Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
Zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (Smith), has shown to exert antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in neuropathic pain mice model in our recent study. The mechanism through which zerumbone alleviates neuropathic pain has yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic system, part of the descending pain modulation pathway, contributes to the antineuropathic effect of zerumbone. Participation of the serotonergic system in zerumbone-induced antiallodynia and antihyperalgesia was assessed using Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer von Frey test and Hargreaves plantar test respectively in chronic-constriction injury mice model. Administration of ρ-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100mg/kg, i.p.) for four consecutive days to deplete serotonin (5-HT) prior to zerumbone administration blocked the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. Further investigation with 5-HT receptor antagonists methiothepin (5-HT1/6/7 receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg), WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg), isamoltane (5-HT1B receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist, 0.3mg/kg) and ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 0.5mg/kg) managed to significantly attenuate antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone (10mg/kg). These findings demonstrate that zerumbone alleviates mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia through the descending serotonergic system via 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 3, 6 and 7 in chronic constriction injury neuropathic pain mice.
Pain has been considered as a concept of sensation that we feel as a reaction to the stimulus of our surrounding, putting us in harm's way and acting as a form of defense mechanism that our body has permanently installed into its system. However, pain leads to a huge chunk of finances within the healthcare system with continuous rehabilitation of patients with adverse pain sensations, which might reduce not only their quality of life but also their productivity at work setting back the pace of our economy. It may not look like a huge deal but factor in pain as an issue for majority of us, it becomes an economical burden. Although pain has been researched into and understood by numerous researches, from its definition, mechanism of action to its inhibition in hopes of finding an absolute solution for victims of pain, the pathways of pain sensation, neurotransmitters involved in producing such a sensation are not comprehensively reviewed. Therefore, this review article aims to put in place a thorough understanding of major pain conditions that we experience-nociceptive, inflammatory and physiologically dysfunction, such as neuropathic pain and its modulation and feedback systems. Moreover, the complete mechanism of conduction is compiled within this article, elucidating understandings from various researches and breakthroughs.
Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
The present study investigates the involvement of the l-arginine-Nitric Oxide-cGMP-K⁺ ATP pathways responsible for the action of anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of zerumbone in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathic pain in mice. The role of l-arginine-NO-cGMP-K⁺ was assessed by the von Frey and the Randall-Selitto tests. Both allodynia and hyperalgesia assessments were carried out on the 14th day post CCI, 30 min after treatments were given for each respective pathway. Anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone (10 mg/kg, i.p) were significantly reversed by the pre-treatment of l-arginine (10 mg/kg), 1H [1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker (2 mg/kg i.p.) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) (10 mg/kg i.p.) (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that systemic administration of zerumbone produces significant anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic activities in neuropathic pain in mice possibly due to involvement of the l-arginine-NO-cGMP-PKG-K⁺ ATP channel pathways in CCI model.
Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen.
Aceclofenac is a new generation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug showing effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It is available in the form of tablets of 100 mg. Importance of aceclofenac as a NSAID has inspired development of topical dosage forms. This mode of administration may help avoid typical side effects associated with oral administration of NSAIDs, which have led to its withdrawal. Furthermore, aceclofenac topical dosage forms can be used as a supplement to oral therapy for better treatment of conditions such as arthritis. Ointments, creams, and gels containing 1% (m/m) aceclofenac have been prepared. They were tested for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, extrudability, drug content uniformity, in vitro diffusion and in vitro permeation. Gels prepared using Carbopol 940 (AF2, AF3) and macrogol bases (AF7) were selected after the analysis of the results. They were evaluated for acute skin irritancy, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using the carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema method. AF2 was shown to be significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in inhibiting hyperalgesia associated with inflammation, compared to AF3 and AF7. Hence, AF2 may be suggested as an alternative to oral preparations.
Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. had been traditionally used as herbs to treat pain and rheumatism. Cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) is a compound isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.. Previous study had shown the potential of cardamonin in inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro. Thus, the possible therapeutic effect of cardamonin in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints is postulated. This study was performed to investigate the anti-arthritic properties of cardamonin in rat model of induced RA, particularly on the inflammatory and pain response of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis paw inflammation was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in Sprague Dawley rats. Using four doses of cardamonin (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg), anti-arthritic activity was evaluated through the paw edema, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia responses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the plasma level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Histological slides were prepared from the harvested rat paws to observe the arthritic changes in the joints. Behavioral, biochemical, and histological studies showed that cardamonin demonstrated significant inhibition on RA-induced inflammatory and pain responses as well as progression of joint destruction in rats. ELISA results showed that there was significant inhibition in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in plasma of the cardamonin-treated RA rats. Overall, cardamonin possesses potential anti-arthritic properties in CFA-induced RA rat model.
Painful neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus is characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent studies emphasized on the role of non-neuronal cells, particularly microglia in the development of neuronal hypersensitivity. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of minocyline, a selective inhibitor of microglial activation to define the role of neuroimmune activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Cold allodynia and thermal and chemical hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chronic administration of minocycline (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks started 2 weeks after diabetes induction attenuated the development of diabetic neuropathy as compared to diabetic control animals. In addition, minocyline treatment reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipid peroxidation, nitrite and also improved antioxidant defense in spinal cords of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control animals. In contrast, minocycline (80 mg/kg, per se) had no effect on any of these behavioral and biochemical parameters assessed in age-matched control animals. The results of the present study strongly suggest that activated microglia are involved in the development of experimental diabetic neuropathy and minocycline exerted its effect probably by inhibition of neuroimmune activation of microglia. In addition, the beneficial effects of minocycline are partly mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and in part by modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress in the spinal cord that might be involved in attenuating the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.