Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Ismai BS, Enoma AO, Cheah UB, Lum KY, Malik Z
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2002 Jul;37(4):355-64.
    PMID: 12081027
    Laboratory studies utilizing radioisotopic techniques were conducted to determine the adsorption, desorption, and mobility of endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxanthiepin3-oxide) and methamidophos (O,S-dimethyl phosphorothioate) in sandy loam and clay soils of the Cameron Highlands and the Muda rice-growing area, respectively. High Freundlich adsorption distribution coefficients [Kads(f)] for endosulfan (6.74 and 18.75) and low values for methamidophos (0.40 and 0.98) were obtained in the sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. The observed Koc values for endosulfan were 350.85 (sandy loam) and 1143.19 (clay) while Koc values of 20.92 (sandy loam) and 59.63 (clay) were obtained for methamidophos. Log Kow of 0.40 and 1.25 were calculated for endosulfan as well as -1.96 and -1.21 for methamidophos in the sandy loam and clay soils, respectively. Desorption was common to both pesticides but the desorption capacity of methamidophos from each soil type far exceeded that of endosulfan. Soil thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column studies showed that while methamidophos was very mobile in both soils, endosulfan displayed zero mobility in clay soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  2. Ismail BS, Cheah UB, Enoma AO, Lum KY, Malik Z
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2002 Sep;69(3):444-51.
    PMID: 12177768
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  3. Tan GH
    Analyst, 1992 Jul;117(7):1129-32.
    PMID: 1524230
    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of organochlorine pesticide residues from environmental water samples was evaluated using octadecyl (C18)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these pesticide residues from reagent water samples at 1-5 micrograms dm-3 levels was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with hexane and Freon TF (trichlorotrifluoroethane). Average recoveries exceeding 80% for these organochlorine pesticides were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100 mg of 40 microns C18-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with hexane and Freon TF exceeded 90% in both instances. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the SPE of organochlorine pesticides were poorer than those for the solvent extraction method. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in environmental water samples from two major rivers flowing through predominantly rice-growing areas were monitored by gas chromatography using the solvent extraction method with hexane. Exceptionally high levels of organochlorine pesticide residues such as BHC, DDT, heptachlor, endosulfan and dieldrin were found in these water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  4. Tan GH, Vijayaletchumy K
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1994 Sep;53(3):351-6.
    PMID: 7919710
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  5. Arip MN, Heng LY, Ahmad M, Ujang S
    Talanta, 2013 Nov 15;116:776-81.
    PMID: 24148473 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.07.065
    The characteristics of a potentiometric biosensor for the determination of permethrin in treated wood based on immobilised cells of the fungus Lentinus sajor-caju on a potentiometric transducer are reported this paper. The potentiometric biosensor was prepared by immobilisation of the fungus in alginate gel deposited on a pH-sensitive transducer employing a photocurable acrylic matrix. The biosensor gave a good response in detecting permethrin over the range of 1.0-100.0 µM. The slope of the calibration curve was 56.10 mV/decade with detection limit of 1.00 µM. The relative standard deviation for the sensor reproducibility was 4.86%. The response time of the sensor was 5 min at optimum pH 8.0 with 1.00 mg/electrode of fungus L. sajor-caju. The permethrin biosensor performance was compared with the conventional method for permethrin analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analytical results agreed well with the HPLC method (at 95% confidence limit). There was no interference from commonly used organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, parathion, paraoxon, and methyl parathion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  6. Chai LK, Mohd-Tahir N, Hansen S, Hansen HC
    J. Environ. Qual., 2009 Apr 27;38(3):1160-9.
    PMID: 19398513 DOI: 10.2134/jeq2007.0644
    Preventive treatment with insecticides at high dosing rates before planting of a new crop- soil drenching- is a common practice in some tropical intensive cropping systems, which may increase the risk of leaching, soil functioning, and pesticide uptake in the next crop. The degradation rates and migration of acephate and chlorpyrifos and their primary metabolites, methamidophos and 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), have been studied in clayey red yellow podzolic (Typic Paleudults), alluvial (Typic Udorthents), and red yellow podzolic soils (Typic Kandiudults) of Malaysia under field conditions. The initial concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in topsoils were found to strongly depend on solar radiation. Both pesticides and their metabolites were detected in subsoils at the deepest sampling depth monitored (50 cm) and with maximum concentrations up to 2.3 mg kg(-1) at soil depths of 10 to 20 cm. Extraordinary high dissipation rates for weakly sorbed acephate was in part attributed to preferential flow which was activated due to the high moisture content of the soils, high precipitation and the presence of conducting macropores running from below the A horizons to at least 1 m, as seen from a dye tracer experiment. Transport of chlorpyrifos and TCP which both sorb strongly to soil organic matter was attributed to macropore transport with soil particles. The half-lives for acephate in topsoils were 0.4 to 2.6 d while substantially longer half-lives of between 12.6 and 19.8 d were observed for chlorpyrifos. The transport through preferential flow of strongly sorbed pesticides is of concern in the tropics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  7. Liu W, Zhang J, Hashim JH, Jalaludin J, Hashim Z, Goldstein BD
    Environ. Health Perspect., 2003 Sep;111(12):1454-60.
    PMID: 12948883
    Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter; PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, and ketones. Having applied these measured emission rates to predict indoor concentrations under realistic room conditions, we found that pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  8. Ismail BS, Kalithasan K
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2003 Mar;38(2):133-46.
    PMID: 12617552
    Studies on persistence, mobility and the effect of repeated application of permethrin on its half-life were carried out under field conditions. The half-life of permethrin in the top 20 cm of the soil increased from 11.5 to 23.6 days as the application rates increased from 35 to 140 g ha(-1). Induced by heavier rainfall, more residues moved downward in trial 2 than in trial 1. Repeated applications enhanced degradation rates and mobility of permethrin in the soil. The residue level in the 0-5-cm layer was reduced at day 28 after 17 consecutive applications to a level lower than after 5 applications. The half-life of permethrin was reduced from 15.9 days to 11.2 days after 5 and 17 applications, respectively. The residue reached the 15-20 cm layer much earlier (approximately 3 days after treatment) in soil that received 17 applications as compared to those with two applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  9. Kannan K, Tanabe S, Giesy JP, Tatsukawa R
    PMID: 9297984
    Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still being used for agriculture and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. As a consequence, humans in this region are exposed to greater dietary levels of organochlorines. In this review, published information on organochlorine concentrations in foodstuffs from South and Southeast Asia and Oceanic countries has been compiled. Foodstuffs that contribute to human exposures and dietary intakes of organochlorines were examined, and the data compared with those reported from more developed nations. Among various developing countries in Asia, considerable information on organochlorines in foodstuffs has been available from India since the late 1960s. DDT and HCH were the major insecticides in Indian foodstuffs. Concentrations of these insecticides have declined more than two orders of magnitude in farm products, such as food grains and vegetables, in two decades. Milk and milk products are the major sources of dietary exposure to DDT and HCH in India. The residues of these insecticides in dairy products were close to or above the MRLs of the FAO/WHO. Dietary intake of DDT and HCH by Indians was > 100 fold that in more developed nations. Sporadic incidences of greater concentrations (> 1 microgram/g) of aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor have been measured in Indian vegetables. Untreated surface waters could be a potential source of DDT and HCH exposure. In most Southeast Asian countries DDT was the common contaminant in animal origin foodstuffs. The higher percentage of p,p'-DDT in meat and fish from Southeast Asian countries, except Japan and Korea, indicated the recent use of DDt in vector control operations. Dietary intakes of DDt and HCH in Southeast Asia were an order of magnitude less than those of Indians but 5- to 10 fold greater than in more developed nations. In addition to DDT, aldrin and dieldrin were prominent in meat collected from Thailand and Malaysia. Aquatic food products from more industrialized countries, such as Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, contained significant levels of PCBs. In South Pacific countries, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, chlordanes and PCBs were the most prevalent organochlorines in foodstuffs. Food contamination by DDT, HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin was less than in developing countries in Asia but greater than in the U.S. and Japan. Intake of PCBs in Australia was greater than in the U.S. Meat and fish were the major sources of organochlorine exposure by Australians. Human dietary intake of organochlorines has been declining more slowly in developing countries in Asia. Current intakes were at least 5- to 100 fold greater than those in more developed nations, suggesting a greater risk from organochlorine exposure. Factors such as malnutrition, common among rural poor in developing nations, can increase these risks. Of greatest concern is the magnitude of exposure to organochlorines to which infants and children are subjected through human and dairy milk. The estimated intake of DDT by infants was at least 100 fold greater than the ADI of the FAO/WHO. In addition to DDT, excessive exposures to HCH and dieldrin may cause potential health effects in infants because they are more vulnerable to toxic effects. The design and implementation of appropriate epidemiological studies and their integration with monitoring of human, food, and environmental samples would be a major step in assessing the risks of organochlorine residues in foods and controlling or eliminating them. With the continued globalization of trade in food products, and the concomitant risk that food contaminated through point-source pollution may be widely distributed, identification of sources and their control should be matters of
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  10. Meier PG, Fook DC, Lagler KF
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1983 Mar;30(3):351-7.
    PMID: 6850121
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  11. Sulaiman N, Chee Beng Y, Ahmad Bustamam FK, Khairuddin NSK, Muhamad H
    Drug Test Anal, 2020 Apr;12(4):504-513.
    PMID: 31898859 DOI: 10.1002/dta.2760
    Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control bagworm infestation in oil palm plantations. It is applied through spraying onto the leaves where the bagworms reside. This article reports the fate of cypermethrin used in a Malaysian oil palm plantation during a typical dry season through the analysis of cypermethrin residue in environmental and palm oil samples collected from a supervised field trial. Residues of cypermethrin were not detected in the soil samples collected at different depths, water samples collected at different points in the experimental plots, and oil samples extracted from fresh fruit bunches (FFB) harvested from each plot for both single and double dosages of treatment throughout the study interval. Analysis of leaf samples, however, revealed that cypermethrin residue was detected for both pesticide treatments up to day 2 after cypermethrin application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  12. AhbiRami R, Zuharah WF, Thiagaletchumi M, Subramaniam S, Sundarasekar J
    J Insect Sci, 2014;14:180.
    PMID: 25368088 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu042
    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  13. Mahat NA, Jayaprakash PT, Zafarina Z
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;29(1):9-17.
    PMID: 22543598 MyJurnal
    The use of Chrysomya megacephala larvae for detecting malathion for diagnosing the cause of death was investigated. This could prove useful when the visceral organs have become liquefied during decomposition and therefore cannot be sampled. A field experiment was conducted in which C. megacephala were allowed to colonise naturally the corpses of rabbits that had died of malathion poisoning. The concentration of malathion increased gradually during the larval stages of C. megacephala reaching the maximum concentration in the third instar larvae. The concentration of malathion declined during prepupal stage and reached its lowest level among tenerals. The average malathion concentrations in C. megacephala growing in poisoned rabbit corpses left in a sunlit habitat were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those growing on poisoned rabbits left in a shaded habitat. The concentrations of malathion in the different stages of development of C. megacephala were moderately correlated (r = 0.51-0.69) with the administered doses as well as with those estimated in visceral organs. Thus, it would not be reliable to suggest the formulation of mathematical algorithms for relating the concentration of malathion found in the different stages of development of C. megacephala with those found in the visceral organs. However, in the context of forensic investigation, the qualitative detection of malathion in C. megacephala may prove useful in diagnosing the cause of death, since malathion is a common cause of accidental and suicidal deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  14. Tham LG, Perumal N, Syed MA, Shamaan NA, Shukor MY
    J Environ Biol, 2009 Jan;30(1):135-8.
    PMID: 20112875
    An inhibitive assay of insecticides using Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the local fish Clarias batrachus is reported. AChE was assayed according to the modified method of Ellman. Screening of insecticide and heavy metals showed that carbofuran and carbaryl strongly inhibited C. batrachus AChE. The inhibition concentration (IC) IC50 values (and the 95% confidence interval) for both carbofuran and carbaryl inhibition on C. batrachus AChE at 6.66 (5.97-7.52) and 130.00 (119.3-142.5) microg l(-1), respectively was within the IC50 range of Electrophorus electricus at 6.20 (6.03-6.39) and 133.01 (122.40-145.50) microg l(-1), respectively and were much lower than bovine AChE at 20.94 (19.53-22.58) and 418.80 (390.60-451.60) microg l(-1), respectively. The results showed that C. batrachus have the potential to be used as a cheaper and more readily available source of AChE than other more commercially available sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  15. Tanabe S, Kunisue T
    Environ Pollut, 2007 Mar;146(2):400-13.
    PMID: 16949712
    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  16. Monirith I, Ueno D, Takahashi S, Nakata H, Sudaryanto A, Subramanian A, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2003 Mar;46(3):281-300.
    PMID: 12604061
    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  17. Razak CN, Salam F, Ampon K, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1998 Dec 13;864:479-84.
    PMID: 9928128
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
  18. Hulbert D, Raja Jamil RZ, Isaacs R, Vandervoort C, Erhardt S, Wise J
    Chemosphere, 2020 Feb;241:125091.
    PMID: 31683442 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125091
    Soil columns were collected from a blueberry field, and insecticide solutions were allowed to leach through these columns. Insecticides from four different chemical classes were applied at two different rates: the concentration at which the insecticides wash off blueberries under rainfall conditions and the labeled field rate at which they are sprayed. The soil columns were divided into thirds; top, middle and bottom. Soil bioassays using Eisenia foetida Savigny, as an indicator species, were set up to determine the toxicity of the insecticides at a top, middle and bottom layer of the soil column. The mass of E. foetida was also measured after the bioassay experiment was completed. The concentrations at which insecticides wash-off of blueberries from rainfall were not lethal to E. foetida. In order to support mortality data, insecticide residues were quantified in the soil layers for each insecticide. Under field rate leaching conditions, carbaryl showed the high levels of toxicity in the top and middle layers of soil suggesting that it has the highest risk to organisms from leaching. This study will help blueberry growers make informed decisions about insecticide use, which can help minimize contamination of the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis*
  19. Sudaryanto A, Kunisue T, Tanabe S, Niida M, Hashim H
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005 Oct;49(3):429-37.
    PMID: 16132420
    This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and TCPMe. The residue levels of DDTs, HCHs, and CHLs were comparable to or higher than those in general populations of other countries, whereas PCBs and HCB were relatively low. In addition, dioxins and related compounds were also detected with a range of dioxin equivalent concentrations from 3.4 to 24 pg-TEQs/g lipid wt. Levels of toxic equivalents (TEQs) were slightly higher than those in other developing countries but still much lower than those of industrialized nations. One donor mother contained a high TEQs level, equal to the mean value in human breast milk from Japan, implying that some of the residents in Malaysia may be exposed to specific pollution sources of dioxins and related compounds. No association was observed between OCs concentrations and maternal characteristics, which might be related to a limited number of samples, narrow range of age of the donor mothers, and/or other external factors. The recently identified endocrine disrupter, TCPMe, was also detected in all human breast milk samples of this study. A significant positive correlation was observed between TCPMe and DDTs, suggesting that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in Malaysia. The present study provides a useful baseline for future studies on the accumulations of OCs in the general population of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insecticides/analysis
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