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  1. Kron T, Azhari HA, Voon EO, Cheung KY, Ravindran P, Soejoko D, et al.
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2015 Sep;38(3):493-501.
    PMID: 26346030 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-015-0373-2
    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Sahani M, Sulaiman NS, Tan BS, Yahya NA, Anual ZF, Mahiyuddin WR, et al.
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2016 Nov;66(11):1077-1083.
    PMID: 27192328 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1188866
    Dental amalgam in fillings exposes workers to mercury. The exposure to mercury was investigated among 1871 dental health care workers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of mercury exposure among dental compared to nondental health care workers and to determine other risk factors for mercury exposure. Respondents answered questionnaires to obtain demographic, personal, professional, and workplace information and were examined for their own amalgam fillings. Chronic mercury exposure was assessed through urinary mercury levels. In total, 1409 dental and 462 nondental health care workers participated in the study. Median urine mercury levels for dental and nondental health care workers were 2.75 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 3.0175) and 2.66 μg/L (IQR = 3.04) respectively. For mercury exposure, there were no significant risk factor found among the workers involved within the dental care. The Mann-Whitney test showed that urine mercury levels were significantly different between respondents who eat seafood more than 5 times per week compared to those who eat it less frequently or not at all (p = 0.003). The urinary mercury levels indicated significant difference between dental workers in their practice using squeeze cloths (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed that only the usage of cosmetic products that might contain mercury was found to be significantly associated with the urinary mercury levels (odds ratio [OR] = 15.237; CI: 3.612-64.276). Therefore, mean urinary mercury levels of health care workers were low. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury.

    IMPLICATIONS: Exposure to the high levels of mercury from dental amalgam can lead to serious health effects among the dental health care workers. Nationwide chronic mercury exposure among dental personnel was assessed through urinary mercury levels. Findings suggest low urinary mercury levels of these health care workers. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, the usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  3. Khalaf ZF, Low WY, Merghati-Khoei E, Ghorbani B
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 Jul;26(4):358-66.
    PMID: 24489084 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513517258
    This research explored the perspectives of Malaysian professionals on the issues and barriers affecting the implementation of sexuality education in Malaysia. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with 15 key professionals working in the field of sexuality and reproductive health in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was selected to analyze data. Barriers to sexuality education were perceived from 5 aspects: feasibility, acceptability, accountability, strategies, and community unawareness. Respondents believed that implementing national sexuality education is a time-consuming project. They regarded Malaysian multicultural society as a barrier to national sexuality education, and they believed that school-based sexuality education is not easily accomplished in Malaysia; also abstinence-only policy restricts the access of young people to accurate information. Lack of community involvement was perceived as a key concern to sexuality education. Campaigning to promote awareness of families, teachers, community leaders, and policy makers are recommended to help establishing national sexuality education in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  4. Das S
    ANZ J Surg, 2008 Nov;78(11):939.
    PMID: 18959687 DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2008.04708.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Shahnaz M, Azizah MR, Hasma H, Mok KL, Yip E, Ganesapillai T, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):26-31.
    PMID: 10972001
    Health care workers have been reported to constitute one of the few high-risk groups related to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity associated with the use of latex products. This paper describes the first ever study of prevalence carried out in Malaysia among these workers. One hundred and thirty health care personnel from Hospital Kuala Lumpur were skin tested. Extracts used were prepared from seven different brands of natural rubber latex gloves with varying levels of extractable protein (EPRRIM). Out of the 130 volunteers, 4 (3.1%) had positive skin test to latex with extracts with high levels of EPRRIM (> 0.7 mg/g). The prevalence among the Malaysian health care workers can be considered to be low in comparison to that of some consumer countries as the USA which reported a prevalence of as high as 16.9%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Boo YL, Liam CCK, Lim SY, Look ML, Tan MH, Ching SM, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):371-375.
    PMID: 30647206
    INTRODUCTION: Increased prevalence of dengue fever had led to increase stress in providing optimal care for patients. This has been identified as a potential factor that may lead to negative health effects on medical doctors. This study was designed to review the prevalence and associated factors of burnout syndrome (including depression, anxiety, and stress level) among clinicians in the setting of increasing cases of dengue in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centre study was carried out among doctors in contact with patients with dengue infection from four major hospitals in Malaysia in 2015 using Maslach Burnout Inventory and DASS-21 questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 313 respondents were included in this study with 15.9% of the respondents experiencing high burnout syndrome. Long working hours, depression, anxiety, and stress were significantly associated with high degree of burnout syndrome (p<0.05). However, number of dengue cases reviewed was not significantly associated with the degree of burnout syndrome. Depression and stress were among factors identified as the predictors for burnout syndrome.

    CONCLUSION: High degree of burnout syndrome among clinicians with significant correlations with symptoms of depression and stress will require early identification to enable early measures to resolve, as well as prevent it. Future studies with more hospitals involvement should be conducted to establish the relationship between the degree of burnout syndrome and prevalence of dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  7. Grewal GS, Gill JS, Sidi H, Gurpreet K, Jambunathan ST, Suffee NJ
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:14-20.
    PMID: 23857832 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12037
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56).
    DISCUSSION: FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; healthcare personnel; prevalence; risk factor; sexual desire disorder
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  8. Grewal GS, Gill JS, Sidi H, Gurpreet K, Jambunathan ST, Suffee NJ, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Jan;55 Suppl 1:S17-22.
    PMID: 23452905 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.01.009
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among healthcare personnel in selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at three large healthcare facilities that were selected by convenience sampling. Within each facility, stratified random sampling was used to select suitable candidates to participate in the study (n=201). Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of FSD was 5.5%. Women with sexual dysfunction were more likely to be married longer (OR=4.08; 95% CI; 1.15-4.50), had lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR=5.00; 95% C; 1.05-23.76) and had a spouse with ED (OR=24.35; 95% CI; 4.55-130.37). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was the strongest predictor for FSD (AOR=27.30; 95% CI; 4.706-159.08).
    CONCLUSION: One in eighteen female healthcare personnel suffered from FSD and presence of ED in the partner strongly impacted her sexual function, negatively. The findings highlight the importance of including the male partner in clinical assessment of FSD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Kanchanachitra C, Lindelow M, Johnston T, Hanvoravongchai P, Lorenzo FM, Huong NL, et al.
    Lancet, 2011 Feb 26;377(9767):769-81.
    PMID: 21269674 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62035-1
    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  10. Lugah V, Ganesh B, Darus A, Retneswari M, Rosnawati MR, Sujatha D
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Jul;51(7):586-92.
    PMID: 20730400
    Awareness of occupational safety and health (OSH) plays an important role in the prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. Following the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in 1994, various programmes have been implemented by different agencies to increase awareness and knowledge of OSH in the workplace, including among healthcare workers. The objective of this study was to determine the level of OSH awareness and knowledge among healthcare professionals in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Hazmi H, Ishak WR, Jalil RA, Hua GS, Hamid NF, Haron R, et al.
    PMID: 26521525
    We conducted a cross sectional study of cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare workers at four government hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. We randomly selected 330 subjects fulfilling the following study criteria: those who had been working for at least one year at that health facility, Malaysians citizens and those with some form of direct contact with patients. We conducted an interview, obtained physical measurements, a fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid profiles among 308 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 43.5 years, 82% were female; 30.8%, 14.3%, 10.4%, 1.3% and 1.6% of the subjects had dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of stroke and a history of ischemic heart disease, respectively. Forty-two percent of subjects had at least one medical condition. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.0 kg/M2 (SD=4.8) and 24.3% had a BMI > or =30 kg/M2. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121.5 mmHg (SD=14.0) and 76.5 mmHg (SD=9.7), respectively and the mean waist-hip ratio was 0.84 (SD=0.1). The mean fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were 5.8 mmol/l (SD=2.4), 5.5 mmol/l (SD=1.0), 1.4 mmol/l (SD=0.9), 1.5 mmol/l (SD=0.3) and 3.5 mmol/l (SD=0.9), respectively. Our study population had a smaller proportion of hypertension than that of the general Malaysian population. They had higher fasting total cholesterol, slightly lower fasting blood sugar, with a large proportion of them, obese and had diabetes. Immediate intervention is needed to reduce the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, health care workers, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Sulaiman NS, Choo WY, Mat Yassim AR, Van Laar D, Chinna K, Majid HA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):94S-100S.
    PMID: 25926502 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515583331
    The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale-2 (WRQLS-2) has been used to measure quality of working life (QOWL) in the United Kingdom. In this study, the scale was translated and normalized into Malay. The scale was translated using the back-translation method, pretesting, and pilot testing. It was conducted among health care and office workers. It was tested in 3 stages; confirmatory factor analysis at stages 1 and 3 and exploratory factor analysis at stage 2. The Malaysian WRQLS-2 had 5 factors: "General Well-Being," "Job and Career Satisfaction," "Employee Engagement," "Home-Work Interface," and "Stress at Work." The scale showed good convergent and construct validity and also reliability. Perception of good QOWL may differ because of cultural influences and varying work environments. The validated Malaysian WRQLS-2 can be used to determine the QOWL of Malaysian office and health care workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  13. Sam IC, Tariman H, Chan YF, Bador MK, Yusof MY, Hassan H
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Dec;63(5):429-30.
    PMID: 19803311 MyJurnal
    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections are a particular problem in healthcare settings. A survey of chickenpox was carried out amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) following potential ward exposures. A prior history of chickenpox was given by 61/98 (62.2%). Of 64 HCWs tested for VZV IgG, 10 (15.6%) were seronegative, indicating susceptibility. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of a history of prior chickenpox were 57.4%, 90%, 96.4%, and 31.0%, respectively. VZV screening of HCWs without a history of chickenpox, and vaccination of susceptible HCWs should be undertaken in this hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Singh HS, Yiing WW, Nurani HN
    Child Abuse Negl, 1996 Jun;20(6):487-92.
    PMID: 8800523
    There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Allied Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  15. Siau CS, Wee LH, Yacob S, Yeoh SH, Binti Adnan TH, Haniff J, et al.
    Acad Psychiatry, 2017 Aug;41(4):503-509.
    PMID: 28168406 DOI: 10.1007/s40596-017-0661-0
    OBJECTIVES: This research is aimed to examine the attitude of health-care workers toward suicidal patients in Malaysian hospitals, comparing responses from psychiatric and non-psychiatric workers, and to identify specific needs in suicide prevention and management training.

    METHOD: This is a multi-site cross-sectional study. The authors conducted a survey based on a translated self-administered questionnaire to participants from seven core hospital departments.

    RESULTS: While most health-care workers regardless of department and specialty took their duty to prevent suicide seriously, a large majority of them expressed negative attitudes such as finding suicidal behavior irritating, and more than half believed suicidal attempts were a way of making others sorry. However, psychiatric workers were less likely to have judgmental attitudes that included believing suicide attempters as being selfish or trying to get sympathy from others.

    CONCLUSIONS: As there were more similarities than differences in health-care workers' attitudes toward suicide, recommendations on basic and continuous suicide prevention and management training among hospital workers were made. The interventions focused on improving knowledge, affective, and skill-based areas that were aimed to correct the wrongful understanding of and to minimize the negative attitudes toward suicidal individuals indicated by the study results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  16. James PB, Rehman IU, Bah AJ, Lahai M, Cole CP, Khan TM
    BMC Public Health, 2017 09 05;17(1):692.
    PMID: 28870202 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4700-2
    BACKGROUND: Vaccinating healthcare professionals against influenza is considered an effective infection control measure. However, there is a low uptake of influenza vaccine among healthcare professionals around the globe. Currently, it is unknown whether healthcare professionals in Sierra Leone are aware of, and have been vaccinated against influenza. Also, there is a paucity of research evidence on their level of knowledge and attitude toward influenza vaccination. This study assessed healthcare professionals' current influenza vaccine uptake rate, reasons for not getting vaccinated as well as their awareness, knowledge of, and attitude towards influenza vaccination in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and April 2016 among healthcare providers working in four public and two private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone. Linear regression analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t-test were employed for data analysis.

    RESULTS: Among 706 respondents that participated in the study more than half were females 378 (53.6%), nurses 425 (60.4%), and the majority were between the age group of 20-39 years 600 (85.3%). Only 46 (6.5%) were vaccinated against influenza. Key reasons for not vaccinated against influenza were less awareness about influenza vaccination among HCPs 580 (82.73%) with (β = 0.154; CI 0.058-0.163), the high cost of influenza vaccines and therefore not normally purchased 392 (55.92%) having (β = 0.150; CI 0.063-0.186). More than half believed that HCPs are less susceptible to influenza infections than other people. Also, majority 585 (84.3%) of HCPs thought that influenza disease could be transmitted after symptoms appear. In addition, 579 (83.2%) of HCPs felt that symptoms usually appear 8-10 days after exposure. Close to half 321 (46.0%) of HCPs were not aware of the influenza immunisation guidelines published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and Centre for Disease Control.

    CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccine coverage among healthcare professionals in Freetown Sierra Leone was low. High cost, inadequate knowledge about influenza and its vaccine as well as the lack of awareness of vaccine availability were key barriers. Increasing access to influenza vaccine and the use of appropriate educational interventions to increase knowledge and awareness are required to improve influenza vaccination coverage among HCPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  17. Siau CS, Wee LH, Ibrahim N, Visvalingam U, Yeap LLL, Wahab S
    J Contin Educ Health Prof, 2018;38(4):227-234.
    PMID: 30036213 DOI: 10.1097/CEH.0000000000000213
    INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of suicide-related training in the nonpsychiatric health professional's basic education. We suggest that a continuing education through a brief gatekeeper suicide training program could be a suitable platform to improve suicide-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes. This study aimed at examining the effectiveness of the Question, Persuade, Refer gatekeeper program on improving the knowledge, self-efficacy in suicide prevention, and understanding of/willingness to help suicidal patients of Malaysian hospital health professionals.

    METHODS: The Question, Persuade, Refer program materials were translated and adapted for implementation in the hospital setting for nonpsychiatric health professionals. There were 159 (mean age = 35.75 years; SD = 12.26) participants in this study. Most participants were female (84.9%), staff/community nurses (52.2%), who worked in the general medical department (30.2%) and had no experience managing suicidal patients (64.2%). Intervention participants (n = 53) completed a survey questionnaire at pretraining, immediately after training, and after three months. Control participants (n = 106) were not exposed to the training program and completed the same questionnaire at baseline and three months later.

    RESULTS: Significant improvement occurred among intervention participants in terms of perceived knowledge, self-efficacy, and understanding of/willingness to help suicidal patients immediately after training and when compared with the control participants 3 months later. Improvements in declarative knowledge were not maintained at the 3-month follow-up.

    DISCUSSION: This study confirmed the short-term effectiveness of the gatekeeper training program. Gatekeeper suicide training is recommended for implementation for nonpsychiatric health professionals nationwide.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
  18. Ngim CF, Lai NM, Ibrahim H
    Prenat. Diagn., 2013 Dec;33(13):1226-32.
    PMID: 24014379 DOI: 10.1002/pd.4233
    OBJECTIVE: Genetic counseling for thalassemia carriers is conducted by nongeneticist health care workers (HCWs) in many countries. The aim of the study was to assess Malaysian HCWs' genetic counseling practices with regards to discussing prenatal diagnosis (PND) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) when counseling thalassemia carriers.
    METHOD: A total of 118 Malaysian HCWs (52 doctors and 66 nurses) completed a structured questionnaire that enquired if they would discuss PND and TOP when counseling couples with thalassemia traits, and reasons for their responses were explored.
    RESULTS: All the nurses and 50 (96.1%) doctors were in favor of discussing PND. Only 29 (58%) doctors and 33 (50%) nurses were agreeable to discuss about the option of TOP. Main reasons given for declining to discuss TOP were views that "the condition was not serious enough" (54.9%), TOP is not permissible by their religion (17.6%) and abortion for this indication was illegal (13.7%).
    CONCLUSION: The results showed that HCWs in Malaysia lacked the comprehensive information and necessary skills required when counseling thalassemia carriers. When nongeneticist HCWs are tasked with such responsibilities, their practices and attitudes should be regularly evaluated so that areas of deficiencies could be identified and addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  19. Rafiza S, Rampal KG
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2012 Feb;16(2):163-8.
    PMID: 22236915 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.11.0364
    BACKGROUND: Serial testing for tuberculosis (TB) exposure has been advocated among health care workers (HCWs) at risk of nosocomial infection.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and factors associated with TB infection among selected HCWs in Malaysia and to determine interferon-gamma response in serial testing.
    DESIGN: A cohort of 769 HCWs were retested after 1 year using QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube. Incidence of TB infection was determined among HCWs who previously tested negative. Conversion and reversion rates using several definitions were explored.
    RESULTS: Incidence of TB infection was 9.9 per 100 workers per year (95%CI 7.9-12.3). Working in the Emergency Department (ED; RR 2.18, 95%CI 1.07-4.43) was significantly associated with risk of TB infection. Reversion and conversion occurred frequently, with 46.7% reversion among HCWs with baseline interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels of 0.35-0.70 international units (IU)/ml, and 23.8% conversion among HCWs with baseline IFN-γ levels of 0.20-0.34 IU/ml.
    CONCLUSIONS: TB infection control measures need to be strengthened, particularly in the ED, as the incidence of TB was high. Conversion and reversion rates in serial testing were high, and further studies are needed to facilitate its interpretation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Rafiza S, Rampal KG, Tahir A
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2011;11:19.
    PMID: 21244645 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-19
    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data*
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