An immunization survey was carried out in early 1983 in a military community. The survey covered 192 children from 147 families. 98% had BCG scars. and 94% had completed their primary course of immunization against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. The acceptance rate for booster was however low. The time frame for the immunization was also not adhered to strictly. An immunization register has been started in all centres for recall of defaulters. Publicity has also been mounted to ensure all are aware of the immunization programme.
The infant immunization coverage for triple antigen (DPT) from 1968 and trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV) from 1972 to 1985 for Peninsular Malaysia are presented. It shows that immunization coverage improved when the recommended age for first dose of DPT was changed from the fourth to the second month of life in 1972 and declined when the recommended age for the first dose of DPT and TOPV was revised again from the second to the third month of life in 1980. The advantages of immunizing children early in life are discussed.
Adult immunization is a neglected and underpublicised issue in Southeast Asia. Vaccine-preventable diseases cause unnecessary morbidity and mortality among adults in the region, while inadequate immunization results in unnecessary costs, including those associated with hospitalization, treatment, and loss of income. Childhood vaccination coverage is high for the EPI diseases of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis; however, unvaccinated, undervaccinated, and aging adults with waning immunity remain at risk from infection and may benefit from vaccination. Catch-up immunization is advisable for adults seronegative for hepatitis B virus, while immunization against the hepatitis A and varicella viruses may benefit those who remain susceptible. Among older adults, immunization against influenza and pneumococcal infections is likely to be beneficial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Certain vaccinations are also recommended for specific groups, such as rubella for women of child-bearing age, typhoid for those travelling to high-endemicity areas, and several vaccines for high-risk occupational groups such as health care workers. This paper presents an overview of a number of vaccine-preventable diseases which occur in adults, and highlights the importance of immunization to protect those at risk of infection.
Introduction: The National Immunization Program in Malaysia began in the 1950s and was integrated into the Ma-ternal and Child Health Program. Administrative data showed that coverage for all vaccinations was more than 95% except for measles vaccination. Despite the high coverage, there were clusters of outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases. One of the reasons is the increasing phenomena of vaccines refusals following the rapid spread of negative perception and concerns through social media. Nurses as front liners play an important role to communicate on vac-cine safety and adverse events (AEFI). A survey was conducted to identify the level of knowledge among nurses who deal with immunisation programme. Methods: Nurses from all states attending a National seminar on immunisation communication in Putrajaya were asked to answer a Digital online questionnaire. They were asked to answer 12 questions on knowledge of vaccines, immunization schedule and cold chain management. Results: A total of 74% (429) of the seminar participants responded to the questionnaire, of which 85% were from the government sector and 15% from private. Findings showed that although about 75% of the nurses had formal training on immunisation, 50% had lack of knowledge about vaccination schedule for defaulters and 63.2% (268) had knowledge gaps related to questions on vaccines and handling of vaccines. Conclusion: In view of the knowledge gap from this survey, there is a need for ongoing training for the nurses and evaluation by supervisors on the knowledge and practices among nurses.
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TelePrimary Care (TPC) to monitor immunization programmed in a clinic. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination was selected as an example because its coverage has not been satisfactory when compared to that of other vaccinations, which generally exceed 90%.
Methods Data for all children who were eligible for JE vaccination (age range from 9 months to 30 months) who attended Sarikei Health Clinic between 1 January 2007 till 31 June 2008, was extracted from the TPC database and analyzed for completeness and timeliness of JE vaccination.
Results The analysis showed that although 1,243 children were eligible to receive their first dose of J vaccine at 9 months of age, only 560 (45%) received it. 15 (3%) received on time, and 545 (97%) received it late (age range from 10 months to 20 months). Out of the 560 who were scheduled to receive their second dose of JE vaccine four weeks after the first, 382 (88%) received it on time, and 55 (12%) received it late. Only 78 (18%) out of 429 children aged between 18 months to 24 months received their booster dose; 52 (67%) received it on time and 26 (33%) received it late.TPC not only enables health staff to monitor immunization coverage and timeliness accurately, but it also helps them to identify defaulters quickly so that these children can be traced and immunized. Doing these tasks manually is time-consuming and tedious, leading to delays in tracing defaulters.
Conclusions TPC provides an effective system for staff to easily access real time child health data to monitor and audit their immunization programme and take remedial action where necessary.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Sarikei, Sarawak, Malaysia
The last confirmed case of poliomyelitis in West Malaysia was in 1986', and over the past few years, we have condescendingly associated polio with other developing countries. Recently, 2 children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) were confirmed as cases of poliomyelitis due to a wild strain of the virus. This implies a failure of the immunisation programme to contain the spread of the wild virus (Hall). However, if we look at the WHO standard case definition of polio virus infection (appendix 1) it is possible that we could have missed a few cases over the last 6 years. At this juncture a brief clinical summary of the 2 cases and a discussion of the differential diagnosis may be useful. (Copied from article).
Vaccine hesitancy among parents has led to re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases. In Malaysia, measles cases had increased by three times in 2015 compared to previous year. Immunization coverage has always been above 95% since 2009. However, in 2014, Mumps-Measles-Rubella (MMR) coverage has a significant drop to 93.4%. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards childhood immunization among parents in Hulu Langat, Selangor. A cross sectional study design was conducted from January to July 2016 with 760 respondents. Respondents were selected by cluster random sampling and a validated self-administered questionnaire was used. The majority of respondents were female (70%), Malay (87%), employed (92%) and parents with tertiary education (99.7%). In this study, 12.8% parents have an inadequate knowledge on childhood immunization and 47.6% parents have a negative attitude towards childhood immunization. The predictors for inadequate knowledge on childhood immunizations were last child’s age of 2 years old or more (AOR=1.413 95% CI 0.28-0.69); parents without tertiary education (AOR=2.02 95% CI 1.15-3.54); parents without educational exposure on childhood immunization (AOR=2.87 95% CI 1.59-5.18) and parents who obtained information on childhood immunization from non-healthcare provider (AOR=2.66 95% CI 1.50-4.70). Predictors for negative attitude on childhood immunizations were being male (AOR=1.44 95% CI 1.04-2.01); parents without tertiary education (AOR=1.67 95% CI 1.04-2.68); household income of less than RM5000 (AOR=1.85 95% CI 1.28-2.67) and unsatisfactory religious belief (AOR=2.76 95% CI 2.03-3.75). Therefore, these predictors should be considered in any health intervention on childhood immunizations for parents in Malaysia.
Immunization has been introduced for decades to eradicate fatal infectious diseases by inoculating attenuated, killed or toxoid of microorganisms such as bacteria and virus. The triggering action to the immune system would not harm the host; despite can boost the immune responses to any infection. However, several cases of the eradicated infectious disease have re-emerged due to the existence of vaccine hesitancy group. Vaccine hesitancy has been observed emerging worldwide due to rejection in receiving vaccine. The main obstacle in vaccination program was identified according to the misconception that they received from internet or any mass media without boundaries. Various actions from the government have met the needs to enforce and educate the public especially the hesitant group towards better disease prevention with vaccination. The strategy would cover any interaction activities or programs with the public in transferring the information about the vaccination and its benefit to the health of herd community.
Young patients, especially infants with Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) have increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A complete schedule of immunisations is crucial to protect children from life-threatening infections. However, in most cases, they often miss scheduled vaccinations due to many factors. This case report describes issues in administering routine immunisations to infants with MPS. It is vital to recognise the indications and contraindications of vaccinations for patients with MPS although all vaccines need detailed study to investigate their safety and immunogenicity. Furthermore, regular educational programs are essential for both parents and health providers.
World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate.