Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Campero-Jurado I, Márquez-Sánchez S, Quintanar-Gómez J, Rodríguez S, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Nov 01;20(21).
    PMID: 33139608 DOI: 10.3390/s20216241
    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have contributed to advances in Occupational Health and Safety, improving the security of workers. The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) based on ICTs reduces the risk of accidents in the workplace, thanks to the capacity of the equipment to make decisions on the basis of environmental factors. Paradigms such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) make it possible to generate PPE models feasibly and create devices with more advanced characteristics such as monitoring, sensing the environment and risk detection between others. The working environment is monitored continuously by these models and they notify the employees and their supervisors of any anomalies and threats. This paper presents a smart helmet prototype that monitors the conditions in the workers' environment and performs a near real-time evaluation of risks. The data collected by sensors is sent to an AI-driven platform for analysis. The training dataset consisted of 11,755 samples and 12 different scenarios. As part of this research, a comparative study of the state-of-the-art models of supervised learning is carried out. Moreover, the use of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet/CNN) is proposed for the detection of possible occupational risks. The data are processed to make them suitable for the CNN and the results are compared against a Static Neural Network (NN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), where the CNN had an accuracy of 92.05% in cross-validation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices*
  2. Law TH, Noland RB, Evans AW
    Risk Anal., 2013 Jul;33(7):1367-78.
    PMID: 23106188 DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01916.x
    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices*
  3. Kulanthayan S, Umar RS, Hariza HA, Nasir MTM, Harwant S
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):40-4.
    PMID: 11072489 MyJurnal
    Motorcyclists make up the largest group of fatalities on Malaysian roads, majority succumbing to head injuries despite the compulsory safety helmet laws in the country. One possible reason for this high fatality is improper usage of safety helmets. This study examines the compliance of proper safety helmet use in motorcyclists in a typical Malaysian town. Five hundred motorcyclists were studied. Only 54.4% of motorcyclists used helmets properly, 21.4% used them improperly; and 24.2% did not wear helmets. Six variables were found to be significant in improper safety helmet use. They were age, gender, race, formal education level, prior accident experience and type of license held. Marital status and riding experience were not significant. Efforts promoting proper use of safety helmets should focus on the young, male, less formally educated, unlicensed rider, who has had a prior accident.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/utilization*; Head Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data
  4. Roehler DR, Ear C, Parker EM, Sem P, Ballesteros MF
    Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 2015;22(2):165-71.
    PMID: 24499413 DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2013.876050
    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/trends; Head Protective Devices/utilization*
  5. Kulanthayan S, See LG, Kaviyarasu Y, Nor Afiah MZ
    Injury, 2012 May;43(5):653-9.
    PMID: 21764054 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2011.06.197
    BACKGROUND: Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label.
    RESULTS: The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience.
    CONCLUSION: Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/standards*; Head Protective Devices/utilization*
  6. Oxley J, Yuen J, Ravi MD, Hoareau E, Mohammed MA, Bakar H, et al.
    Ann Adv Automot Med, 2014 1 11;57:45-54.
    PMID: 24406945
    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  7. Oxley J, Ravi MD, Yuen J, Hoareau E, Hashim HH
    Ann Adv Automot Med, 2014 1 11;57:329-36.
    PMID: 24406968
    In Malaysia, motorcycle crashes constitute approximately 60 percent of all road trauma, and a substantial proportion involve children 16 years and younger. There are, however, many gaps in our knowledge on contributing factors to crashes and injury patterns amongst children killed and seriously injured in motorcycle crashes. The aim of this study was to examine fatal and serious injury motorcycle-related collisions to identify contributing factors and injury patterns amongst child motorcyclists. All identified motorcyclist fatal crashes between 2007 and 2011 (inclusive) were extracted from the national Police-reported crash database (M-ROADS) and a range of variables were selected for examination. A total of 17,677 crashes were extracted where a rider or pillion was killed and of these crashes 2,038 involved children, equating to 12 percent. Examination of crashes involving children revealed that some crashes involved more than two children on the motorcycle, therefore, overall children constituted 9.5% of fatal and 18.4% of serious injury collisions. A high proportion of child fatal or serious injury collisions involved the child as the rider (62%), and this was most common for children aged between 10 and 16 years. The majority of collisions occurred on rural roads, in speed limit zones of 50-70km/h, and approximately one-third occurred at an intersection. Collisions involving another motorcycle or a passenger vehicle contributed to 41% and 53% of the total fatalities and severe injuries, respectively. A high proportion (43.9%) of the children (25.5% riders and 18.8% pillion) sustained head injuries with 37.7% being in the 10-16 age group. Furthermore, 52.4% of the children sustaining head injuries did not wear a helmet. The implications of these findings for countermeasures within a Safe System framework, particularly interventions aimed at reducing the rate of unlicensed riding and helmet wearing, and infrastructure countermeasures are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  8. Nurzuhairiza Zolkifli, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Ng Yee Guan, Nur Shuhada Mohd Shukoor, Nur Fitriyah Md Akir, Ng Gin Siong, et al.
    Safety helmet become vital personal protective equipment especially in the plantation in preventing the head from injury. This study evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice on safety helmet usage among harvesters, the association between knowledge, attitude and practice of safety helmet usage with head injury; and the significant differences of the safety helmet practices before and after the intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 109 harvesters in two oil palm plantation located in Selangor, Malaysia. A set of questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic background data, knowledge, attitude and practice on the usage of safety helmet. An intervention program through tool box talk on proper usage of safety helmet also was given followed by an observation to look for the differences before and after the tool box promotion on the use of safety helmet. Result from the descriptive analysis showed high score for knowledge, fair score for the attitude and practice among harvesters. There is no association between knowledge (X2=2.733; p>0.05), attitude (X2=2.546; p>0.05) and practice (X2=2.473; p>0.05) with the head injury. The result also gave no significant differences (p>0.05) of the practices before and after the intervention. However, the trends showed decrease in number of practices after the intervention. This study reveals that the knowledge, attitude and practice are not a prominent indicator for head injury among harvesters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  9. Mohd Naim Abdullah, Mustapha, F., Muda, M.K.H., Arrifin, M.K.A., Rafie, A.S.M., Shamsudin, M.A.
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2015;4(1):77-91.
    Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed in this work in order to obtain the best design for safety and aerodynamic performance of the bicycle cycling helmet. FEA analysis was computed on two different helmet designs to determine the critical area subjected to impact. A pressure load was applied on the helmets’ outer surface to simulate oblique loading. The critical areas of the helmets were then highlighted and identified, enabling design improvements to be made on both designs. CFD analysis was then executed in order to obtain the lowest drag coefficient number in reducing the air resistance induced by both of the helmet designs, inherently increasing cyclist performance and ensuring competition success.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  10. Krishnan R, Cheng OT, Amar Singh HSS, Wong WY, Yip RCW, Shamini V
    Family Physician, 1996;9:17-22.
    Bicycle fatalities constituted 5% of road fatalities in 1995. A helmet, properly worn, is the most effective measure to prevent head injury to a cyclist in the event of a crash. We studied the knowledge, attitude and practice of children in two secondary schools (Ipoh and Kulim) with respect to bicycle helmet use before instituting a program for helmet use. Although there were no major differences in knowledge, attitude and practice of students in the two groups, children in the Ipoh program failed to wear helmets while the children in the Kulim program complied over a one year period. The main reason for failure of the helmet progranl in Ipoh were negative peer influence. The Kulim helmet program was integrated with a bicycle safety course conducted by dedicated teachers. The quasi experimental study resulted in increased awareness of the importance of bicycle helmets among school children in Kulim Keywords: Bicycle helmet, road traffic injury, prevention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  11. Chainchel Singh MK, Siew SF, Lai PS
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2020 Dec;139:110443.
    PMID: 33068949 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110443
    Hyoid bone fractures due to blunt trauma are rare accounting for only 0.002% of all head and neck fractures with most documented fractures being due to strangulation, hanging, motorcycle helmet straps, sports injuries and rarely as a complication of intubation. However, they are even rarer in the paediatric age group. We present a hyoid bone fracture in a two-year-old child as a result of a fall down three steps. Hyoid bone fractures though generally heal well with conservative treatment must be diagnosed early to avoid air way obstruction leading to morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  12. Yellappan K, K C Mani K, Md Tamrin SB
    Traffic Inj Prev, 2019;20(6):624-629.
    PMID: 31329467 DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2019.1626985
    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of motorcycle safety helmets (MSHs) used by postal delivery riders (PDRs) that comply with the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia's (SIRIM) MSH standard guidelines and identify factors that contribute toward compliance of used MSHs with the standards. Methods: The presence of SIRIM certification label, the status of MSH, type of chinstrap, MSH crash history, and duration of MSH use were observed. The dependent variable was the results of the SIRIM testing procedures (SIRIM tests). MSHs that passed the SIRIM tests were considered "standard certified" MSHs. Results: The odds of the complimentary MSHs passing all of the SIRIM tests were 3.7 times the odds of the self-purchased MSHs passing the tests. The odds of MSHs with the SIRIM certification label passing all of the SIRIM tests were 24.2 times the odds of MSHs without the SIRIM certification label, and the odds of MSHs used <3 years passing the SIRIM tests were 3.75 times the odds of the MSHs used ≥3.8 years. Conclusion: PDRs provided with complimentary MSHs with the SIRIM certification label by the employer for their daily delivery routines and duration of MSH used for less than 3 years were found to be safe MSHs for male occupational riders in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/standards*
  13. Ramli R, Oxley J
    Injury, 2016 Nov;47(11):2442-2449.
    PMID: 27645615 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.09.022
    INTRODUCTION: In Malaysia, motorcyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The objective of this study was to determine the association between helmet fixation and helmet type with head injury and severity of head injury among Malaysian motorcyclists.

    METHODS: The study design was a prospective cross-sectional study. The participants involved injured motorcyclists who were admitted in five selected hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Participants who sustained head injury were selected as the cases while those with injury below the neck (IBN) were selected as the controls. Questionnaire comprising motorcyclist, vehicle, helmet and crash factors was examined. Diagnoses of injuries were obtained from the participants' medical records.

    RESULTS: The total subjects with head injuries were 404 while those with IBN were 235. Majority of the cases (76.2%) and controls (80.4%) wore the half-head and open-face helmets, followed by the tropical helmets (5.4% and 6.0% of the cases and controls, respectively). Full-face helmets were used by 1.2% of the cases and 4.7% of the controls. 5.7% of the cases and 6.0% of the controls did not wear a helmet. 32.7% of the cases and 77.4% of the controls had their helmets fixed. Motorcyclists with ejected helmets were five times as likely to sustain head injury [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.73 (95% CI 3.38-9.73)] and four times as likely to sustain severe head injury [AOR of 4.83 (95% CI 2.76-8.45)]. The half head and open face helmets had AOR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.10-0.56) for severe head injury when compared to motorcyclists who did not wear a helmet.

    CONCLUSION: Helmet fixation is more effective than helmet type in providing protection to the motorcyclists.

    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/adverse effects; Head Protective Devices/utilization*
  14. Ab Rahman WS, Abdullah WZ, Mustaffa R, Ahmed SA, Hassan MN, Husin A
    PMID: 24093001 DOI: 10.4137/CCRep.S12122
    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a medical emergency characterized by occlusive microangiopathy due to intravascular platelet aggregation. This event results in damage to the red blood cells (RBCs) known as microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). Schistocytes are circulating fragments of damaged RBCs that have different morphological features including keratocytes, helmet cells, and spherocytes. It is critical to report even a small number of these abnormal RBCs in the peripheral blood and to be alert for the possible diagnosis of TTP, especially in unexplained anemia and thrombocytopenia. The application of pentad criteria in the diagnosis has been reviewed, and the challenges still remained on the hematologic evidence of this disorder. In the 3 cases discussed here, the red cell morphological diagnosis gave an impact on TTP diagnosis, but overdiagnosis might be encountered in obstetrical patients due to nonspecific diagnostic criteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  15. Nikmatin S, Hermawan B, Irmansyah I, Indro MN, Kueh ABH, Syafiuddin A
    Materials (Basel), 2018 Dec 22;12(1).
    PMID: 30583516 DOI: 10.3390/ma12010034
    The performance of helmet prototypes fabricated from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers was evaluated. The fibers were produced using a milling procedure, while the composites were fabricated using a single-screw extrusion. The physical characteristics of the produced fibers, which are water content, size, and density, were investigated. In addition, the mechanical properties of the produced helmets, including shock absorption, yield stress, frequency, and head injury criterion (HIC), were examined. The impact strength of the produced helmets increases with the rise of filler content. In addition, the helmets were also able to withstand a considerable pressure such that the transmitted pressure was far under the maximum value acceptable by the human skull. The present work also found that HICs exhibited by the investigated helmet prototypes fulfill all the practical guidelines as permitted by the Indonesian government. In terms of novelty, such innovation can be considered the first invention in Indonesia since the endorsement of the use of motorcycle helmets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  16. Nurazzi NM, Asyraf MRM, Khalina A, Abdullah N, Aisyah HA, Rafiqah SA, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 22;13(4).
    PMID: 33671599 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040646
    Even though natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFRPCs) have been widely used in automotive and building industries, there is still a room to promote them to high-level structural applications such as primary structural component specifically for bullet proof and ballistic applications. The promising performance of Kevlar fabrics and aramid had widely implemented in numerous ballistic and bullet proof applications including for bullet proof helmets, vest, and other armor parts provides an acceptable range of protection to soldiers. However, disposal of used Kevlar products would affect the disruption of the ecosystem and pollutes the environment. Replacing the current Kevlar fabric and aramid in the protective equipment with natural fibers with enhanced kinetic energy absorption and dissipation has been significant effort to upgrade the ballistic performance of the composite structure with green and renewable resources. The vast availability, low cost and ease of manufacturing of natural fibers have grasped the attention of researchers around the globe in order to study them in heavy armory equipment and high durable products. The possibility in enhancement of natural fiber's mechanical properties has led the extension of research studies toward the application of NFRPCs for structural and ballistic applications. Hence, this article established a state-of-the-art review on the influence of utilizing various natural fibers as an alternative material to Kevlar fabric for armor structure system. The article also focuses on the effect of layering and sequencing of natural fiber fabric in the composites to advance the current armor structure system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  17. Suzilawati Mohamed Ariffin, Mimi Nor Aliza Setapani
    Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 populations) compared to other ASEAN nations and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involving motorcyclists. Hence, this becomes the leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years. The most common cause of fatalities involving motorcyclist is the head injury., This present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice on helmet usage among secondary school students in Kuantan. A descriptive cross-sectional design (two months of data collection) was used in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 participants from two schools in Kuantan. The main finding of this study suggests that common reason for the participants to wear a helmet is that ‘it can save a life’. Besides that, the poor practice regarding helmet usage was also found as only 4.5% of them wore the helmet all the time. However, the overall result showed that most of the participants have a good knowledge and positive attitude regarding utilization of helmet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  18. Nur Al - Izzah binti Nazri, Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin, Dayana Hazwani Mohd Suadi Nata, Ng Yee Guan
    Introduction: Safety helmets are one of the personal protective equipment (PPE) that to decrease the impact of any falling object to the skull and to avoid head and brain injury by many industries, including palm oil plantation. Nev- ertheless, the level on the usage of the current safety helmet is very low due to a few factors that lead to the discom- fort. Among the common issues for the non-compliance of safety helmets are their discomfort, ventilation, weight and safety. This study aims to determine subjective preference of the new prototypes’ safety helmets device among palm oil plantation harvesters. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 124 harvesters in three palm oil plantations located in Sabah, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires used to collect data on their socio-demographic background, perceptions toward existing safety helmets and their subjective preference of new safety helmets pro- totypes. Apart from that, six harvesters were randomly choosing to attend an interview session for qualitative study. Results: The descriptive analysis indicate that among the emphasized issues regarding non-compliance of existing safety helmet were due to discomfort (66.1%), poor ventilation (97.6%), load of safety helmet (83.3%) and safety issues (68.5%). In terms of new safety helmets prototypes, 72.6% of the harvesters preferred Design C to be worn for work in the plantation. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the existing safety helmet is uncomfortable and was not design ergonomically namely loose size and discomfort. Design C was the most preferred to be worn for work in the palm oil plantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices
  19. Ramli R, Oxley J, Hillard P, Mohd Sadullah AF, McClure R
    BMC Emerg Med, 2014;14:17.
    PMID: 25086638 DOI: 10.1186/1471-227X-14-17
    The effectiveness of helmets in reducing the risk of severe head injury in motorcyclists who were involved in a crash is well established. There is limited evidence however, regarding the extent to which helmets protect riders from facial injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of helmet type, components and fixation status on the risk of facial injuries among Malaysian motorcyclists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices*
  20. Ooi SS, Wong SV, Yeap JS, Umar R
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2011 Jul;23(4):608-19.
    PMID: 21768134 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511413750
    Motorcycle helmets have been proven to prevent head injury and reduce fatality in road crashes. However, certain studies indicate that the helmet increases the mass to the head, and thus the potential of neck injury due to the flexion/extension of the head-neck segment in a road crash may increase. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of motorcycle helmets and the ways in which the accidents that occurred affected the incidence of cervical spine injury. Nevertheless, it is not intended to and does not discredit the fact that helmet use prevents many motorcyclists from sustaining serious and fatal head injuries. A total of 76 cases were collected and analyzed based on the data collected from real-world crashes. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used to assess the severity of injury, whereas the statistical Pearson χ(2) correlation method was used for analysis. The results showed that motorcycle helmets did not affect the severity of cervical spine injury. However, when the samples were further subcategorized into different crash modes, it was found that helmets affect the incidence of a severe cervical spine injury. In frontal collisions, the use of helmets significantly reduces the severity of cervical spine injury, whereas in rear-end, side impact, and skidded accidents, the use of helmets increases the probability of a severe cervical spine injury. However, in the latter crash modes, a motorcyclist without a helmet will have to trade-off with head injury. A logistic regression model has been developed with respective crash modes and the probabilities of risk in having severe cervical spine injury have been calculated. Future designs in motorcycle helmets should therefore consider the significance of nonfrontal accidents and the interaction of helmet with other parts of the body by possibly considering the weight of the helmet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Head Protective Devices/utilization*
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