HIV has been associated with high transmission.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of a new health education intervention module in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients in General Hospital Minna, Nigeria.

    METHODS: A randomized control trial was carried out from July 2015 to June 2017. A random number generating program was used to allocate 226 respondents into 2 groups. The intervention group received health education regarding tuberculosis using the developed module. The control group received the normal services provided for HIV patients. Data were collected from December 2015 to September 2016 at baseline, immediate post intervention, three, six and nine months. The outcome measures were knowledge, attitude, and practice.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, KAP of the respondents in the intervention and control group at baseline. However, there was significant improvement in knowledge in the intervention group compared to the control group, group main effect (F = (1,218) = 665.889, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.753, d = 5.4); time (F = (3.605, 218) = 52.046, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.193, d = 1.52) and interaction between group with time (F = (3.605, 218) = 34.028, p = 0.001, partial ἠ2 = 0.135, d = 1.23). Likewise, there was significant improvement in attitude, group main effect (p = 0.001, d = 1.26) and time (p = 0.001, p, d = 0.65). Similarly, there was improvement in practice, group main effect, time, and interaction of group with time (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The health education intervention program was effective in improving KAP regarding tuberculosis among HIV patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  11. Lemin AS, Rahman MM, Pangarah CA
    J Environ Public Health, 2018;2018:2194791.
    PMID: 30186334 DOI: 10.1155/2018/2194791
    Background: Disclosure of HIV-positive status is an essential prerequisite for the prevention and care of person living with HIV/AIDS as well as to tackle hidden epidemic in the society.

    Objective: To determine the intention to disclose the HIV/AIDS status among adult population in Sarawak, Malaysia, and factors affecting thereof.

    Methods: This cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among adult population aged 18 years and above in Sarawak, Malaysia. A gender-stratified multistage cluster sampling technique was adopted to select the participants. A total of 900 respondents were successfully interviewed by face-to-face interview using interview schedule. Stepwise binary logistic regression models were fitted in SPSS version 22.0 to identify the factors associated with the disclosure of HIV/AIDS status. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    Results: The mean (SD) age of male and female respondents was 41.57 (13.45) and 38.99 (13.09) years, respectively. A statistically significant difference of intention to disclosure of HIV status was found between males and females (p < 0.05). A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis revealed that age, occupation, knowledge on HIV transmission, and content of discussion about HIV/AIDS appeared to be potential predictors for male respondents to disclose HIV status, while ethnicity and content of discussion on HIV/AIDS were found to be important predictors among the female respondents (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion and Recommendation: Though the study did not depict the national prevalence of disclosure of HIV/AIDS status, the findings of the study would provide an important basic information for programme intervention, policy, and future research agenda.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  12. Lim SH, Brown SE, Shaw SA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL, Beyrer C
    J Homosex, 2020;67(1):104-126.
    PMID: 30307803 DOI: 10.1080/00918369.2018.1525946
    Malay-Muslim men who have sex with men (MSM) are marginalized and hidden in Malaysia, a predominantly Muslim country in southeast Asia. We explored the policy, network, community, and individual factors related to HIV infection among Malay-Muslim MSM through 26 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion (n = 5) conducted in Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu between October 2013 and January 2014. As religion plays an important role in their lives, participants viewed homosexuality as a sin. Low risk perception and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS were common, and most participants expressed reluctance to consult a doctor unless they had symptoms. Additionally, buying condoms was embarrassing and anxiety-producing. Fear of discrimination by health care providers and community hindered participants from disclosing sexual behaviors and accessing health services. Homophobic comments and policies by the government and religious leaders were concerns of participants. A safe and enabling environment is needed to reduce HIV risks among Malay-Muslim MSM.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  13. Jin H, Earnshaw VA, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Desai MM, John J, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2014;26(10):1223-8.
    PMID: 24625279 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2014.894616
    Stigma perpetuated by health-care providers has been found to be a barrier to care for vulnerable populations, including HIV-infected, people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and men who have sex with men (MSM) in multiple clinical contexts and remains unexamined among professional health-care students in Malaysia. This cross-sectional, anonymous, and Internet-based survey assessed the attitudes of medical and dental students toward HIV-infected, PWID, and MSM patients. Survey invitation was emailed to 3191 students at 8 professional schools; 1296 (40.6%) responded and scored their attitudes toward these patient groups using a feeling thermometer, indicating their attitudes on a sliding scale from 0 (most negative) to 100 (most positive). Compared to general patients (mean = 76.50), the mean scores for HIV-infected (mean = 54.04; p < 0.001), PWID (mean = 37.50; p < 0.001), and MSM (mean = 32.13; p < 0.001) patients were significantly lower and significantly different between each group comparison. Within group differences, most notably religion, ethnicity, and personally knowing someone from these populations were associated with significant differences in attitudes. No differences were noted between pre-clinical and clinical year of training. Health-care students represent the next generation of clinicians who will be responsible for future HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Our findings suggest alarmingly negative attitudes toward these patients, especially MSM, necessitating prompt and effective interventions designed to ameliorate the negative attitudes of health-care students toward vulnerable populations, specifically HIV-infected, PWID, and MSM patients in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  14. Wong LP
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S60-3.
    PMID: 23583477 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.03.013
    OBJECTIVE: The prime purpose of this study is to assess HIV/AIDS-related self-stigma and discrimination (S&D) attitudes and associated factors using multivariate analysis of data from the 2010-11 National Survey of Understanding the Root of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma and Discrimination.
    METHOD: A national telephone survey was carried out with 2271 of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years. The sample was contacted by random digit dialing covering the whole of Peninsular Malaysia from December 2010 to May 2011. The HIV-transmission knowledge, HIV-related self-stigma, and public stigma were investigated.
    RESULTS: Despite high level of HIV-transmission knowledge [mean (SD)=10.56 (2.42), mean score at 70th percentile] the respondents in this study had moderate levels (mean scores near midpoints) of self-stigma and public stigma attitudes. HIV-transmission knowledge score was not significantly correlated with self-stigma score, but showed a significantly small positive effect (r<0.2) for public stigma scores. Ethnicity is the strongest correlate of HIV-transmission knowledge, self-stigma, and public stigma attitudes in the multivariate analyses. Other significant correlates were age, socioeconomic group, and urban-rural setting.
    CONCLUSIONS: The root causes of HIV stigma and discriminatory attitudes were not associated with knowledge deficiency. Interventions should be oriented towards promoting de-stigmatization of HIV/AIDS, and tailored socio-culturally.
    KEYWORDS: Discriminatory; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Stigma
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  15. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  16. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Iriyanti M, Muchransyah AP, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2015 Apr 1;149:71-9.
    PMID: 25659895 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.018
    In Indonesia, incarceration of people who inject drugs (PWID) and access to drugs in prison potentiate within-prison drug injection (WP-DI), a preventable and extremely high-risk behavior that may contribute substantially to HIV transmission in prison and communities to which prisoners are released.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  17. Polonsky M, Rozanova J, Azbel L, Bachireddy C, Izenberg J, Kiriazova T, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 12;20(12):2950-2960.
    PMID: 27011378
    In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in Ukraine among 196 HIV-infected people who inject drugs, to explore attitudes toward drug addiction and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT), and intentions to change drug use during incarceration and after release from prison. Two groups were recruited: Group 1 (n = 99) was currently incarcerated and Group 2 (n = 97) had been recently released from prison. This paper's key finding is that MMT treatment and addiction recovery were predominantly viewed as mutually exclusive processes. Group comparisons showed that participants in Group 1 (pre-release) exhibited higher optimism about changing their drug use, were less likely to endorse methadone, and reported higher intention to recover from their addiction. Group 2 participants (post-release), however, reported higher rates of HIV stigma. Structural equation modeling revealed that in both groups, optimism about recovery and awareness of addiction mediated the effect of drug addiction severity on intentions to recover from their addiction.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  18. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Lim SH, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 Jan;20(1):98-106.
    PMID: 26324078 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1168-x
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) living in countries with strong stigma toward MSM are vulnerable to HIV and experience significant barriers to HIV care. Research is needed to inform interventions to reduce stigma toward MSM in these countries, particularly among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional survey of 1158 medical and dental students was conducted at seven Malaysian universities in 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest that students who had interpersonal contact with MSM were less prejudiced toward and had lower intentions to discriminate against MSM. Path analyses with bootstrapping suggest stereotypes and fear mediate associations between contact with prejudice and discrimination. Intervention strategies to reduce MSM stigma among healthcare providers in Malaysia and other countries with strong stigma toward MSM may include facilitating opportunities for direct, in-person or indirect, media-based prosocial contact between medical and dental students with MSM.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
  19. Culbert GJ, Bazazi AR, Waluyo A, Murni A, Muchransyah AP, Iriyanti M, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 05;20(5):1026-38.
    PMID: 26400080 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1198-4
    Negative attitudes toward HIV medications may restrict utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indonesian prisons where many people living with HIV (PLH) are diagnosed and first offered ART. This mixed-method study examines the influence of medication attitudes on ART utilization among HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners. Randomly-selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 102) completed face-to-face in-depth interviews and structured surveys assessing ART attitudes. Results show that although half of participants utilized ART, a quarter of those meeting ART eligibility guidelines did not. Participants not utilizing ART endorsed greater concerns about ART efficacy, safety, and adverse effects, and more certainty that ART should be deferred in PLH who feel healthy. In multivariate analyses, ART utilization was independently associated with more positive ART attitudes (AOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) and higher internalized HIV stigma (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.016). Social marketing of ART is needed to counteract negative ART attitudes that limit ART utilization among Indonesian prisoners.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology
  20. Root R
    Med Anthropol, 2008 Oct-Dec;27(4):405-34.
    PMID: 18958787 DOI: 10.1080/01459740802427737
    Since the early 1990s, the Malaysian government has identified factories as high risk for HIV and AIDS. Signaling epidemiological concerns over the rising rates of HIV among factory workers, a significant proportion of whom are women, the label also appeared to reconstitute stereotypes of factory women as dangerously sexual and of factories as immoral spaces. Drawing on ethnographic research in the export processing zones of Penang, Malaysia in the mid-1990s, I examine the meanings and experiences of HIV risk among factory women themselves. Data were analyzed using discourse and grounded theory methods, the former to identify women's multiple modes of rationalizing HIV risks, and the latter to theorize the sources and significance of women's HIV risk assemblages. The heuristic of assemblages as localized knowledge spaces helped to show that biomedical and socioreligious risk lexica operated not as fixed epistemological categories but as situational resources in women's risk scripts. Overall, women desired multiple risk knowledges to help them "control themselves by themselves," a project of reflexive self-shaping mediated by the diverse and discordant discourses of gender, ethnicity, and modernity in Malaysia that shaped how HIV risks were engendered and experienced.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/psychology*
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