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  1. Hambali NL, Mohd Noh M, Paramasivam S, Chua TH, Hayati F, Payus AO, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:584552.
    PMID: 33304877 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.584552
    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is one of the markers of immune system activation indicating existent infection and inflammation. We present here a case of a 55-year-old male COVID-19 patient with an unusual high level of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Further investigation revealed he had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with underlying hepatitis B. He did not present with respiratory symptoms although a baseline chest x-ray showed changes, and the patient was categorized as Class 3A of COVID-19. Routine investigations proceeded with high-resolution computed tomography and IL-6 to monitor for progression to severe COVID-19. Notably, there was a high IL-6 level but other parameters did not show he was in severe COVID-19. In this report, we conclude that elevated IL-6 level in a COVID-19 patient is not necessarily associated with severe COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood*
  2. Rajalingham S, Das S
    Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets, 2012 Aug 1;11(4):262-5.
    PMID: 22452603
    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with predilection for the axial skeleton, leading to progressive restricted mobility and deformity of the spine. The fundamental mechanism involves autoimmunity orchestrated by T cells. Similar to other rheumatic diseases, the complex interplay of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL 6) and interleukin-10 (IL 10) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Despite extensive research over the past decades, the treatment options for AS, are limited. Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the first line of therapy, whereas anti TNF drugs are administered for refractory cases which fail to respond to the treatment. There have been conflicting views on the correlation of IL 6 with disease activity in AS. As such, the debate on the role of anti IL6 in AS is still ongoing. Anti IL 6 such as tocilizumab and siltuximab have proven efficacy based on the large randomized controlled trials. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved these drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Researchers have adventurously experimented anti IL 6 therapy in AS but the conclusions made were not consolidated into international guidelines or consensus statement for clinical practice. In the present review, we explore the role of anti IL6 in the treatment of AS based on the cumulative evidence over recent years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors*; Interleukin-6/immunology
  3. Kampan NC, Xiang SD, McNally OM, Stephens AN, Quinn MA, Plebanski M
    Curr Med Chem, 2018;25(36):4785-4806.
    PMID: 28707587 DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170712160621
    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic activity is a central player in chronic inflammatory diseases including cancers. Therefore, blockade of the IL-6 signalling pathway has become a target for the therapy of diverse cancers such as multicentric Castleman's disease (CD), multiple myeloma and solid tumours including renal, prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 (Siltuximab) and the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) (Tocilizumab) have emerged as potential immunotherapies, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Human trials have demonstrated the ability to block IL-6 activity and in multicentric CD lead to durable clinical response and longer disease stabilisation. However, the efficacy of these treatments is still debatable for other cancers. New generation therapeutics in development such as Clazakizumab, Sarilumab, and soluble gp130-Fc have the additional features of improved binding affinity, better specificity with reduced adverse effects. A deeper understanding of the immunological basis of these agents, as well as of the challenges that are faced by immunotherapy-based products in clinical trials, will help select the most promising anti-IL-6/IL-6R therapies for large scale use. Concurrently, current research efforts to personalize treatments may help in the treatment of patients that would greatly benefit from IL-6 blocking therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors*; Interleukin-6/immunology; Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors*; Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology
  4. Bharti R, Dey G, Ojha PK, Rajput S, Jaganathan SK, Sen R, et al.
    Oncogene, 2016 Jul 28;35(30):3965-75.
    PMID: 26616855 DOI: 10.1038/onc.2015.466
    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling network has been implicated in oncogenic transformations making it attractive target for the discovery of novel cancer therapeutics. In this study, potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of diacerein were observed against breast cancer. In vitro apoptosis was induced by this drug in breast cancer cells as verified by increased sub-G1 population, LIVE/DEAD assay, cell cytotoxicity and presence of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, as well as downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulation of apoptotic protein Bax. In addition, apoptosis induction was found to be caspase dependent. Further molecular investigations indicated that diacerein instigated apoptosis was associated with inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R autocrine signaling axis. Suppression of STAT3, MAPK and Akt pathways were also observed as a consequence of diacerein-mediated upstream inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R. Fluorescence study and western blot analysis revealed cytosolic accumulation of STAT3 in diacerein-treated cells. The docking study showed diacerein/IL-6R interaction that was further validated by competitive binding assay and isothermal titration calorimetry. Most interestingly, it was found that diacerein considerably suppressed tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. The in vivo antitumor effect was correlated with decreased proliferation (Ki-67), increased apoptosis (TUNEL) and inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R-mediated STAT3, MAPK and Akt pathway in tumor remnants. Taken together, diacerein offered a novel blueprint for cancer therapy by hampering IL-6/IL-6R/STAT3/MAPK/Akt network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors*; Interleukin-6/physiology; Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors*; Receptors, Interleukin-6/physiology
  5. Tajfard M, Latiff LA, Rahimi HR, Moohebati M, Hasanzadeh M, Emrani AS, et al.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2017 Nov;435(1-2):37-45.
    PMID: 28534120 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-017-3054-5
    Cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of current study was to investigate the relationship between the serum concentrations of 12 cytokines with mortality and extent of CAD in individuals undergoing angiography and healthy controls. 342 CAD patients were recruited and divided into 2 groups: those with ≥50% occlusion in at least one coronary artery [Angiography (+)] or <50% obstruction in coronary arteries [Angiography (-)]. Also 120 healthy subjects were enrolled as control group. Lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, and blood pressure were evaluated in all the subjects. An Evidence Investigator® was used for measuring 12 cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, EGF, VEGF) using sandwich chemiluminescent assays. Univariate analysis, multivariate regression models, ROC, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for exploring the candidate markers in CAD patients. Serum level of IFN-γ, IL-4, MCP-1, EGF, IL-6, and IL-8 were markedly higher in angiogram-positive patients, while VEGF concentrations were significantly (P 2.16 pg/mL IL-6 had a > 94% sensitivity and 70% specificity in predicting 2 years mortality in the subjects with a serum MCP-1 > 61.95 pg/ mL, and patients having IL-6/MCP-1 combination had a shorter survival.Our findings demonstrate that CAD patients with serum MCP-1 and IL-6 levels of >61.95 and >2.16 pg/mL had a higher mortality with 94.1% sensitivity and 70.5% specificity for predicting mortality in CAD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood*
  6. Lim SY, Chan YM, Ramachandran V, Shariff ZM, Chin YS, Arumugam M
    PMID: 33478001 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18020827
    BACKGROUND: Evidence is growing that a high-acid diet might accelerate the rate of bone loss, and gene polymorphisms such as Interleukin 6 (IL6) -174G/C and -572G/C are related to bone deterioration. However, no study of the interaction between diet and IL6 polymorphisms has been conducted among Asians. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether IL6 gene polymorphisms modified the association between dietary acidity and the rate of bone resorption.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 203 postmenopausal women (age ranged from 51 to 85 years old) in community settings. The dietary intakes of the participants were assessed using a validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), while dietary acid load (DAL) was estimated using net endogenous acid production (NEAP). Agena® MassARRAY genotyping analysis and serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX1) were used to identify the IL6 genotype and as a bone resorption marker, respectively. The interactions between diet and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed using linear regressions.

    RESULTS: A total of 203 healthy postmenopausal women aged between 51 and 85 years participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 24.3 kg/m2. In IL6 -174 G/C, all the participants carried the GG genotype, while the C allele was absent. Approximately 40% of the participants had a high dietary acid load. Dietary acid load (B = 0.15, p = 0.031) and the IL6 -572 CC genotype group (B = 0.14, p = 0.044) were positively associated with a higher bone resorption. However, there was no moderating effect of the IL6 genetic polymorphism on the relationship between and acid ash diet and bone resorption markers among the postmenopausal women (p = 0.79).

    CONCLUSION: High consumption of an acid ash diet and the IL6 -572 C allele seem to attribute to high bone resorption among postmenopausal women. However, our finding does not support the interaction effect of dietary acidity and IL6 (-174G/C and -572G/C) polymorphisms on the rate of bone resorption. Taken together, these results have given scientific research other candidate genes to focus on which may interact with DAL on bone resorption, to enhance planning for preventing or delaying the onset of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/genetics
  7. Zulkifli I, Najafi P, Nurfarahin AJ, Soleimani AF, Kumari S, Aryani AA, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2014 Dec;93(12):3112-8.
    PMID: 25306460 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2014-04099
    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of corticosterone (CORT) administration on serum ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ceruloplasmin (CPN), and IL-6 concentrations, and brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in broiler chickens. From 14 to 20 d of age, equal numbers of birds were subjected to either (i) daily intramuscular injection with CORT in ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol) at 6 mg/kg of BW, or (ii) daily intramuscular injection with 0.5 mL ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol; control). Blood samples were collected before CORT treatment (14 d old), 3 and 7 d after CORT injections, and 4 d after cessation of CORT administration for determination of serum levels of CORT, OVT, AGP, CPN, and IL-6. Brain samples (whole cerebrum) were collected to measure HSP 70 density. Although CORT administration significantly increased feed intake, weight gain was significantly depressed. Administration of CORT also increased CORT, OVT, CPN, AGP, IL-6, and HSP 70 expression. Four days following cessation of CORT administration, OVT declined to the basal level but not CPN and AGP. In conclusion, an elevation in CORT can induce an acute-phase response and HSP 70 expression. Thus, APP and HSP 70 may be of value as indicators of stress in poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/genetics; Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  8. Zhang Y, Yan W, Collins MA, Bednar F, Rakshit S, Zetter BR, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2013 Oct 15;73(20):6359-74.
    PMID: 24097820 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1558-T
    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost invariably associated with the presence of an oncogenic form of Kras. Mice expressing oncogenic Kras in the pancreas recapitulate the stepwise progression of the human disease. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is often expressed by multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that IL-6 is required for the maintenance and progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. In fact, the lack of IL-6 completely ablates cancer progression even in presence of oncogenic Kras. Mechanistically, we show that IL-6 synergizes with oncogenic Kras to activate the reactive oxygen species detoxification program downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling cascade. In addition, IL-6 regulates the inflammatory microenvironment of pancreatic cancer throughout its progression, providing several signals that are essential for carcinogenesis. Thus, IL-6 emerges as a key player at all stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/genetics; Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  9. Moktar NM, Yusof HM, Yahaya NH, Muhamad R, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2010;161(1):25-8.
    PMID: 20393674
    AIMS: The mRNA level for interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important marker of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aimed to investigate the level of IL-6 mRNA in the cartilage of OA knee while comparing it to the normal cartilage obtained from the same patient.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 21 patients who underwent total knee replacement were recruited for this study. Sectioning of the destructive cartilage was performed in the medial part of the proximal tibiofemoral cartilage. The unaffected lateral part of the knee in the same patient, served as a control. The mRNA level for IL-6 was assessed using LightCycler 2.0 quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). actin mRNA was used as an endogenous control.
    RESULTS: Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1%) exhibited up regulation of IL-6 mRNA in the OA cartilage as compared to the normal cartilage. The rest of the patients (42.9%) showed down regulation of IL-6 mRNA. The statistical analysis showed there was insignificant level of IL-6 mRNA in the OA (1.91 +/- 0.45) as compared to the normal cartilage (1.13 +/- 0.44) (p > 0.05). The inter-individual variation in the level of IL-6 mRNA in the cartilage of idiopathic knee was in accordance with previous findings.
    CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest IL-6 could also act as a catabolic agent in some patients or its expression might be influenced by other cytokines.
    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/genetics; Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  10. Chua KH, Kee BP, Tan SY, Lian LH
    Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2009 Jun;42(6):551-5.
    PMID: 19448905 DOI: 10.1590/s0100-879x2009000600012
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that involves the inflammation of various organs upon deposition of immune complexes and is characterized by uncontrolled B cell hyperactivity. Despite intensive research on the etiology of the disease, the exact cause of the onset of SLE is unknown. The pathogenesis of the disease has been proposed to be associated with the imbalance of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine activities. Elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a Th2 cytokine with various functions in the regulation of human biological systems, are observed in SLE patients. In the present study, 100 Malaysian SLE patients and 100 controls were evaluated in order to determine the association of polymorphisms existing in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene with the onset of SLE. The homozygous G genotype was found to be significant in SLE patients (chi(2) = 33.754; P = 0.00000000625), whereas the heterozygous G/C genotype was significant in the controls (chi(2)= 25.087; P = 0.000000548). We suggest that the C allele might have a masking effect on the G allele when both alleles are present in heterozygous individuals. However, we did not observe any significant association of the homozygous C allele with the onset of SLE or with protection from the disease (chi(2) = 1.684; P = 0.194366).
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood; Interleukin-6/genetics*
  11. Che Badariah, A.A., Shamsul Kamalrujan, H.
    MyJurnal
    Pain is infl uenced by multiple factors including personal experience, psychological, sociocultural and situational factors. Failure to recognise pain will lead to poor patient management and deleterious effect on the patients wellbeing. Assessing pain in paediatric and cognitively compromised patients remains a challenge. Pain assessment in these groups of patients depends on the observers assessment and studies have shown the discrepancy between the observers assessment and patients verbal report. A specifi c and accurate tool is required to assist in the pain assessment. Although there are assessment tools available using behaviour scoring system and physiological indicators, none of the tool demonstrates its superiority than the others. Biochemical indicators such as stress hormones are frequently measured and used in con-junction with verbal reports; however they are non specifi c to pain and are increased in infl ammation, haemodynamic and emotional changes. The association between immunological indicators e.g. IL-1 , IL-6, IL- 8 and clinical pain has been shown, however; the defi nite correlation of the changes in the indicators and the level of pain is still unclear and may require further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6
  12. Teoh HK, Chong PP, Abdullah M, Sekawi Z, Tan GC, Leong CF, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2016 Jan;40:44-53.
    PMID: 26626206 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2015.10.004
    Studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow stroma produced high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that promoted multiple myeloma cell growth. In view of the failure of IL-6 monoclonal antibody therapy to demonstrate substantial clinical responses in early clinical trials, more effective methods are needed in order to disrupt the favourable microenvironment provided by the bone marrow stroma. In this study, we evaluated the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of IL-6 in MSC and the efficacy of these genetically modified MSC, with IL-6 suppression, on inhibition of U266 multiple myeloma cell growth. IL-6 mRNA and protein were significantly suppressed by 72h post IL-6 siRNA transfection without affecting the biological properties of MSC. Here we show significant inhibition of cell growth and IL-6 production in U266 cells co-cultured with MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA when compared to U266 cells co-cultured with control MSC. We also show that the tumour volume and mitotic index of tumours in nude mice co-injected with U266 and MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA were significantly reduced compared to tumours of mice co-injected with control MSC. Our results suggest potential use of RNA interference mediated therapy for multiple myeloma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/genetics*
  13. Yogarajah T, Bee YT, Noordin R, Yin KB
    Mol Med Rep, 2015 Jan;11(1):515-20.
    PMID: 25324014 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2686
    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood*
  14. Muid S, Froemming GR, Ali AM, Nawawi H
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Dec;35(2):165-76.
    PMID: 24362480 MyJurnal
    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/biosynthesis*
  15. Atan R, Crosbie D, Bellomo R
    Int J Artif Organs, 2013 Mar;36(3):149-58.
    PMID: 23446761 DOI: 10.5301/ijao.5000128
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Extracorporeal cytokine removal may be desirable. We sought to assess extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for cytokine removal in experimental animal studies.


    METHODS: We conducted a targeted, systematic search and identified 17 articles. We analyzed cytokine clearance, sieving coefficient (SC), ultrafiltrate (UF) concentration, and percentage removal. As this review concerns technical appraisal of EBP techniques, we made no attempts to appraise the methodology of the studies included. Results are in descriptive terms only.


    RESULTS: Applying predicted clearance for 80 kg human, high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) techniques and plasmafiltration (PF) showed the highest rates of cytokine removal. High cutoff (HCO)/HF and PF techniques showed modest ability to clear cytokines using low to medium flows. Standard hemofiltration had little efficacy. At higher flows, HCO/HF achieved clearances between 30 and 70 ml/min for IL-6 and IL-10. There was essentially no removal of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha outside of PF.


    CONCLUSIONS: Experimental animal studies indicate that HVHF (especially with HCO filters) and plasmafiltration have the potential to achieve appreciable IL-6 and IL-10 clearances. However, only PF can remove TNF-alpha reliably.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood
  16. Lappin DF, Robertson D, Hodge P, Treagus D, Awang RA, Ramage G, et al.
    J. Periodontol., 2015 Nov;86(11):1249-59.
    PMID: 26252750 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2015.150149
    BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) in non-smoking patients suffering from T1DM, with and without periodontitis. In addition, to determine the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the presence and absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression by THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells.

    METHODS: There were 104 participants in the study: 19 healthy volunteers, 23 patients with periodontitis, 28 patients with T1DM, and 34 patients with T1DM and periodontitis. Levels of blood glucose/glycated hemoglobin (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro stimulation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes was performed with combinations of AGE and P. gingivalis LPS. Changes in expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 were monitored by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had higher plasma levels of IL-8 than patients with periodontitis alone. Plasma levels of IL-8 correlated significantly with IFCC units, clinical probing depth, and attachment loss. AGE and LPS, alone or in combination, stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression in both OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma levels of IL-8 potentially contribute to the cross-susceptibility between periodontitis and T1DM. P. gingivalis LPS and AGE in combination caused significantly greater expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 from THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells than LPS alone.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  17. Abdullah D, Ford TR, Papaioannou S, Nicholson J, McDonald F
    Biomaterials, 2002 Oct;23(19):4001-10.
    PMID: 12162333
    Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  18. Das Gupta E, Ng WR, Wong SF, Bhurhanudeen AK, Yeap SS
    PLoS One, 2017;12(9):e0184802.
    PMID: 28910372 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184802
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), interleukin-16 (IL-16) and different grades of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Ninety subjects were recruited comprising 30 with Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 KOA, 27 with K-L grade 3 KOA, 7 with grade 4 KOA, and 30 healthy controls. All subjects completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Serum COMP and IL-16 levels were measured using ELISA and their values log transformed to ensure a normal distribution.

    RESULTS: There was no significant differences in levels of log serum COMP and IL-16 between healthy controls and KOA patients. There were no significant differences in the log serum COMP and IL-16 levels within the different K-L grades in the KOA patients. In KOA patients, log serum IL-16 levels significantly correlated with the WOMAC score (p = 0.001) and its subscales, pain (p = 0.005), stiffness (p = 0.019) and physical function (p<0.0001). Serum IL-16 levels were significantly higher in Malaysian Indians compared to Malays and Chinese (p = 0.024).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-ethnic Malaysian population, there was no difference in serum COMP and IL-16 levels between healthy controls and patients with KOA, nor was there any difference in serum COMP or IL-16 levels across the various K-L grades of KOA. However, there were significant inter-racial differences in serum IL-16 levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/blood*
  19. Kardia E, Mohamed R, Yahaya BH
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 15;7(1):11732.
    PMID: 28916766 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11992-6
    Airway stem/progenitor epithelial cells (AECs) are notable for their differentiation capacities in response to lung injury. Our previous finding highlighted the regenerative capacity of AECs following transplantation in repairing tracheal injury and reducing the severity of alveolar damage associated acute lung injury in a rabbit model. The goal of this study is to further investigate the potential of AECs to re-populate the tracheal epithelium and to study their stimulatory effect on inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process following tracheal injury. Two in vitro culture assays were applied in this study; the direct co-culture assay that involved a culture of decellularised tracheal epithelium explants and AECs in a rotating tube, and indirect co-culture assay that utilized microporous membrane-well chamber system to separate the partially decellularised tracheal epithelium explants and AEC culture. The co-culture assays provided evidence of the stimulatory behaviour of AECs to enhance tracheal epithelial cell proliferation and migration during early wound repair. Factors that were secreted by AECs also markedly suppressed the production of IL-1β and IL-6 and initiated the EMT process during tracheal remodelling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
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