METHODS: Plasma concentrations of folate, vitamins B6, B12, homocysteine and glucose were measured at 26-weeks' gestation in 913 pregnant women. GDM was diagnosed using the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Associations were examined with linear or logistic regression, adjusted for confounders and stratified by ethnicity.
RESULTS: Higher plasma folate was associated with higher 2-h glucose and higher odds of GDM [0.15 (0.02, 0.23) per 1-SD increment in folate, OR 1.29 (1.00, 1.60)], mainly among Indian mothers. Higher plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine were associated with lower fasting and 2-h glucose, and lower odds of GDM [-0.04 (-0.07, -0.01) per 1-SD increment in B12 and -0.09 (-0.18, -0.003) respectively, OR: 0.81 (0.68, 0.97); -0.05 (-0.08, -0.02) per 1-SD increment in homocysteine and -0.12 (-0.21, -0.02) respectively, OR: 0.76 (0.62, 0.92)]. The highest odds of GDM were observed among women with combined vitamin B12 insufficiency and high folate concentration [OR: 1.97 (1.05, 3.68)]. An association between higher vitamin B6 and higher 2-h glucose shifted towards null adjusting for other B-vitamins.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal folate coupled with vitamin B12 insufficiency was associated with higher GDM risk. This finding has potential implications for antenatal supplement recommendations but will require confirmation in future studies.
METHODS: We randomly selected 500 Nepali mother-infant pairs and measured maternal intake and infant and maternal vitamin B12 status using plasma cobalamin, total plasma homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations. We revisited available children when they were 5 years old and measured growth. The associations between intake and maternal and infant markers of vitamin B12 and growth were estimated in multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant confounders (n = 331).
RESULTS: Maternal vitamin B12 intake and status and vitamin B12 status in infancy predicted linear growth at 5 years of age, but not during infancy. Each microgram increase in the vitamin B12 intake of the mother during infancy was associated with an increase in height of 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) height-for-age z-scores and 1.7 (0.7, 2.7) cm around the child's fifth birthday.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 status and intake in early life is an important determinant for linear growth at school age. Our findings should be verified in randomized, placebo controlled trials before translated into public health recommendations.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of oral mixed tocotrienols for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Design, Setting, and Participants: The Vitamin E in Neuroprotection Study (VENUS) was a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited participants from January 30, 2011, to December 7, 2014, with 12 months of follow-up. This trial screened 14 289 patients with diabetes from 6 health clinics and ambulatory care units from 5 public hospitals in Malaysia. A total of 391 patients who reported neuropathic symptoms were further assessed with Total Symptom Score (TSS) and Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Patients 20 years or older with a TSS of 3 or higher and an NIS of 2 or higher were recruited.
Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 200 mg of mixed tocotrienols twice daily or matching placebo for 12 months. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine level ≥2.03 mg/L) received oral folic acid, 5 mg once daily, and methylcobalamin, 500 μg thrice daily, in both groups.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was patient-reported neuropathy TSS (lancinating pain, burning pain, paresthesia, and asleep numbness) changes at 12 months. The secondary outcomes were NIS and sensory nerve conduction test result.
Results: Of 391 eligible patients, 300 were recruited (130 [43.3%] male; mean [SD] age, 57.6 [8.9] years; mean [SD] duration of diabetes, 11.4 [7.8] years) and 229 (76.3%) completed the trial. The TSS changes between the tocotrienols and placebo groups at 12 months (-0.30; 95% CI, -1.16 to 0.56; P = .49) were similar. No significant differences in NIS (0.60; 95% CI, -1.37 to 2.65; P = .53) and sensory nerve conduction test assessments were found between both groups. In post hoc subgroup analyses, tocotrienols reduced lancinating pain among patients with hemoglobin A1C levels greater than 8% (P = .03) and normohomocysteinemia (homocysteine level <2.03 mg/L; P = .008) at 1 year. Serious adverse events in both groups were similar, except more infections were observed in the tocotrienols group (6.7% vs 0.7%, P = .04). Results reported were of modified intention-to-treat analyses.
Conclusions and Relevance: Supplementation of oral mixed tocotrienols, 400 mg/d for 1 year, did not improve overall neuropathic symptoms. The preliminary observations on lancinating pain among subsets of patients require further exploration.
Trial Registration: National Medical Research Registry Identifier: NMRR-10-948-7327 and clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01973400.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 292 subjects were recruited, comprising 150 ischaemic stroke patients and 142 control subjects who were age and sex matched. Plasma homocysteine, serum folate and vitamin B12 were measured in all subjects. Genotyping was carried out using PCR-RFLP.
RESULTS: The homocysteine levels were significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the stroke group (11.35 ± 2.75 μmol/L) compared to the control group (10.38 ± 2.79 μmol/L). The MTHFR C677T genotype distribution for the stroke group was 46%, 40% and 14%, respectively for CC, CT and TT genotypes and 59.9%, 33.8% and 6.3%, respectively for the control group. The genotype and allelic frequencies were significantly different between the 2 groups, with P = 0.02 and P = 0.004 respectively. No significant difference was seen in the genotype distribution inter-ethnically. An increasing tHcy was seen with every additional T allele, and the differences in the tHcy for the different genotypes were significant in both the control (P <0.001) and stroke groups (P <0.001).
CONCLUSION: This study shows that TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphic gene is an important determinant for homocysteine levels in Malaysian ischaemic stroke patients.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults.
DESIGN: A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than for the CO diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a).
CONCLUSION: Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.
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