Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Tan PE
    Malays J Pathol, 1988 Aug;10:79-83.
    PMID: 3252083
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  2. Hesham R, Tajunisah ME, Ilina I
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):222-3.
    PMID: 19248694
    Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk of acquiring blood-borne diseases. This study compared the risk of infection among HCW in different hospital units and also between HCW and students in medical fields. This cross-sectional study involved pre-tested questionnaires that were completed by 625 HCW and undergraduate students undergoing clinical attachments from February to August 2001. The respondents were separated into two groups: i) HCW from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, HKL (n=241) and Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, HUKM (n=153) ii) Medical students from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM (n=171) and HUKM student nurses (n=60). The results obtained showed that the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections varied significantly according to professional ranks (p<0.05) and to hospital units (p<0.05). The medical intensive care (ICU), haemodialysis, and nephrology and urology units had the highest scores for the risk of infection while the diagnostic laboratory had the lowest risk of infection (p<0.05). Preventive measures taken by the subjects in this study were not satisfactory especially with reference to the use of personal protective equipment and the practice of universal precautions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  3. Fan ST
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:1-4.
    PMID: 16108164
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  4. André F
    Vaccine, 2000 Feb 18;18 Suppl 1:S20-2.
    PMID: 10683538
    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  5. Yaacob HB, Samaranayake LP
    J Oral Pathol Med, 1989 Apr;18(4):236-9.
    PMID: 2769596
    A postal survey of 730 Malaysian dental practitioners was undertaken to assess their awareness and acceptance of the plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine. Only 32% of the 325 practitioners who responded had been vaccinated, 41% intended to be and 15% categorically refused vaccination. The main reservations about vaccine acceptance were fear of side effects including AIDS, cost of the vaccine and lack of information. Vaccine efficacy was not confirmed by serology in two-thirds of the vaccinees and two-fifths of the respondents were unaware that 5% of the vaccinees do not develop a successful antibody response after vaccination. Seventy-eight percent of dentists believed that their risk of contracting hepatitis B was high or very high while 71% recalled having received needle stick injuries in the 3 yr prior to the survey. Only 13% of respondents were aware of delta hepatitis while 63% were aware of non-A non-B hepatitis. The survey has highlighted the need for dissemination of information on hepatitis B vaccine among dentists in Malayasia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  6. Razak IA, Latifah RJ, Nasruddin J, Esa R
    Clin Prev Dent, 1991 Jul-Aug;13(4):22-4.
    PMID: 1884572
    A questionnaire was mailed to 1217 dentists whose names appear in the Dentist Register of 1987 in order to assess their awareness and acceptance of hepatitis B vaccine and their pattern of glove usage. Almost all the respondents (99.6%) were aware of the availability of the hepatitis B vaccine yet only 44.8% have received the vaccine. This is in spite of the fact that the majority (61.2%) of the vaccine non-acceptors have no reservations concerning the vaccine. About 71% and 63% of the vaccine-acceptors and non-acceptors respectively believed that the risk of their contracting hepatitis B was high or very high. About 22% of the vaccine non-acceptors never used gloves when treating patients as compared to 9% among vaccine acceptors. Overall, about 78% of the respondents have experienced needleprick injuries in the 3 years preceding the survey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  7. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  8. Khairullah NS, Merican DI
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Mar;19 Suppl:S13-6.
    PMID: 15156929
    The MLF since its inception in 1996 has endeavored to develop a coordinated approach towards the improved care and treatment of liver diseases in Malaysia. Its close liaison with the Malaysian MOH, local medical associations, and corporate bodies has contributed to the success of its many programs. Educating the public, research, and training have been important elements of successful hepatitis disease control programs. Hepatitis Days have been proven to be very successful in raising the awareness of the general public to hepatitis disease. Rapid screening and vaccination has also helped to remove the social stigma associated with the disease, eliminated the need for numerous clinic appointments, and rendered vaccination more accessible to the public. The MLF perspective emphasizes the need for collaborative effort between Government bodies and other agencies, such as non-governmental organizations, laboratories, and the medical fraternity, to ensure the overall success of hepatitis disease management programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  9. Kamarulzaman A, Reid SE, Schwitters A, Wiessing L, El-Bassel N, Dolan K, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Sep 10;388(10049):1115-1126.
    PMID: 27427456 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30769-3
    The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release. Effective treatment of opioid use disorders with opioid agonist therapies (eg, methadone and buprenorphine) prevents blood-borne infections via reductions in injection in prison and after release. However, large gaps exist in the implementation of these strategies across all regions. Collaboration between the criminal justice and public health systems will be required for successful implementation of these strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  10. Mahmood S, Shah KU, Khan TM
    Sci Rep, 2018 08 22;8(1):12550.
    PMID: 30135554 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30512-8
    A systematic review was performed to estimate the duration of protection of Hepatitis-B vaccine after primary vaccination during infancy. The number of seropositive participants with anti-HBs antibody titer ≥ 10 mIU/ml and seronegative participants who had anti-HBs antibody titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml after booster dose was the main outcome criteria to find out the protection time of Hepatitis-B vaccine. Twelve studies were selected for systematic review. Overall, results from the meta-analysis have revealed that the risk of Anti-HBs Titer ≤ 10 mIU/ml reduced by 50%. Upon performing the sub-group analysis it was revealed that the overall risk of having Anti-HBs Titre ≤ 10 mIU/ml was reduced up to 62% among the subjects age 21-30 years (0.38 [0.34, 0.44]; I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.938). Furthermore, it was observed that the risk of having titre level less than 10 mIU/ml for plasma derived vaccines were to be 56% [0.44, CI 0.33-0.57, I2 90.9%, p = <0.001]. Vaccination in early infancy does not ensure protection against Hepatitis-B infection. There is a strong correlation between the duration of protection and time elapsed after primary immunization during infancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  11. Wilkinson IE
    Med J Aust, 1992 May 18;156(10):741.
    PMID: 1535682
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  12. Cheang HK, Wong HT, Ho SC, Chew KS, Lee WS
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Apr;54(4):224-6.
    PMID: 23624451
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the immune response in infants who received the three-shot hepatitis B vaccine in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Consecutive infants born between March 2002 and April 2010 who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at a community clinic in Malaysia were enrolled in the study. Screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) was performed after the completion of primary immunisation, at approximately one year of age.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 infants (median age 9.3 ± 2.7 months; range 6.3-48 months) were screened for immune response to hepatitis B vaccination - 553 (96.7%) infants had adequate levels of anti-HBs (≥ 10 IU/L). Of the 440 mothers whose HBsAg status was known, 14 (3.2%) were positive for HBsAg. None of the 14 infants who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers were positive for HBsAg, and all but one infant had anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L. Gender, gestational age and maternal HBsAg status were not found to significantly affect the subsequent immune response in infants following vaccination.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of Malaysian mothers who are positive for HBsAg remains high. The three-shot hepatitis B vaccine, given as part of universal vaccination against hepatitis B, provides adequate anti-HBs in the vast majority of infants in a community setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  13. Kong NC, Beran J, Kee SA, Miguel JL, Sánchez C, Bayas JM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2008 Apr;73(7):856-62.
    PMID: 18160963
    Prehemodialysis and hemodialysis patients are at an increased risk of hepatitis B infection and have an impaired immune response to hepatitis B vaccines. We evaluated the immune response to the new adjuvant of hepatitis B vaccine AS04 (HBV-AS04) in this population. We measured antibody persistence for up to 42 months, and the anamnestic response and safety of booster doses in patients who were no longer seroprotected. The primary vaccination study showed that HBV-AS04 elicited an earlier antibody response and higher antibody titers than four double doses of standard hepatitis B vaccine. Seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HBV-AS04 recipients throughout the study. The decline in seroprotection over time was significantly less in the HBV-AS04 group with significantly fewer primed patients requiring a booster dose over the follow-up period. Solicited/unsolicited adverse events were rare following booster administration. Fifty-seven patients experienced a serious adverse event during the follow-up; none of which was vaccine related. When HBV-AS04 was used as the priming immunogen, the need for a booster dose occurred at a longer time compared to double doses of standard hepatitis B vaccine. Hence, in this population, the HBV-AS04 was immunogenic, safe, and well-tolerated both as a booster dose after HBV-AS04 or standard hepatitis B vaccine priming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  14. Hesham R, Zamberi S, Tajunisah ME, Ariza A, Ilina I
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):407-10.
    PMID: 16570700
    Health care workers (HCW) are at higher risk of acquiring blood borne infections such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus from patients. To minimise exposure, Universal Precautions Policy guidelines were introduced. This study looked into one of the aspects of hepatitis B prevention among HCW in the Malaysian context. The objective of this study was to assess hepatitis B vaccine coverage among HCW. A cross sectional study involving pre-tested questionnaires was undertaken from February 2001 to August 2001. Hospital staff in Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia as well as undergraduate students undergoing clinical attachments were randomly chosen. A total of 625 subjects were enrolled. Only 58.4% had taken a complete hepatitis B vaccination. However, 82.2% have taken at least one dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and were supposed to complete the schedule in due course. Not all HCW were protected against hepatitis B. Preventing hepatitis B in HCW should be one of the priorities of the hospital management as it is definitely cheaper than managing chronic hepatitis B cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  15. Tong NK, Beran J, Kee SA, Miguel JL, Sánchez C, Bayas JM, et al.
    Kidney Int, 2005 Nov;68(5):2298-303.
    PMID: 16221232
    Due to their impaired immune system, patients with renal insufficiency have a suboptimal response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccination and frequent boosters are needed to maintain protection. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has developed a HB vaccine containing a new adjuvant system AS04 for use in this immunocompromised patient population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  16. Leung N
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  17. Yasmin AM
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Jun;52(2):188-92; quiz 193.
    PMID: 10968083
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  18. Isahak I, Abdul Malik Y, Hakim AS, Baharin R
    Singapore Med J, 1990 Aug;31(4):314-6.
    PMID: 2147781
    Fifty medical students were screened for hepatitis B serological markers of whom 42 students entered the study. Those who were found to be negative for all markers were vaccinated with 1.0 ml (20 mcg HBsAg) Engerix-B vaccine intramuscularly in the deltoid region according to the 0, 1, 6 month schedule. Blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 months. One month following the first dose, 7% showed detectable AntiHBs with a GMT of 11 IU/I. By the sixth month, just before the third dose was given, 79% seroconverted with a GMT of 2952 IU/I. Three months following the third dose all had seroconverted with a GMT of 18,381 IU/I. No serious adverse reactions were noted and none of the subjects showed evidence of hepatitis B infection during the study. This study thus confirms the high immunogenicity and safety of recombinant yeast-extract hepatitis B vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
  19. Mah GK, Yeo A
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1990 May;19(3):339-43.
    PMID: 2144101
    Blood samples from 1,600 persons who sought immunisation against hepatitis B in private clinics in Singapore in 1988-1989 were screened for two viral markers. Of that total, 4.81% were positive for HBsAg and 17.31% had anti-HBs levels greater than 10 mIU/ml, indicating that about 22.12% of the general population would not benefit from immunisation. Preimmunisation screening will identify persons not requiring the hepatitis B vaccine and thus, avoid wastage. When immunisation has already been performed without screening, recall for post-immunisation screening should be considered in order to detect the infectious hepatitis B carriers. Data in this study indicates that at this point in time, it is important to immunise adolescents and adults, in addition to neonates and children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control
  20. Wait S, Kell E, Hamid S, Muljono DH, Sollano J, Mohamed R, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016 11;1(3):248-255.
    PMID: 28404097 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30031-0
    In 2015, the Coalition to Eradicate Viral Hepatitis in Asia Pacific gathered leading hepatitis experts from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand to discuss common challenges to the burden posed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), to learn from each other's experience, and identify sustainable approaches. In this report, we summarise these discussions. Countries differ in their policy responses to HBV and HCV; however, substantial systemic, cultural, and financial barriers to achievement of elimination of these infections persist in all countries. Common challenges to elimination include limited availability of reliable epidemiological data; insufficient public awareness of risk factors and modes of transmission, leading to underdiagnosis; high rates of transmission through infected blood products, including in medical settings; limited access to care for people who inject drugs; prevailing stigma and discrimination against people infected with viral hepatitis; and financial barriers to treatment and care. Despite these challenges, promising examples of effective programmes, public-private initiatives, and other innovative approaches are evident in all countries we studied in Asia Pacific. The draft WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-21 provides a solid framework upon which governments can build their local strategies towards viral hepatitis. However, greater recognition by national governments and the international community of the urgency to comprehensively tackle both HBV and HCV are still needed. In all countries, strategic plans and policy goals need to be translated into resources and concrete actions, with national governments at the helm, to enable a sustainable response to the rising burden of hepatitis B and C in all countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/prevention & control*
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