OBJECTIVES: To assess the optimal mode of delivery in women with, or carriers of, bleeding disorders.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Coagulopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register as well as trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search of the Group's Trials Registers: 16 February 2017.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and all types of controlled clinical trials investigating the optimal mode of delivery in women with, or carriers of, any type of bleeding disorder during pregnancy were eligible for the review.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion MAIN RESULTS: No results from randomised controlled trials were found.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The review did not identify any randomised controlled trials investigating the safest mode of delivery and associated maternal and foetal complications during delivery in women with, or carriers of, a bleeding disorder. In the absence of high quality evidence, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement and lower level evidence (e.g. from observational trials, case studies) to decide upon the optimal mode of delivery to ensure the safety of both mother and foetus.Given the ethical considerations, the rarity of the disorders and the low incidence of both maternal and foetal complications, future randomised controlled trials to find the optimal mode of delivery in this population are unlikely to be carried out. Other high quality controlled studies (such as risk allocation designs, sequential design, and parallel cohort design) are needed to investigate the risks and benefits of natural vaginal and caesarean section in this population or extrapolation from other clinical conditions that incur a haemorrhagic risk to the baby, such as platelet alloimmunisation.
METHODS: In-depth interviews with 28 Malaysian BRCA mutation carriers with a history of breast cancer were conducted in addition to observing their RRSO decision-making consultations in the clinic.
RESULTS: The decision-making considerations among the carriers were centered around the overarching theme of "Negotiating cancer risk and womanhood priorities," with the following themes: (1) risk perception, (2) self-preservation, (3) motherhood obligation, and (4) the preciousness of marriage. Cognitive knowledge of BRCA risk was often conceptualized based on personal and family history of cancer, personal beliefs, and faith. Many women reported fears that RRSO would affect them physically and emotionally, worrying about the post-surgical impact on their motherhood responsibilities. Nevertheless, some reported feeling obliged to choose RRSO for the sake of their children. For some, their husband's support and approval were critical, with emotional well-being and sexuality reportedly perceived as important to sustaining married life. Despite reporting hesitancy toward RRSO, women's decisions about choosing this option evolved as their priorities changed at different stages of life.
CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing during clinic encounters with Malaysian women that RRSO decision-making involves negotiating the likelihood of developing cancer with the societal priorities of being a woman, mother, and wife may serve to support their decision-making.
METHODS: Haemoglobin variants were identified by HbA1c analysis in 93 of 3522 samples sent to our laboratory in a period of 1 month. Haemoglobin analysis identified HbE trait in 81 of 93 samples. To determine the influence of HbE trait on HbA1c analysis by Variant II Tubo 2.0, boronate affinity high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Primus PDQ) was used as the comparison method. Two stage linear regression analysis, Bland Altman plot and Deming regression analysis were performed to analyse whether the presence of HbE trait produced a statistically significant difference in the results. The total allowable error for HbA1c by the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists (RCPA) external quality assurance is 5%. Hence clinically significant difference is more than 5% at the medical decision level of 6% and 9%.
RESULTS: Statistically and clinically significant higher results were observed in Variant II Turbo 2.0 due to the presence of HbE trait. A positive bias of ∼10% was observed at the medical decision levels.
CONCLUSION: Laboratories should be cautious when evaluating HbA1c results in the presence of haemoglobin variants.
METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.
RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance.
CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.