A 47-years-old Malay man presented with unremitting epigastric pain and loss weight for 3 months. At laparotomy, a large tumour mas was found in the liver and a few small nodules in the spleen. Histopathological examination revealed a hepatic angiosarcoma with metastsis to the spleen. He had exposure to formic acid fumes for more than 23 years in his work as a rubber tapper. The various chemical carcinogens that are implicated in this type of tumour are discussed. The possiblity of an association between formic acid fumes and development of angiosarcoma in the liver is highlighted.
The traditional surgical approach to the excision of persistent urachal remnants is a lower midline laparotomy or semicircular infraumbilical incision. The aim of this study is to report our experience with laparoscopic urachus excision as a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical technique.
Scoring systems such as POSSUM and P-POSSUM have been developed to help predict mortality and morbidity in patients. The ratio of observed-to-predicted (O/P ratio) mortality and morbidity has been used as a performance indicator to compare different procedures, clinicians or hospitals. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of POSSUM compared with P-POSSUM in patients undergoing laparotomy in Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Sabah.
Eight patients underwent major gynaecological operations. Their post-operative analgesia was provided by epidural buprenorphine 0.15 mg and bupivacaine 0.5%. The efficacy and side-effects of this combination were assessed. All patients had satisfactory analgesia ranging in duration from 10 hours to greater than 36 hours after a single dose injection. No significant side-effect was noted.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare gastrointestinal tumours and are one of the causes of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to bleeding jejunal GIST in a 43 years old gentleman. Endoscopic intervention failed to identify the source of bleeding and CT Angiography (CTA) showed a jejunal mass and patient underwent laparotomy and resection of the bleeding jejunal GIST. This article highlights the rare cause of the massive GI bleeding and also emphasise the role of CTA in obscure GI bleeding.
Vulvo-vaginal haematomas are not an uncommon obstetric complication. Despite advances in obstetric care, practice and technique, vulvo-vaginal haematomas do occur especially in complicated vaginal deliveries. Various management options are available for vulvo-vaginal haematomas. We describe three cases of vulvo-vaginal haematomas with different severity and presentations which were managed in different manners i.e. local haemostasis control, laparotomy with hysterectomy, and transarterial embolisation. The choice of treatment options would mainly depend on the clinical presentations, availability of expertise as well as facilities. Early identification is crucial.
Spontaneous rupture of uterine fibroid is rarely encountered. We present a case of a 31-year-old who presented with acute abdominal pain at 9 weeks postpartum. On examination, the abdomen had diffuse tenderness, with rebound tenderness in the suprapubic area and in both iliac fossae. On ultrasonography, a 12.7 × 8.6 × 8.9-cm sized hyperechoic mass was visible on the posterior wall of the uterus. A large amount of fluid was visible in the paracolic gutters and the Pouch of Douglas (POD). The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A ruptured, cystic degenerated uterine fibroid with active bleeding was found, as well as approximately half a liter of free, bloodstained peritoneal fluid and pus. Myomectomy was performed, followed by evacuation of the fluid and clots. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In conclusion, preoperative diagnosis of a perforated, uterine fibroid with spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is difficult; exploratory laparotomy is both diagnostic and therapeutic in this rare, life-threatening condition.
Obturator hernia is a rare condition that may present in an acute or subacute setting in correlation with the degree of small-bowel obstruction. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult, as symptoms are often non-specific. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for emaciated elderly women with small-bowel obstruction without a previous abdominal operation and a positive Howship-Romberg sign. When diagnosis is in doubt, computed tomography scan of the abdomen and the pelvis (if available) or laparotomy should be performed immediately, as high mortality rate is related to the perforation of gangrenous bowels. We present 2 cases of strangulated obturator hernia, managed differently with both open and laparoscopic approaches. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography scan is highlighted followed by a brief literature review with an emphasis placed on surgical management.
Trans-mesenteric hernia is a form of internal hernia which is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults compared with the pediatric population. It often presents with complications such as acute intestinal obstruction and peritonitis requiring immediate surgical intervention. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman who presented to us with an acute abdomen and peritonitis that required an immediate exploratory laparotomy. She was found to have a small congenital mesenteric defect with strangulated segment of ileum. Gangrenous portion of the ileum was resected and the congenital defect was closed. The patient made an uneventful recovery. The occurrence of trans-mesenteric hernia in adults is rare and difficult to be diagnosed clinically; thus, the patient's clinical features may lead to early surgical intervention in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Right iliac fossa pain can often be misdiagnosed as something sinister or benevolent despite assistance with state of the art imaging techniques. This is particularly more challenging in the female gender whereby the error of managing a right iliac fossa pain may approach forty percent. A 66-year-old lady, ten years post-menopause, presented with a week history of progressively worsening right iliac fossa pain. Malignancy was suspected with a palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography was suggestive of an abscess collection, but a needle aspirate produced brown faecal material suggestive of a diverticulitis. An exploratory appendisectomy revealed a non malignant appendicular abscess. In conclusion, when clinical and imaging assessments are inconclusive, an exploratory laparotomy for a surgical excision is warranted primarily if malignancy is suspected.
Penetrating injuries to bladder occur in 20 % of cases. Synchronous bladder and rectal perforation occur in 30-64 % of cases. The management of rectal and bladder injuries depend on whether it is an extra-peritoneal or intra-peritoneal injury. We hereby, report a case of penetrating trauma in a 13 year old boy who fell off a tropical fruit (Rambutan - Nephelium lappaceum) tree. He sustained an extra-peritoneal rectal injury with intra-peritoneal bladder injury. The rectal injury was repaired primarily via per anal route while the bladder injury needed an open repair following laparotomy. Upon removal of bladder clots, a leaf of the ‘Rambutan’ tree was found intra-vesically. It was removed and bladder repaired as per standard method. We review the literature on rare intra-vesicle foreign bodies and discuss the treatment of synchronous rectal and bladder injuries.
Acute appendicitis is the most common extra-uterine surgical emergency encountered during pregnancy, but an accurate diagnosis is still an enigma. Anatomical shifting of the appendix by the enlarging uterus makes the clinical and sonographic diagnosis difficult. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent perforation, which increases the risk of fetal and maternal death. Surgical intervention, either by an open laparotomy or laparoscopy is the most appropriate treatment for appendicitis. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, investigation, complications and treatment of acute appendicitis in pregnancy.
Type 1 Neurofibromatosis (von Reckinghausen’s disease) has been associated with several gastrointestinal tumor complications, either benign or malignant. We report a case of a middle age man who had Type 1 Neurofibromatosis and presented with acute intestinal obstruction. Laparotomy revealed multiple nodular lesions along the small intestine with two larger nodules which were resected. Histopathological examination of the nodules confirmed it as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) with malignant potential. The association between neurofibromatosis and GIST is discussed.
Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) is a common problem, despite advancements in a variety of warming systems. The use of a resistive heating blanket (RHB) is a common but costly approach to patient warming. We have introduced the use of a heat-band in our centre as a cost-effective alternative to the RHB for patient warming. The efficacy of the heat-band in preventing IPH during laparotomy for gynaecological surgeries was compared with that of the RHB.
This paper describes a case of invasive arnoebiasis in a 72 year old woman. About 1 week prior to admission she had right iliac fossa pain and physical examination suggested perforated appendix or carcinoma of caecum. Laparotomy revealed perforation of caecum. Histopathology of tissue removed showed abundant trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. After surgery treatment was instituted and patient had an uneventful recovery. KEYWORDS: Rupture of caecum, amoebiasis
Chylous mesenteric cyst is a very rare case, with some vague clinical findings, and it is hard to establish the diagnosis before surgery. The most common complaints post-surgery are abdominal pain and abdominal distention. We report a case of chylous mesenteric cyst in a 4-year-old boy with chief complaint of a lump in the abdomen. Preoperative abdominal ultrasound study could not identify the origin of the mass, and suspected it as a tuberculous peritonitis. A repeat ultrasound examination revealed a multicystic mass, suspected as lymphangioma. From the exploratory laparotomy, we noted a giant mesenterial cyst (20cm in diameter) containing chylous fluid within the ileal mesentery situated 30cm from the ileocaecal junction and made an effect of diminution of the bowel lumen above it, resection and end to end anastomoses was done. Histopathology examination confirmed it as a giant mesenteric cystic lymphangioma.
Shiitake mushroom is a common ingredient in East Asian cuisines. Food processing/preparation can cause the mushroom to be soft and slimy, leading to accidental swallowing. Due to its high insoluble fibre content, it remains the same size and shape in the intestinal tract. We present two cases of small bowel obstruction caused by shiitake mushroom requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative imaging showed dilated small bowel with a suspicious mass in the ileum. However, the exact cause was unclear. For both cases, exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy were then performed and undigested shiitake mushroom was found. Both patients recovered well from the surgery.